|Publication number||US2548576 A|
|Publication date||Apr 10, 1951|
|Filing date||Oct 18, 1943|
|Priority date||Oct 18, 1943|
|Publication number||US 2548576 A, US 2548576A, US-A-2548576, US2548576 A, US2548576A|
|Inventors||Willson Corwin D|
|Original Assignee||Willson Corwin D|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (34), Referenced by (11), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 10, 1951 c. D. wlLLsoN 2,548,576
HOUSE 0F SOLIDIFIED FOAM Filed OCT.. 18, 1943 2 Sheets-Sheet l 1N VENTOR.
April 10, 1951 c. D. wlLLsoN 2,548,576
HOUSE 0F SOLIDIFIED FOAM Filed Oct. 18, 1943 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 M 3/7 97,5 9,5 7 36 Fla/O 2 A `\26 ias B6 B7 z3 INVENTOR.
l Patented Apr. 10, 1951 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE HOUSE or soLIDIFIED FoAM I Corwin D. Willson, Flint, Mich. Application Ovctobeil18, 1943, Serial No. 506,772
This invention relatesl to space enclosure and,
in particular, to a novel system of shelter construction primarily from interlockable panels of the unit-wall type having a low-density core. This invention is a continuation in part of my co-pending application Serial No. 485,642 led May 4, 1943.
Prefabricated panels wholly from incombustible materials and of the unit-wall type: i. e., having a core with a minimum of large voids, have played a minor role to date in systems of prefabrication due to lack of precision dimensions, the lack of proper materials, the diiicult joining of available materials, poor insulation and weather resistance, great weight and costly handling in large units.
As yet, insulation materials have to be largely fastened to or placed between structural members of wood and are of two types: those easily harmed by moisture, and those easily combustible. rBut there is no reason why the familys thermal envelope should not comprise insulation chieflyinsulation resistant to weather exposure, to i'lre, surface bruising, to decay, insect attack, and that itself assists in stiffening a minimal supporting structure. Space-enclosing materials having a core of extremely low density and, thus7 of little strength, are awkward of use except in curtain walls and even in such wal-ls the joining of panels yof such materials is achieved either poorly or with difficulty. Before dwellings utilizing such materials may bev-designed to meet global needs at lower cost, it will be necessary to concentrate on the integration of the solutions of several problems simultaneously-such as: l, the thermal resistance of the covering; 2, the moisture resistance of the covering both from outside and inside the space enclosed; 3, the resistanceof the covering to fire, insects and decay; 4, the structural resistance of the covering to wrack and loading stress; 5, ease of fabricating the covering from a wide range of materials, some of which are available not too far from any global building site; 6, ease of transport of relatively large prenished units with aminimum of hazard; 7, ease of joining the units demountably, together with a minimum of other materials, upon the erection site.
To the -extent that a solution of each'of these seven problems is correlated with each of the others.' invention can make simpler and cheaper what previous failure properly to integrate'these problems has kept diiiicult and costly. Thus the .primary object of this .invention is the integrated solution of all sevenvof the stated problems in a single simplied system of space enclosure.
Since panels of extremely low-density are not adapted to use as loadbearing elements, another of the unit-wall type having va low-density core, of molded load-bearing means.V
Another object of the invention is a construction unit having a core largely of inorganic lowdensity material bound between opposite faces largely of organic lbers having a high tensile strength. v.
Another object `of the invention is a silicatebound solidified plastic mass of relative low density that isy highly resistant to moisture and `to cracking under wrack.
These and other novel features and objects of the invention are hereinafter more fully described and claimed and the preferred formof my new system of space enclosure isshown in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a rectangular plan of the space enclosed by panels ofthe 4unit-'wall type and having a low-density core.
Fig. 2 is a viewirom the entrance side of Fig.. 1 and shows the continuous lintel supporting the superstructure.
