US 2546929 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 27, 1951 s. M. NAMPA FREIGHT LOADING APPARATUS 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 12, 1945 NVENTOR.
March 27, 1951 5, NAMPA FREIGHT LOADING APPARATUS 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Feb. 12, 1945 2 3 IJL IE 5 PU Q 4 64 K/Z/ o 69 7/ 2) KA4/H/XA/ 1X4 )/2 Y j V/ .1 I g March 27, 1951 s. M. NAMPA 2,546,929
' FREIGHT LOADING APPARATUS Filed Feb. 12, 1945 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 IN VENT OR.
March 27, 1951 s. M. NAMPA FREIGHT LOADING APPARATUS 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Feb. 12, 1945 2 I 4 h/ a lc M 0 2 A W i MUN? Lflflmfi/ H w m hnu u fi i I i i y a M Ill 5%" l I 2 z MA Patented Mar. 27, 1 951 FREIGHT LOADING APPARATUS Sulo Michael Nampa, Detroit, Mich., assignor to Evans Products Company, Detroit, Mich., a
corporation of Delaware Application February 12, 1945, Serial No. 577,374
18 Claims. (Cl. 105"369) The present invention relates to improved loading apparatus for holding freight articles of different types in vehicles or storage spaces, and more particularly'to improved equipment of this nature having certain parts which are built into or combined with a vehicle, such as an airplane, a ship, truck, trailer, railway freight car, or other storage space, and having certain other parts which are adjustably and variously co-operable with the built-in parts, the several parts of the equipment co-operating to hold (that is, for example, to brace, support or carry, space, wedge or provide shelves, partitions or bins for) a wide variety of freight articles. In certain of its aspects, the present invention provides improvements upon the invention described and claimed in applicants copending application Serial No. 469,719, filed December 21, 1942, now abandoned, as a continuation in part of application Serial No. 434,357, filed March 12, 1942, now abandoned but replaced by copending application, Serial No. 740,330, filed April 9, 1947, as a continuation of said application, Serial No. 434,357 said application 740,330 now being Patent No. 2,519,846.
Objects of the present invention are to provide a freight-loading system of the above generally indicated type, which employs relatively light weight, readily maneuvered loading members,
which may be economically manufactured and installed in the associated storage space and which may be readily adjusted to accommodate different loading conditions; to provide such a system employing tubular holding members, at least certain whereof comprise two or more telescopically related elements which are freely adjustable as to length and which may be fixed together in desired adjusted positions; to provide such a system embodying improved means for interconnecting a related pair of tubular members, said means including an adjustable jaw structure of improved construction; to provide such a system wherein the tubular members are of relatively thin-walled type and consequently are sufficiently elastic so that they can flex to accommodate distortions of the associated storage chamber due, for example, to the condition of the highway or road bed over which the associated vehicle is operating; and to provide such a system wherein the loading members are of relatively small cross section, adapting them to be readily threaded through meshed material, such as netting, which may be used in forming bulkheads and the like.
Other and more detailed objects of the invention appear in the following description and in:
the appended claims and in the drawings,
throughout the several views of which correspending reference characters are used to designate corresponding parts, and in which:
Fig. 1 is a view in perspective of a storage compartment equipped in accordance with the invention;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary view in vertical section.
taken along the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary view in vertical section, taken along the line 3-3 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is afragmentary View, partly in elevation and partly in section, of one of the improved loading members;
Fig. 4A is a fragmentary view showing the ap- Fig. 4 but showing the adjustable jaw structure in a different position of adjustment;
Fig. 9 is a view in elevation showing anotherloading arrangement which may be achieved with the loading members of the present invention; and
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary view illustrating how the present loading members may be used to. co-operate with, for example, netting used in forming bulkheads.
