US 2549189 A
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April 17, 1951 N. GABO BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIT 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb 7, 1947 INVENTOR. Naum Gabo BY ATTORNEYS April 17, 1951 N. GABO BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIT 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Feb. 7, 1947 INVENTOR. Naum G 0 ATTOQNEYE.
April 17, 1951 N. GABO 2,549,189
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIT Filed Feb. 7, 1947 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR. Naum 6abo AT ORNEYS Patented Apr. 17, 1951 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIT Naum Gabo, Woodbury, Conn.
Application February 7,1947, Serial No. 727,137 In Great Britain January 23, 1945 This invention relates to construction units suitable for roofs, ceilings, walls and the like and has as its primary object the provision of construction units which combine strength and light weight so as to enable large areas of such units to be incorporated in a building construction without requiring auxiliary beams or supports.
A further object of the invention is the provision of construction units of the character indicated which, in addition to conserving weight and being self-supporting, will possess excellent heat and sound insulating properties.
The construction units of my invention may be considered in general terms as comprising a plate-like element having a series of deformations or corrugations, arranged in rows, and a second similar plate element associated therewith, the deformations or corrugations of the second plate element extending transversely of their counterparts on the first plate element, the deformations or corrugations of each plate being so disposed and interrelated as to accommodate the deformations or corrugations of the other plate. The pair of plate elements are assembled together in relatively inverted positions so that the total thickness of the unit is not substantially more than the space occupied by either plate element. It will be readily seen that each plate comprises rows of deformations or tapering projections, each pair of plates being assembled in such a manner that the deformations or projections of, one plate are interfitted and intercalated with those of the other plate, the abutting edges of surfaces of the projections on each plate being secured together to prevent relative displacement.
The deformations or projectionson each plate element may take a variety of geometrical forms. For example, they may take the form of a squarebased rectangular pyramid. However, the projections may take other forms, such as cones, hemispheres or polyhedrons having any desired number of sides.
According to one .feature of the invention each plate element has its projections, in the form of pyramids or other geometrical shapes, provided with interlocking means to prevent separation after assembly of a pair of such elements. The interlocking means may take the form of project ing lugs or flanges on the projections of each plate element which are adapted to interengage one behind the other to prevent separation of the plate elements, or alternatively, lugs extending from the projections of either element may en- 6 Claims. (Cl. 154-45.9)
. the other element.
According to another feature of the invention, a construction unit of the character described may be reinforced by a net or mesh-like member engaging the lugs on each element, each strand passing between pairs of cooperating interlocking lugs or between pairs of cooperating interengaged lugs and recesses.
The foregoing objects and features of the invention together with additional objects and advantages will readily appear in the course of the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings which illustrate several embodiments of the invention, and wherein:
Fig. 1 is an exploded perspective view showing a pair of plate elements embodying the features of the invention prior to their assembly to form the construction unit.
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the construction unit formed by the assembly of the pair of plate elements of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of a modified form of construction unit.
Figs. 4 and 5 are perspective views of a fiat-v sided pyramid which may be incorporated in the structure of the construction unit and which has.
corrugated sides for increasing the strength of the unit.
Fig. 6 is a sectional view in a plane normal to the general plane of the construction unit showing another modification thereof.
Fig. 7 is a sectional view taken on line 1-4 of Fig. 6.
Fig. 8 isa detail view of a portion of the construction unit shown in Figs. 6 and 7, and
Fig. 9 is a perspective view of a construction unit similar to that shown in Fig. 1, but reinforced by a net or mesh-like member.
Referring first to Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawing, the construction unit which is indicated by numeral I 0 comprises two plates or elements Ho and l I b which are similar to one another and may be made of any suitable material such as metal, plywood, synthetic plastics or the like.
Each element Il a and llb is formed as a series of square-based pyramids 12 arranged in rows with their bases in abutment. The manner of fabricating elements Ila and llb will depend upon the material used. In some instances the elements may be made by deformation or press-, ing from a fiat plate. In other cases the elements may be molded easily, as with synthetic plastic materials. Alternatively the individualv geometrical forms, such as the pyramids l2 may be secured together by welding or any other suitable method.