Fig. 3 is inpart an enlarged vertical section taken on line 3-3 of Fig-2 and turned ninety degrees therewith and illustrating thespacial relations of the elements of the structuresuch-as the footing, floor, side-wall, roof supports, roof panels, ceiling and partition panels, joining grooves and clips. y
Fig. 4 is an enlarged cross-section at the joint between two typical panels, such as between those taken on line 4 4 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 is a more detailed cross-section of the spline shownin Fig. 4. l
Fig. 6 is an enlarged cross-section of the corner `column panel taken on line 6 6 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 7 is an enlarged cross-section of the flat wall panel taken on line 1-1 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 8 is an enlarged cross-section of the midcolumn wall panel taken on line 8-8 of Fig, 2.
Fig. 9 is an enlarged cross-section of an alternate form of the flat wall panel shown in Fig. 7.
Fig. 10 is an enlarged cross-section of the floor mid-column panels 4 and under-window panels 5, each joined interlockably and (if desired) demountably to the adjacent panel by spline 6 in a manner described hereinafter. Opening closures, such as windows 1 and door 8, are provided Y in the wall thus formed, the frames 9 of said closures carrying similar means (not shown) for being interlocked into the structure. As will become evident as the Adescription proceeds, the wall formed of panels 2, 3, 4'and 5 is primarily an insulative wall of such low density as to be normally little more than a curtain wall. But in this instance columns I of load-bearing strength are formed as integral parts of panels 2 and 4 which are widely spaced in the wall and this wall thus becomes a Wrack-resistant and bracing web between columns ID supporting the load of the superstructure. The interior of the enclosure is provided with ceiling panels 80 and interior partitions 83. The ceiling panels 8l)v are connected to the partitions 83 by connecting ribs 82. Y
In Fig. 2, the namedelements are shown in erected position and upon the ten columns I0 are supported horizontal beams comprising a continuous lintel II on which is imposed the load of the superstructure. If the superstructure is a floor for a second story, then the lintel I I may comprise suitably reinforced horizontal panels of the same material as the vertical panels shown and be joined to them in the manner to be described. In this instance, the superstructure comprises a roof for the space enclosed and having panels I2 resting on purlins I3 supported by roof trusses I4 comprising upper chord I5 and lower chord I6 joined by web I1. Roof trusses I4 are positioned directly above columns III, the lower chord of the trusses at opposite ends of the space enclosed coinciding with lintel Il. Thus, the entire load of the superstructure is carried by linltel Il through columns IU into the foundation In Fig. 3, lintel II is shown anchored to columns I0 by means of strap I8 attached to the vertical reinforcing rod I9. Clips 20, one end caught into Athe joint between adjacent panels in a manner to be described hereinafter, are nailed, screwed or otherwise fastened to the supportingelements of the superstructure already named. Similar clips may be used to anchor the lower ends of wall panels 2, 3, 4, and to the oor panels 2| or into the floor poured as an integral slab on the ground. Water table molding 22 covers the top ends of wall panels 2, 3, and 4 and is easily removed from outside the space enclosed for placing or repairing electric cables 23, downward runs from which into outlet boxes in individual panels may be made in a manner to be described hereinafter. Fascia 24 and eaves mold 25 complete the trim between the wall and superstructure. As here utilized, elements II, I3, I4, I5, I5, I1, 22, 24 and 25 are of wood as being best suited, cost considered, for the purpose.
Each of the wall and roof and floor panels has a longitudinally extending groove 26 in opposite edges and in Fig. 4 this groove 26 is shown as having a neck or slot 21 narrower than the groove base 28. This makes it possible, when the grooves of two contiguous panels are aligned neck to neck to enter spline 6 from the end of the groove together with cementitious sealing material 29, whereby a tensilely resistant interlock is secured between the panels that is also a sealfor the joint between them. A calking compound may length of the spline.
be used in the seam between the panels I2 of the roof whereby the joint here being described is made resistant not only to disengagement but to leakage through it.
If spline 6 were limited to end-entrance into groove 26, this would be attended with a considerable disadvantage. Encountering the least resistance in endwise passage throughout the length of the groove, the spline, being long and slender, could not be forced easily into the locking position shown, nor could the sealing material 29 be properly distributed throughout the And where such a joint would be attempted in partition panels, for example, between precast loors, endwise entrance of the spline-would be impossible except as an entireY partition was assembled in a recumbent position. Thus provision is made for the lateral entrance of the spline A6 into groove 26.