It will be appreciated from a complete understanding of the present invention that, in their more generic aspects, the improvements thereof may be embodied in freight-loading systems of widely varying types, intended for use in connec-"' tion with various types of storage chambers. The improvements are particularly adapted to be embodied in relatively light weight, easily handled and adjusted loading members, having a degree of flexibility which particularly adapts them for use in connection with trucks and trailers. The disclosure of the invention herein with particular reference to such an application thereof is, how 1 ever, to be taken in an illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
Referring to the drawings, particularly Figs. 1
through 8, the apparatus is built into a storage space or chamber which may be, for example, the body of a truck or trailer, which body is pro-' vided with a usual floor l0, side walls 12, and roof structure l4; To illustrate'the adaptability of the invention to irregularly shaped storage spaces,
the just-mentioned chamber is provided near one end with a stepped portion having an upper surface It and a vertical end surface l8. Specifically, Fig. 1 shows the interior of a trailer looking towards the front, in which lB-l 8 is the kickup or raised portion which accommodates the fifth wheel assembly. A variety of differently dimensioned and shaped freight articles I are illustrated as beingstacked in the storage space and as being held in place therein, in this instance, by bulkheads composed of a plurality of cross members 20.
In the illustrated embodiment, the freight-loading members comprise, in addition to the justmentioned cross members 20, a plurality of horizontally arranged loading members or side rails 2|, 22, and 23 and a plurality of vertically arranged loading members 24. In the preferred practice of the invention, the side rails are more or less permanently applied to the co-operating supporting parts of the chamber and may, in fact, constitute the structural members which form a part of, or act to reinforce, the-chamber. As shown :further, all of the members 20, 2|, 22, 23, and :24 are tubular in form. Generically, a variety of tubular sections, such as square, hexagonal, or other noncircular sections may be employed, if relative rotation between the hereinafter. described telescopic sections is not required. Preferably, and as shown, the tubular members are cylindrical enabling both lengthwise and rotative movements between the telescoped sections. All of these members may be, and preferably are, formed of relatively light weight metal, such as aluminum or the like, having sufiiciently resilient characteristics to enable them to flex to a reasonable extent so as to accommodate the structure to distortions of the freight chamber which are caused, for example, by uneven road conditions or the like. The vertical members 24 are secured to the side rails by the hereinafter described adjustable jaw structures which embrace, but do not completelysurround, such side rails. Members 2|, '22, and '23 are, accordingly, secured to the chamber walls by attachingv elements which do not interfere with the application thereto of members 24 at any desired point therealong.
.More particularly, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 2, each upper rail 2i is provided with a plurality of attaching brackets 30 which are distributed along the length thereof. Each bracket 30 is of generally Z shape, having a vertically disposed bight 32 and legs 34 and 36. Leg 34 is secured, along its lower edge 34a, to the upper surface of the co-operating rail 2!. With this relation, the bight 32 is disposed above .and out of the way of the body of the rail, so that it does not interfere with movement along .the latter of the jaws 36 associated with the co-operating vertical members 24. The remaining leg 36 extends downwardly somewhat with respect to the bight'32 and is adapted for connection, as by one or more bolts 38, to the wall structure l2. As will be appreciated, the above described bracket structure is particularly suitable in cases where the rails 22 are located somewhat below the roof structure or somewhatabove the floor structure.
In the present instance, the lower ,rails 22 and 23 are secured directly to the sub-floor or framing structure underneath the wear surfaces designated l and i6, and so occupy recesses or channels between the chamber walls and the side of such wear surfaces or heavy duty flooring llll.6. The jaws 36 require little radial or lateral clearance in operation, so that the channels 25 may be relatively narrow. As illustrated, rails 2223 are only partly recessed. If desired they may be completely recessed to realize the maximum of usable freight loading volume, and to prevent injury to or interference between the load and such recessed rails. As shown, the rails 22 and 23 are secured in place by passing bolts such as 40 through the corresponding supporting surface 4! as well as through the structural member 43 (Fig. 3).
It will be observed that the vertical spacing between rails 2i--22, on the one hand, and rails 2l23, on the other hand, are different. There may be cases, also, in which members 2 i2223 may be nonparallel, as in accommodating irregular vehicle shapes. The hereinafter described telescopic :feature of uprights 25 is peculiarly advantageous in permitting the use of interchangeable parts to accommodate a wide range of spacings.
The above discussed lack of parallelism or different spacing arises from the design of the vehicles or other storage space. In addition, as a practical matter, there are static errors or permanent manufacturing inaccuracies whereby two elongated spaced apart surfaces will not be truly parallel. Also, similar conditions arise dynamically due to the weaving of the vehiclein transit. In all of these cases, the telescopic feature of members, such as 23-2 (and in some cases, even rails 2 l2223) is of practical value.
