US 2544745 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 13, 1951 J. H. ASHBAUGH ETAL WASTE DISPOSAL APPARATUS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 8, 1947 AT-TORNEY March 1951 J. H. ASHBAUGH ET AL 2,544,745
WASTE DISPOSAL APPARATUS Filed July 8, 1947 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ATTORNEY Patented Mar. 13, 1951 WASTE DISPOSAL APPARATUS John H. Ashbaugh, Mansfield, and Edward R.
Wolfert, Springfield, Ohio, assignors to Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application July 8, 1947, Serial No. 759,572
1 This invention relates to waste disposal apparatus and particularly to apparatus of the type wherein waste matter in the formof vegetable matter, meat, bones and the like, .and other waste material, is comminuted by grinding, crushing or cutting and then flushed into a sewer system or the like, with the aid of water supplied to the apparatus.
Apparatus of this type generally comprises a vertically mounted electric motor, to the shaft of which are attached one or more cutting or grinding elements or blades, the assembly being disposed in an enclosure or casing with the motor below the cutting elements. The blades rotate at high speed in a chamber closed except at its top where it receives the waste to be disposed of. A second enclosure or casing, usually in the form of an elongated tube, extend from the upper end of the grinding chamber to the drain opening of a'conventional kitchen sink. This tubular casing is of such length that the grinding chamber is disposed a considerable distance below the drain opening. An electric switch for controlling the motor is disposed adjacent the upper end of the tubular casing. This switch has an operating member extending through the wall of the casing at its upper end. An adjustable and removable closure member in the form of a stopper is disposed in the drain opening at the entrant end of the tubular casing. This stopper is removable to permit insertion of waste material to be comminuted into the tubular casing and therefrom to the grinding chamber.
This stopper usuallyhas three positions. In one it may be removed readily by the operator.- In the second it serves as a complete seal or stopper for the drain opening. In the third it permits flow of water through the drain opening and at the same time holds the switch-operating member in closed position'so that the motor is energized. In either of the first two mentioned positions the switch-operating member is disengaged, and the motor is inactive.
It occasionally happens that a piece of matter intended to be comminuted or ground is of such bulk or hardness that it becomes wedged between the cutting blades and the walls of the grinding chamber and causes the motor to stall. It has been found that an oscillatory motion applied to the motor shaft, preferably at its lower end, by a wrench or similar instrumentis usually suflicient to release the obstruction and restore the apparatus to normal operation. However, such practice is dangerousunless the motor has been previously deenergized. Otherwise, when the ob- 5 Claims. 241-101) struction is released, the motor will rotatethe wrench with possible serious injury to the user. Therefore, it has been the practice to keep the lower end of the motor shaft covered and inaccessible to the ordinary user of the device. The result has been a service call, with its attendant inconvenience and expense, to rectify a matter which could be remedied by the householder except for the hazard involved.
Under some conditions it might be possible to remove the obstruction by probing from above with a suitable instrument after the stopper has been removed. The removal of the stopper of 7 course causes the motor to be deenergized. However, it has been found that an attempt to remove obstructions by probin from above is usually unsuccessful for the reasons that for safety purposes the grinding chamber is disposed a considerable distance below the drain opening and also that the area of the drain opening is considerably less than that of the grinding chamber. It has been found that the most satisfactory and positive way to remove the obstruction is by manual oscillation of the motor shaft.
A primary object of the invention, therefore, is to provide a construction of a waste-disposal apparatus of the motor-driven type in which obstacles may be released by the ordinary operator by oscillation of the motor shaft, with the certainty that the driving motor is deenergized.
More specifically an object is to provide a constructionfor the aforesaid purpose in which it is required that the stopper be removed, with consequent deenergization of the motor, before the shaft can be oscillated by the ordinary user.
These and other objects are affected by the invention as will be apparent from the following description and claims taken in connection with the accompanying drawin s, forming a, part-of this application, in which:
Fig. 1 is a plan View, and
Fig. 2 is a side elevation partly in section showing a waste disposal unit embodying the invention.