The thickest parts 3G of the edges of the spline B are slightly less than the width of the slot 21.
. Experience demonstrates that such a spline entered into groove 26 with an excess of quick setting cement 29 will, upon the excess being forced from the groove, be anchored with practically dovetail efficacy within the groove-if pro vision is made to center the spline in the groove so that the cement 29 will be well distributed between spline and groove. This is made possible by bead 3l at the waist of the spline being so proportioned as to iit closely into throat 32 ex terior to neck 21 of groove 26. In Fig. 5, the spline 6 is shown reinforced to resist tensile stress by metal strip 33 having edge loops 34, the strip being covered with laminations 35, such as of fiber and asphalt given form under heat and pressure. Such a spline is resistant to the weath er and other forces of disintegration.
On Fig. 6, the column part I0 of panel 2 may be precast from load-bearing material of greater density than the insulative core 36, the facing 31 or the grooved edges 38 of the panel. In many panel-built dwellings, the corners are concentraf' tions of complexity, but here corner panel 2 is primarily a load-bearing column VI0^With the wings of the curtain wall joined at a iixed and rigid angle. This permits the joints between panel 2 and 3 to be identical with the joints between the other panels and strength to be concentrated where most requisite.
Core 36 may be preformed and bonded between facing sheets 31. Or panel 3 may be integrally cast from two batches of plastic material, such as one of very low-density granular inorganic aggregate anda binder, the other of vegetable and mineral fibers and a binder, in which case facings 31 and grooved-edge portions 38 become one homogeneous surfacing mass encasing the solid core 36.
Experience has shown that core 36 may comprise expanded slate pellets weighing as little as 15 pounds per cu. ft., or may comprise the fragmented tailings trimmed from blocks of foam glass weighing as little as l0 pounds per cu. it., the aggregate bonded with a Portland cement slurry with or without llers between sheets of thin asbestos-cement board, the permanence of the bond assisted by an admix, such as one hereinafter described. Where core 36 is molded as shown in Fig. '7 with grooves 39 in one face, the concavities only may be coated with a superficial moisture seal, as with hot asphalt, prior to being bonded to outer facing sheets 31. Thereupon part of the back 40 of the weatherfacing 31 is 'I5 @XPOSed t0 Pari 4I Q f .the ,core in cells 39. Then V45. density, flat wire increases the area of vcontact in cold weather, when the inside oi the dwelling shown in Fig. 2 is heated, moisturedrawn into the unit wall-panel from inside the dwelling by vapor pressure will tend to be sucked through the superficial moisture barrier into cells 3% and will tend to be condensed against the cold inner surface 40 and to build up there in cells 39 as frost, but during warmer weather will thaw, and
Mwill be unable to get back through the supercial moisture barrier into the core and will run down and out of the panels at outlets 42 provided through the lower outer surface of the panels. In this instance, the supercial moisture barrier acts as a valve, permitting moisture to pass outwardly under the suction of vapor pressure, but preventing its passage the other way. In consequence the condensing cells 353 act automatically to condense and carry away all moisture drawn into the cells by vapor pressure which keeps the core inwardly dry and greatly increases its insulating eiciency.
In Fig. 8, the column part I0 of panel 4 may be rprecast, from dense aggregate reinforced with rod I9 before being included among the lighter vconstituents of the panel still in plastic form andexperience has shown that column l0 may be so included when barely set or solidified from -a plastic state. In Fig. 9 a wall panel similar to yof very light aggregate and heavier nes and vibrated while being turned so that the nes come vto the surface of the panel and give it a denser skin In Fig. l0, floor panel 2l acquires increased thickness without excessive weight by taking the form of an inverted pan reinforced with rods 43 and mesh 44, such as of flat wire In utilizing plastic materials of Very lowwith the aggregate without increasing the weight y of the wire.