Structural'ly, the vertical members 2 and the cross members 2.6 may be identical with each oth-.. er and, in fact, may be used interchangeably since the lengths thereof are readily adjustable. This interchangeability is of substantial practi-. cal importance to the manufacturer in that it reduces the number of different parts which he must arrange to produce; and to the user in that he does not need to exercise care in selecting the proper part for an upright or cross bar, since he may, with a given number of parts, provide for more different loading conditions. Stated otherwise, a smaller number of parts will suffice to adequatelyequip a vehicle. A description of, for example, one of the members 29 will consequently serve as a description of the members 24.
Referring particularly to Figs. 4 through 8, each number as is made up of two telescopically related tubular portions 26a and 2%, both being illustrated as of circular section. The fit between these members is such that they may be freely slid lengthwise and rotated relative to each other. A limit to lengthening adjustment is afforded in this instance by providing an end plate 50 which is secured at the end of each innersection. Each plate 50 is apertured as indicated at 52, so as to loosely pass a connecting rod 54. Each rod '54 also passes loosely through a second motion-limiting plate 55 which may be secured in any suitable way within the body of the cooperating outer member 261). With this relation, it will be appreciated that a limit to lengthening movement is reached when plates 59 and 55 are spaced apart far enough to encounter the nuts 58 and G6, or other stops, formed on rod 54. A limit to collapsing movementon the other hand is afforded when plates 55 and 55 abut each other. It will be appreciated that, by locating each plate 56 relatively near the outer end of each outer section 29b and giving the rod 51! a length approximately equal to the length of section 262), a range of adjustment approximately equal to the length of the section 2% may be provided. Such a range of adjustment makes it readily possible to use members 20 and 24 interchangeably as verticals and as cross members.
In assembling the two sections 20a and 2% together, it will be understood that plate 50, with rod 54 already fitted thereto, may first be secured in the end of section Zea. Thereafter the assembly comprising section 260;, plate as, post 5 and plate 56 may be advanced into the outer section 201), and pushed therealong until plate 55 reaches the desired position lengthwise of section 2%. With the parts thus properly located, the plate 56 may be secured in place within section 2% as by spot welding, passing one or more mounting studs through corresponding ones of openings til into plate 56, or otherwise.
In order to enable end-to-side connections between individual vertical and cross members, each member 28 is provided throughout its length with a plurality of attaching means. As shown, these attaching means take the form of relativesmall, slightly elongated openings t8 which pass through the walls of each section 2911 and b. The hereinafter described jaws are ar ranged to co-operate with circumferentially spaced pairs and groups of the attaching openings. Specifically, each section 26a and 2% is provided with four rows of equiangularly spaced openings 60 which enable the jaws to be connected thereto at any one of four positions spaced approximately 90 apart. As noted below, the slightly elongated shaping of the openings facilitates the application of the jaws 36 to the members 20. Also such shaping enables some canting of each jaw with respect thereto. Considering Fig. 1, for example, this canting permits members 20 to be canted somewhat in both horizontally and vertically disposed planes. The canting operations serve to accommodate the structure to irregular loads or to loads which, for example, do not extend entirely across the vehicle, all as will be understood.
Each jaw 36 is made up, in the illustrated embodiment, of a pair of relatively movable, arcuately shaped jaw elements 62 and 64. The inner or bearing surfaces of these jaws are struck on radii approximately equal to the outside diameter of each inner section 20a, so that when they embrace such an inner section (Fig. 4) they snugly fit the outer surface thereof. Each jaw element is provided on its inner surface with a plurality of attaching means which, as shown, take the form of substantially circular bosses 66. These bosses project radially inwardly a distance approximately equal to the wall thickness of each outer section 201), so that when the jaws (Fig. 8) are fitted over such outer section, the bosses will not be interfered with by an imperforate portion ofthe periphery of the inner section 2841. Thus the jaws 36 can cooperate with an outer section 20? independently of whether its openings cc are aligned with the openings (iii in the cooperating section 20a.