Fig. 3 is a vertical section on line III-III of Fig. 1 and on an enlarged scale with respect to Figs. 1 and 2, of the upper portion of the apparatus showing details of the stopper construction and the switch controlled thereby.
Fig. 4 is a section on line IVIV of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a section on line VV of Fig. 3.
Fig. 6 is a perspective view of the improved stopper.
Fig. 7 is a plan view of the sink opening with the stopper removed.
Fig. 8 is an elevation, partly in section, showing the stopper and its associated wrench in position on the lower end of the motor shaft to oscillate the shaft for the purpose described, and
Fig. 9 is a perspective view of a form of wrench adapted to be used with the stopper.
In the drawings, a horizontal surface is of a kitchen sink is provided with a drain opening H. A motor-driven waste disposal apparatus I2 is disposed vertically below and in fluid-tight relation with the aforesaid drain opening. The apparatus may be supported from adjacent wallor floor structure by any suitable bracket or pedestal (not shown).
More specifically, the apparatus comprises an adapter ring l3 inserted through the drain opening H and having a flange engaging a gasket l4 disposed between the flange and the adjacent rim of the drain opening. To this ring the upper casing 45 of the apparatus is connected (Fig. 3), by means of a flanged ring l6 mounted on the lower end of the adapter ring l3, and screw bolts H which extend through a flange l8 formed on the upper end of easing I into screw-threaded engagement with the flanged ring IS. A gasket IS provides a fluid-tight seal between ring I! and flange it. The outer ends of bolts 11 engage a ring 28 encircling the adapter ring l3 and force the ring .29 up against the underside of the drain opening H, the result being to compress the gasket it between the flange on adapter ring l3 and the rim of the drain opening.
A second casing 22 is attached by bolts 23 through a suitable flange and gasket connection it, to the lower end of casing 85, and a third casing 25 is connected by bolts 26 through a suitable flange and gasket connection 2'! to the lower end of casing 22. The casing 25 encloses an electric motor 28 having a vertical shaft 29. The upper end of this shaft is rigidly attached to a disc 36 which carries at its outer edge one or more cutting or grinding blades 3|. When the motor is energized, the disc/30 and blades 3| rotate at a high speed and grind waste material which has been flushed into the grinding chamber 32. The grinding chamber is provided with an outlet connection 33, (Fig. 1) through which suitable connections are made to a sewer.
In practice, the usual tap water at the sink is turned on and the motor 28 is energized. The waste material to be comminuted, having been inserted in the tubular casing i5 through the drain opening in the sink, is flushed by the running water into the grinding chamber 32, where it is ground finely enough to be flushed to the sewer system by the running water. As such general construction is well-known in the art and forms in itself no part of the present invention, a detailed description of the grinding biades and chamber are considered unnecessary as they may be of many forms.
In order to prevent possible injury to the user of the apparatus, it is customary to provide a plug or stopper for the drain opening. This stopper is so constructed and arranged that in one position it may be readily removed by the user, in another it completely seals the drain opening, and in a third position, it moves a normally open electric switch to closed position to permit energization of the circuit to the motor 28. In this latter position, which is that reached when the waste matter is inside the casing l5 and grinding chamber 32, the stopper does not completely seal the drain opening, but is so constructed that water may flow from its source at the sink through the apparatus during the entire comminuting operation.
Such a stopper is shown in outline in Fig. 6 and in section in Figs. 3 to 5. It comprises a lower member 35, an upper handle 36, and an intermediate disc-like member 31. The handle 35 and the lower member 35 are connected together by a pair of screw-bolts 38 which extend from beneath member 35 into bosses 39 formed on the underside of the handle. Each of these bosses extends through one of two arcuat slots 46' provided in the intermediate disc 37, and diametrically opposite each other. The member 35 has an irregular although symmetrical shape in the form of a pair of wings, as shown best in Fig. 5 and at each of its two ends remote from the center, provided with a depending cam 4|. The intermediate disc member 31 is provided with two diametrically opposed vertical fiat surfaces 42 which cooperate with corresponding fiat surfaces 43 provided-in the lower end of retainer ring l-3 to restrain the member 37 against rotary movement. The underside of handle 36 is provided with a recess 44 for receiving a coiled spring 45 which bears against a soft thrust pad 46 and thereby forces disc 3? into close contact with lower member-35.