I have found that a light, moisture-resistant and iire-retarding, insulative and bump-resistant panel that avoids the decay of its organic constituents beiause of the high alkalinity `of ,the matrix and that avoids insect attack because of the slate-hard and caustic qualities of the mass,
is achieved by utilizing such globally abundant and lowcost raw materials as agricultural and r industrial wastes. Some of these wastes may easily be broken down to fiber-bundles possessing high tensile strength. These I have found it best to concentrate in relatively thin layers of greater density adjacent opposite surfaces of a panel, as outside line 95 in the drawings. Ma-
terials of greater particle bulk, lower cost, lesser strength and lower aircell density I concentrate in the core 36 of the panel. I have secured, Adebered, stabilized and bound a very wide variety of such ber bundles for this purpose. Among agricultural wastes which I have found useful are grain `hulls-such as those from oats, cottonseed and buckwheat; stalk bers-such as straw, iiax, cornstalk and bagasse from sugarl cane; husks-as from cocoanuts; shells-as from nd little value except for fuel worth little more than $3.00 per ton.
In the production of foam glass, irregular shaped blocks are trimmed to size and the tailings, having an extremely low-density when separated from denser parts, and excellent resistance to moisture absorption, aretossed onto a refuse heap unused. These tailings may be remelted and made into aircell pellets or may be ground to a size passing '1A inch mesh screen, the denser particles separated and culled out. A residue of the slate industry is available in pellet form which has been expanded in a standard cement kiln to sizes from le to 378 inch in diameter and having an outer shell quite impervious 'to moisture penetration. In the fabrication of one of my typical panels, such as that in Figure 9, the core 36 may comprise largely crushed foamglass'tailings, or expanded slate pellets, or expanded mica pellets plus a small amount'of the interlaced organic and inorganic bers described above, bound with plastic Portland cement and an admix; while the facings 3'! comprise a mixture largely of interlaced organic and inorganic bers bound with plastic Portland cement and an admix. In the core the Portland cement may comprise as little as one-third by weight of the constituents; whereas in the outer facings, the iibers may comprise as little as one-third b weight of the cement.
It is not the object to go into involved detail concerning the chemical means whereby the best results in enclosing space by the means here described. are achieved. What is of primary concern here is the spacial relationships of the elements. However it may be briefly explained that the admix mentioned, in one form, comprises crude alumina, such as is found in certain clays, fullers earth, bauxite, bentonite, or in Lumnite, a high-alumina cement-5 parts; a metal chloride-2 parts; a raw material containing a form of sulfur-1 part; and a solvent for one of the constituents of the admix-1A; part or less. This admix is mixed with the wetting water so that the alumina equals 1/2 (one half) to two per cent or more by weight of the Portland cement used. The purpose of the admix is to assist the normal set of the cement and to combine with the other ingredients of the matrix to form crystals of calcium sulpho-aluminate therein which, as I have explained in my co-pending application Serial No. 435,642, filed May 4, 1943, I have found to bond the fibrous materials together eifectively with a minimum of Portland cement and therefore without needless weight.
The iibers used, where ofV organic material such as wood, may be prepared either by the wet or by the dry process. In the wet process, the wood is chipped and cooked for one to two hours in a soda ash solution before being run through a disintegrating machine, such as is manufactured by Bauer Bros. of Springfield, Ohio, for the preparation of a similar liber from Southern pine and used in the manufacture of wallboard. In
a the dry process, the iibrous material is directly cut or shredded-as in making excelsior and wood v wool, or von such a machine as the hog manufactured by Mitts and Merrill of Saginaw, Michigan, The neness of the bers desired determines the process of defiberizing the raw wastes.
To integrate all the factors essential to obtain the stated objects of the invention, both the physical and chemical arts rnustV be utilized. Since many fibers contain harmful solubles that tend to vleach out during the mixing with the alkali present in Portland cement and slow up or lessen the set of the cement, they may require to be "stabilized. This may be done wet by soaking them in a soda solution, as of lye, or in the chemicals commonly used to bleach vegetable fibers in the other arts. Or it may be done dry by subjecting the fibers to sunlight, heat, artificial rays or to a gas such as ozone in ways I have described in another place.