' Each jaw element 62 is secured as by spot welding, as indicated as 10, to a rearwardly extending body portion 12. In the case of a jaw at the end of .an inner section 26a, each jaw portion 12 may, and preferably does, constitute a semicircular extension of such section 20a defined by cutting away the latter along the radial line 14 and along the axial line 16. In the case of a jaw formed in the end of an outer section 26b, the semicylindrical body portion 12 may be provided at the end of a tubular extension 13 which may be welded or. otherwise securedwithin the extreme end portion of the section 20b, as shown in Fig. 4A.
the spacin wherebetween, as viewed in Fig. 5;
is sufiicient to snugly but freely receive the previously mentioned boss 18. Bosses 18 and 84 are provided with aligned apertures which receive a pivot pin 36, which may have a drive fit within either the boss '58 or the two bosses 84. Pin 86 thus serves to pivotally interconnect the two jaw elements 62 and 64, and allows sufiicient spread ing thereof to enable them to be freely passed over either an inner or an outer section 29a or 2%.
An important feature of the present invention resides in the provision of means to lock the jaw" members together when fitted over either an inner or an outer section. As illustrated, this looking is accomplished by a sleeve 9!] which is slidable lengthwise of the jaw assembly from the locked position shown in Figs. 4 and 8 to a retracted position spaced sufficiently far from the jaw elements to permit the necesary pivoting of the latter. Preferably, and as shown, detent means are provided to releasably hold the sleeve 9!) in its locking position. The. detent structure comprises a ball 92 which is biased outwardly by a spring 96 fitted in a recess provided in the boss i8. The material surrounding the ball is peened over slightly after insertion of the latter to pre vent escape of the ball from the detent pocket,
in accordance with familiar practice.
, In order to enable it to lock the jaw elements in either of the positions of Figs. 4 and 8, sleeve Si! is provided with an axially extending radially projecting recess or groove 96, which co-operates with a correspondingly shaped rib 98 formed on the body 82 associated with jaw element 64. Sleeve 96 is both turnable and slideable relative to the jaw assembly. Thus, when the. jaws are fitted over an inner section 26a, sleeve as can be turned to the rotative position shown in Fig. 5, in which rib 98 is out of registry with groove 96. When so positioned, sleeve 99' obviously holds the jaw members relatively close together, forcing the bosses 6% into the openings Gil in the inner section Zea. On the other hand, when the jaw members are fitted over an outer section 20b, sleeve. se is first turned to a rotative position in which rib 98 is lined up with groove es and thereafter sleeve 98 is slid lengthwise of the jaw assembly from the retracted position to the locking position. The proportioning of the rib S3 and the groove is such, as will be understood, as to enable the sleeve 93 to hold the jaws in relatively snug engagement with the surface of an outer section 2%.
It will be noticed that when the jaws S2 and 6d are separated, the holding elements 66 on at least jaw E54 move in an arcuate path, having the pin as as a center. This arcuate movement is not truly radial with respect to the co-operating member Eta or 2%. The oval shaping of the holes t6, however, readily permits such non radial movement and enables the jaw structures to be freely separated from the co-operating loading members. r
Referring again to Fig. 1, it will be appreciated that the fixed rails 22' are provided with inner and oute r s oi a ach ng: o n ng 6."- r Q os ratio w th heiaws 3 a ass ci d er t Qa-l members I desired addit al rows o openings 63 may be providedinthe members 22 in angularl y spaced relation to the just-mentioned openings, thereby permitting members 20 or 24 to be secured thereto in different angular positions, and in factmaking members 22 iden-.- tical with members 26 and Her at least enabling them to be formed of the same tubing, either the larger or smaller size and with the same holes; thereby givingrise to the advantages men,- tioned above connection with the interchangeability of parts 29.2 l. Moreover, it will be appreciated that it is within the purview of the invention to secure members Z2to the vehicle by readily detachable or removable fastening means, which may be, ior example, in the form of studs such as 55. In cases where members 22 are de,. tachably secured, they may be telescopically ex tensible lengths identical with members .26 or 25, without jaw Structures. Alternatively, members or as may be detachably secured to the vehicle and serve as side rails with their jaws thereon. Further, such a side rail may be formed of either an inner or an outer telescopic section, or of both such sections, of members ace-2s, detached or pulled apart. In general, the only members which are secured to members 22 are the verticaliy extending members 25. Consequently, the two inner and outer rows of openings 6i] are usually suff cient.