In practice, the assembled stopper is inserted into the drain opening so that the flat surface 42 on the disc 37 engages the flat surface 43 on the retainer ring [3. At thi time the handle 35 and its attached lower member 35 are in a position approximately from that shown in Figs. 1 and 5 so that the stopper may be easily inserted in the drain opening. In. this position a portion of each arcuate slot 40 is uncovered so that water may run therethrough to the drain outlet 33. The motor 28 is not, however, energized at this time. Also, at this time the handle 36 is pointing toward the point marked Remove on the flange of the retainer ring [3. Now if the handle is rotated to point to the marking Seal on the retainer ring, the wing on lower member 35 engage the underside of the retainer ring adjacent the flat portions 43 and lock this stopper in place. At the same time, the slots 30 are completely closed and the sink may be used as if an ordinary stopper had been inserted. The motor 28 is still not energized at this stage. Now when the handle is turned to the third position marked On the stopper i still locked beneath the retainer ring. However the slots 40 are partly uncovered and one of the cams 4| engages and moves an angular arm 41 which projects in a bearing 58 provided in the wall of casing l5. The bearing end of arm 41 projects outside casing I5 and is fixedl attached as. by a set screw 49 toa link 50 which is in turn pivotallyattached as at 5| to a handle or link 52. The link or handle 52 is the operating member for a snap switch 53. A tension. spring has one end attached to pivot member 51 and the other end fixedly attached to a side wall of a housing 55. The latter housing serves to promct the switch member 53 and its operating parts. Normally the spring 5% holds the switch in its off position, but when the operating arm 41 is engaged by one or the other of the cam surface 4 l the arm is moved to the full line position of Fig. 4 and the switch is closed, energizing motor 28.
It has been previously stated that the grinding or cutting blades 3! may become jammed under some conditions and while the motor is energized. In order to relieve this condition it is desirable that the motor shaft 29 be oscillated back and forth manually. However it is important that the motor be deenergized before this is attempted. If the operator of the machine could be relied on to move the stopper away from the On position, no further precaution would be necessary and all that would be required to relieve the jam would be the application of a suitable wrench to the extended lower end of the motor shaft. However, human nature being what it is, no reliance canbe placedon the operator so doing. Accordingly, it has heretofore been considered necessary to so construct the apparatus that access to the motor shaft can be had only by a skilled service man.
However, we' have found that by making the stopper itself a part of the wrench to be used on the motor shaft, or rather by making the stopper a necessary accessory for use with the wrench, so that it must be removed from it normal operating position before the motor shaft can be oscillated, the danger of unintentional motor starting can be completely avoided and at the same time obstructions of the nature described can be readil relieved by an unskilled operator.
To this end we provide the lower end of the motor shaft 28, below the bearing 56, with an extension 51. This extension is preferably disposed in, and spaced from, a sleeve 58 which may be slightly longer than the extension 51. The sleeve may be suitably attached to the casing member 25, one manner being to curve the lower end of the casing in toward the lower end of the sleeve as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The extension 5? should be of such shape that it cannot be grasped by any tool or wrench available to the ordinary householder. It is here shown a being cylindrical with one fiat face.
For cooperation with the extension 51 at the required times, the lower member 35 of the stopper is provided with a depending boss 59 having a socket 60 which conforms in shape with that of the extension 51 and is large enough to have a sliding fit with the extension. The outer sur-.
face of the boss 59 is provided, at its end nearest member 35, with a conventional hexagonal or other regular-shaped portion 6| of the type which may be engaged by a conventional wrench or spanner. In practice, it is preferable to supply each waste disposal unit with a spanner or wrench 62 such as that shown in Fig. 9. This tool may conveniently be detachably attached to or hung on a suitable portion of the casing for the apparatus.