I have found that the inclusion of organic fibers in a matrix of set Portland cement, particularly where these are interlaced with inorganic bers, produces a mass that is very resistant to cracking-the weakness of most concrete. This makes it possible to mold a relatively thin unit wall, floor or roof panel that stands up effectively because resistant to harm from freezing. Such a panel having a core impervious to moisture absorption,-such as of foam glass tailings or expanded slate peilets,-retains its insulative value.
I have found that exposure of such panels to a blowtorch flame chars the surface exposed and slowly dehydrates the water of crystallization in the bonding silicates, yet at a rate so slow as to be fire-safe and prevent active combustion. By concentrating tensilely strong fibrous material adjacent the outer surfaces of the panels, by adding stiffening means as inserts I have achieved a new and useful synthesis largely from elements old in the art, a synthesis that provides a simple solution to each of the seven basic problems, but one integrated to the one aim: a better structure at a lower cost.
Study of the previous art reveals much of apparent similarity aimed at the solution of some and even of several of these problems, but it is believed that a careful comparison between them and my new system of space enclosure demonstrates the greater simplicity and greater global adaptability of the latter in line with todays engineering imperative: Most results from least effort. Y
It will be understood that any of the variants and modifications in the elements essential to enclosing space in the manner described may be used separately or in any desired combination.
The drawings being illustrative only, are more or less diagrammatic in character and it is observed that various changes in the contours of the housing for` the groove, for example, or in the exact form of the taper-headed spline, in forming the panels or in other phases of the invention here illustrated and described,rmay be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.
Having thus fully described my invention, its utility and mode of assembly, what I claim and desire to secure by letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A building having a supporting framework and a framework-supported covering; the framework including lintel-like beams extending continuously on opposite sides of the building and roof supports widely spaced on the beams and posts fixed to the Vbeams directly under the roof of one of said taller side panels and fixed therein midway between said opposite edges and lateral- -ly protruding from one face of the panel.
2. The structure in claim 1 wherein one of said taller panels having one of said posts integral therewith extends around one corner of the building both inside and outside thereof.
3. A building having a supporting framework and a framework-supported covering of panels, the framework including lintel-like beams extending continuousiy on opposite4 sides of the building and roof supports widely spaced on the beams and posts fixed to the beams directly under the roof supports and a continuous foundation under the posts; the covering panels being of the non-loadbearing type and having cores of siliceous solidified foam and dense opposite faces and edges sealably joined with the contiguous edges of adjacent panels; some of the taller of the side panels extending from the foundation to one of said beams and each of said posts comprising an insert in one of said taller side panels and midway between opposite edges of the panel and laterally protruding from the inside face of the panel.
4. The structure in claim 3 wherein said posts are of dense hard-set plastic composition and have a circular cross section.
5. A building having a supporting framework and a framework-supported covering for the top and sides and bottom of the building; the framework comprising a pair of lintel-lilqe beams extending continuously on opposite sides of the building and a foundation extending continuously under the beams and posts fixed between the beams and the foundation; and the covering comprising an incombustible, thermally insulative and highly moisture-resistant mass of solidied siliceous foam and hard-set Portland cement reinforced with wood fiber, and said posts comprising inserts xed in said covering and lateraliy protruding from the inside face thereof.
6. The structure in claim 5 wherein the binding strength of the Portland cement in the covering mass is increased by added calcium sulphoaluminate.
'7. A building having a supporting framework and a framework supported covering; the framework comprising a pair of lintel-like beams extending continuously on opposite sides of the building and ground-support extending continuously under the beams and posts fixed between said beams and said ground support; the side covering comprising wall-thick panels of the incombustible non-loadbearing type, grooves in the dense edges of panels for fixing the panels edge.
to-edge against racking and assuring sealed joints therebetween, each of said posts being an integral part of one of said panels and being fixed therein midway between opposite vertical edges of the panel and laterally protruding inwardly from the inside face of the panel.
CORWIN D. WILLSON.
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