Also, if desired, more than four rows of openings may be provided in the elements which make up the members 29 and 29. As .a general rule, however, the indicated four rows are found to be sufficient, particularly in view of the panting relation which is permitted by the elongated character of the openings cc and by the somewhat loose fit between the surfaces of the jaw elements and the surfaces of the inner and outer te escopi all r lat d s tions- It will be evident that various combinations of vertical, horizontal, and diagonally extending members may be made up from the members such as 2!} and 2a, to accommodate different freight-loading situations. 'In pig. 1 the character of the freight is such thathorizontal bulkhead elements are best adapted to hold the freight in place. In Fig. 9, on the other hand, the character of the load is such that the bulkhead elements are better adapted to extend vertically. In Fig. is again, the character of the freight load may be such as to make it desirable to utilize a heavy net its, formed of rope or the like. IThis net may be held in place by threading the members such as 2t and 2 3 therethrough.
Again, it will be understood that, if desired, members such as 28 and $2 may be arranged so as to define decking'bins, partitions, and the like, in the manner described in said copending application. In such latter event, for example, members 2i may be arranged at intervals along the length of the chamber to define side bays, short members 20 may extend between adjacent uprights and serve as bay members, and further members as may extend across the space and be supported by such bay members. Moreover, cross members such as 2e may be connected directly between side rails 22, and between rails -2i-23 in the event the rejcessing of the latter permits or is eliminated.
Although only several embodiments of the invention have been described in detail, it will be appreciated that various modifications in the orm. numb r an ar a ge en of p rt me! be made without departing from the spirit scope of the invention. w i
What is claimed is:
1 In a freight loading system for a storage space, the combination of a pair of vertically spaced generally horizontally extending tubular members fixed at each side of said space, at least a pair of generally vertically extending tubularmembers, each vertical member extending be]- tween and being adjustably secured to the horizontal members of the corresponding pair for adjustment lengthwise of the latter, and one or more tubular members extending between and adjustably secured to said pair of vertical mem: bers for adjustment lengthwise of the latter, at least certain of said tubular memberscomprising a pair of telescopically related tubular elements which are slidable lengthwise of each other, and at least certain of said tubular members having means adjacent the ends thereof which embrace others of said members to effect said adjustable securement.
2. In a freight loading system for a storage space, the combination of at least a pair of elongated tubular loading members adjustably supported at respectively opposite sides of said space, and at least one tubular member extending across said space and being adjustably supported adjacent its ends by said loading members for adjustment lengthwise of the latter, at least certain of said members compr sin a pair of telescopically related tubular elements which are slidable lengthwise of each other, and said one tubular member having means ad acent itsends which embrace said pair of members to effect said adjustable support of said one member.
3. The system of claim 2 wherein said firstmentioned members are adjustably supported adjaeent their ends by vertically spaced supporting means provided therefor.
.4. In a freight loading system for a storage space, the combination of a pair of tubular members supported in vertically spaced relation to each other, and at least one generally vertically extending tubular member extending 9?- tween and adjustably supported adj acentits ends by said first mentioned members for adjustment lengthwise of the latter, at least certain of said members being constituted by a pair of telescopicaliy related tubular elements slidable lengthwise of c ot e an d ne tubularmem ha i e ns a a i ds hi h embra e Sai pair of members to eli'ect said adjustable support of said one member.
5. In a freight loading system for a storage space, the combination of 'a pair of vertically spaced generallyhorizontally extending members positioned at each side of said space, at least a pair of generally vertically extending members, each vertical member extending between and being adjustably secured to the horizontal members of the corresponding pair for adjustment lengthwise of the latter, and one or more cross members extending between and adjustably supported by said pair of vertical members for ad justment lengthwise of the latter, at least certain of said horizontal, vertical and cross members including heads at the ends thereof and having body portions which cooperate with saidheads to efiect said securement and support, said heads and said body portions being substantially alike so that at least certain of saidhorizontal, vertical and cross members are interchangeablewith each other so that, for a-given total number of members, various loading combinations. can be Zprovided.