The boss 59 should be long enough to reach up into the sleeve 58 and grasp the shaft extension 5'! and still leave sufiicient room below the sleeve for proper operation of the spanner 62 and for engagement of the latter with the regularly shaped portion 6! of the boss. A limit stop 63 may be provided above the shaft extension 5'? to assist the proper positioning of the stopper and its boss 59. Likewise, a removable cover 65 may be provided as a closure for the lower end of sleeve 58.
The operation of the invention is believed apparent from the foregoing description. However a brief resume may be helpful. Assuming that the stopper is in place in the On position, then switch 53 is closed and motor 28 is energized. Should an obstruction occur suflicient to stall the motor, the operator then removes the stopper by moving it first to the Remove position and then lifting it from the drain opening. Switch 53 thereupon opens and the motor is deenergized. Next the stopper is inserted into the opening 64 provided in the spanner B2 and theassembly is then inverted. The socket 60 is then pushed up over the shaft extension 51 and, the stopper being urged upwardly with one hand, the handle of spanner 62 is then oscillated with the other hand. This operation is usually sufficient to free the usual obstructions. Once the obstruction has been released it is only necessary to replace the stopper and turn on the water and the machine will again operate.
It will be seen from the foregoing description that the invention provides a simple, safe and effective construction for enabling theordinary user to release obstructions which may occur in a waste disposal unit of thecomminutin'g type and that the aforesaid advantages are obtained at a relatively low cost and with a minimum of parts.
In the foregoing description the socket member has been described as depending from the stopper, and the lower end of the drive shaft has been described as having an extension of irregular contour adapted to fit into the irregular socket member carried by the stopper. However it is apparent that these two parts could be reversed so that the socket member could be formed in the shaft extension and the member depending from the stopper could hav an irregular contour adapted to fit into the socket carried by the shaft extension. Accordingly the claims are to be read from the viewpoint that an irregular socketmember on either the stopper or the shaft cooperates with a correspondingly shaped male member on the other.
While the invention has been shown in but one form, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that it is not so limited, but is susceptible of various changes and modifications without departing from the spirit thereof.
What is claimed is:
1. In a waste disposal apparatus, a housing providing a receptacle for waste material and having an opening for the admission thereof to said receptacle, cutting or shredding means for comminuting the waste material in said receptacle, a rotatable shaft for driving said cutting or shredding means, an electric motor for driving said shaft, said shaft having an extension provided with a surface of irregular contour extending beyond said motor in a position opposit that of the cutting and shredding means, control means selectively operable for causing the energization and deenergization of said motor, a stopper device adapted to seat in said housing opening, actuating means carried by said stopper device and operable, when the stopper device is seated in said housing opening, to a plurality of positions for effecting selective operation of said control means to its motor energizing and deenergizing positions, said control means normally breaking the circuit to said motor when the stopper device is removed from the housing opening, and means provided on said stopper device and adapted to engage the aforesaid extension of the shaft when the stopper device is removed from the opening, said last-named means having a surface provided with a contour such that it may intimately engage the surface of irregular contour on the shaft extension; said stopper device, when so positioned, being ad-apted to transmit manually-applied energy to the shaft for the purpose of relieving any obstructions in the path of the shredding or cutting means which may have stalled said electric motor.
2,544,745 7 8 2. Structure according to claim 1, in which the REFERENCES CITED shaft-engaging means depends below th stopper The followin .v
v i I g references are of record in the device when the latter 1s seated in said material file of this patent:
3. Structure: according to claim 1 in which the 5 driven shaft is vertical and in which the irregular UNITED STATES PATENTS extension of the shaft depends from the lower end Number Name Date of the shaft. 1,910,217 Hadfield May 23, 1933 4. Structure according to claim 1 in which the 1,968,515 Cobl'e et a1. July 31, 1934 means provided on the stopper device comprises 10 2220729 Powers Nov. 5, 1940 a-socket member adapted toat least partially encircle the extension on theshait.
5. Structure according to claim 4, in which the exterior surface of thesocketmember is provided with a surface adapted to be grasped by a sepa- 15 rate tool.
JOHN H. ASI-IBAUGH. EDWARD R. WOLFERT.