. secured to saidfirst member in selected positions therealong, said second elongated member having on its ends a pair. .of relatively spreadable jaw elements disposed .to embrace the width of said first member .and cooperate with said holding means, and retaining..meansmovable from'a retracted position in which it does not interfere with said spreading to either a first holding position in which it permits one degree of'spread of said elements or a second holding position in which it permits a different degree of such spread.
7. In a freight loading system, an elongated member of a varying width having a plurality of holding means disposed along its length and a cooperating elongated member to be transversely secured to said first member in selected positions therealong, said second elongated member having on its ends a pair of relatively spreadable jaw elements disposed to embrace the width of said first member and cooperate with said holding means, and control means for the jaw elements capable of two adjusting movements, one said movement freeing said jaw elements of restraint thereby and the other movement servingto variably control the degree to which said jaw elements are enabled to spread.
8. In a jaw structure for use in a freight loading system to releasably connect one freight loading part to a cooperating part. the combination of a pair of relatively spreadable jaw elements disposed to embrace a cooperating part, means connecting said elements to said first-mentioned part, and retaining means movable from a retracted position in which it does not interfere with said spreading to a holding position in which it restrains such spreading, said cooperating part having a plurality of rows of holding means distributed around the body thereof, and said jaw elements having cooperating holding means disposed to cooperate with holding means in spaced ones of said rows.
9. In a freight loading system, the combination of a supporting member comprising a pair of telescopically related elements slidable lengthwise relative to each other, and a supported member adjustably securable to the supporting member, said supported member being provided with an adjustable jaw structure which can be fitted over the supporting member from the side thereof,
. lengthwise distributed openings in each element thereof, and wherein said jaw structure is provided with holding means disposed to lockingly enter said openings, said holding means being of such length that they enter said openings to a depth not substantially exceeding the wall athickness' of the cute gated loading member supported thereby, said ;load in g-member having a jaw structure, comprising a pair of spreadable jaw element s, which can be fitted over the supporting member from the side thereof, said jaw elements embracing but not sur'rounding said supporting member so that 'a gap isleft between the jaw elements at onefside of the supporting member, and means for securing thelsuppor-tingmember-to associateds'upporting structure, said securing means being receivable in said gap whereby said jaw structure may be moved along said supporting member past said securing means.
14. The system of claim 13 wherein said supporting member and said jaw structure include interlockingly engageable holding means which when engaged secure said jaw structure against movement along said supporting member, and said jaw structure is provided with retaining means for controlling spreading of said jaw elements and for controlling engagement between said holding means.
15. In a freight loading system the combination of a pair of spaced tubular supporting members each having a plurality of peripherally spaced longitudinally extending rows of attaching openings, a tubular member extending between and supported by the spaced members, said supported member having a releasable jawstructure at each end, each jaw structure comprising a pair of jaw elements carried by said member and connected thereto for pivotal movement with respect to each other, said jaw elements when spread apart being fittable over the corresponding supporting member from the side thereof, each jaw element having holding means disposed to enter the openings in a corresponding said row, and an adjusting part movable on each jaw structure from a position in which it permits said spreading to a position in which it restrains the spreading and holds the holding means in said openin s.
16. The system of claim 15 wherein at least one of said supporting members comprises a pair of telescopically related tubular elementseach having peripherally spaced rows of openings therein, and wherein said adjusting part includes means selectively positionable on said jaw structure so that it can restrain said jaw structure in holding relation. to either of one of said telescopically related elements.
17. In a freight loading system. a pair of spaced generally circular supporting members each being of elongated form and each having at least one row of recesses extending therealong, each recess opening through the outer surface of the wall of the corresponding member, each recess being of oval form with its major axis extending peripherally of the corresponding member, and a cooperating loading member extending between and supported by said first-mentioned members, said cooperating member having at each end a spreadable jaw which embraces the corresponding first-mentioned member, each jaw structure having one or more holding elements disposed to be received in corresponding ones of said recesses.
18. The structure of claim 17 wherein each first member is composed of a pair of telescopically related tubular sections, each section being provided with said recesses, and wherein said jaw simctures are adapted to :intrlocki'ngly embrace either an inner or outer said telescopic section;
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