As clearly shown in Fig. 1, elements Ila and l lb are similar to one another and are assembled to form the construction unit by inverting one of them, ilb and inserting or intercalating its pyramids l2b between the pyramids I2a of elements Ila in such a manner that each pyramid I2!) is located symmetrically between a group of pyramids I-2a ofelment Ila, the pyramids 12a and I 2?) being in abutment along the sloping, lateral edges thereof. g
Cooperating interlocking means are provided on the pyramids lZa and l2b to reventseparm tion between elements Ila and Ilb. This'means may take the form of a lug or abutment at some point, preferably the midpoint, 'along eabh edge of each pyramid of one element which engages either in a cooperating recess or behind a similar lug or abutment formed on a corresponding pyramid of the other element. Fig. 1 illustrates the interlocking lug and recess combination on corresponding pyramids, the pyramids TZa of element Tl'la having a lug f3 along "each edge thereof and the pyramids lZb of element llb having along each edge "a "cooperating recess M.
'In assembling elements l la and l lb with lugs 3. in en agement "with corresponding recesses I 4,
a slight bending Of said elements will be surficientto achieve the desired interlocked -relationship, .the dimension bf lugs 13 and recesses It being relatively sniall'with respect to the interc'alated pyr mids 'I'2a and 'I Z'b.
Referring to Fig. 3 'tli'e coi'istriliftio'n unit 20 'is formed by assembling elements Zia and 21b which are similar to the elements He and Nb but which have pyramids T2211 an 22b truncated as at "in a plane parallel to "the base of said pyramids so that the pyramids "abut one a'nother for only a portion of the length of -their lateral sloping "edges. As in 'the case "of the previoiis modification, the pyramids 22a may be formed with lugs 23 for interlocking engagement within recesses 24 on pyramids 22b to prevent separation of the elements Z-I'd and Zlb. Alternativel'y pyramid's'22b may be provided with lugs similart'o the lugs 23 'onfpyramids 22a, said lugs engaging 'one 'behind'th'e "other in interlocking relationship toforin the unit '20 "and prevent separation of elements Zla and 2 ll 7.
Each Tof tlieffoiir-sided y' ani aal projections illustrated in Figs. 1, 2 and '3'makesonly 'a "line contact along its sloping edges with its cooperatin'g pyramid when th'e'p'air of elements lla'and III) or Zia and-2|!) are assembled, as would also be "the -case with conical projections. "Where the projections "which comprise the elements are hemispheres, there would be theoretically only point contact between each hemispherical projection on one element and the associated group of hemisphericalprojections on the other element. Itfis desirable for reasons of greater strength and practical fabrication to form the projections (if each element So that there is an area of contact between corresponding projections of assembled pairs of elements rather than line or point contact. The provision of an area of contact is particularly advantageous when the elements are secured "together by a welding process or a similar method;
Greater stifines's, rigidity and strength may be imparted to the assembled construction 'unit by corrugating the projectionsiwhich comprise the elements from which it is formed, particularly when said projections are flat-sided pyramids.
. 4 According to this feature of the invention the fiat-sidedpyramid I2 is formed with corrugations IS on each fiat-side extending parallel to the base thereof, said corrugations being in the form of small waves or steps, as shown in Fig. 4. Fig. 5 illustrates an alternative arrangement wherein the corrugations IE on each side of the pyramid extend parallel to one of the side edges of the 'pyramid. Locking means similar to the c'ooperating lugslfi and recesses F4 described for the previous embodiments may be provided, although these have been omitted in Figs. 4 and 5. v Figs. 6, 7 and 8 illustrate an alternative modification of "construction unit assembled from a :pair of elements which are not similar to one another in the manner described for the previous embodiments. one element is formed from a ceives an element -31 formed in the :following manner. A short portion of element 3| designated am has parallel sides andjh-as a width between said parallel sides equal to the maximum width of the grooves 30; thenextportion 3% has sloping sides gradually reducing to a 7 width suitable to fit within the narrow part of triangular groove 30, the next portion 310 is parallel sided at this minimum width, the'neiit portion 3lcZ has "sloping sides gradnall'yincreasr ing to the same "width as portion 31a and 'terminating in portion me which is also parallel sided. This formation is 'du'plibated along the entire length'of element 3|.
Element 3! is then shaped or 'corrugated in such a manner that the 'parailel sided broad portions 3I'aa'nd 3le'are located "along the base of triangular groove 3|],the tapering .portions 311) and 3 Id extending upwardly toward the narrow part or saidigiooveand the'pa'i'alll sided narrow portions 3 le abutting the sides of groove 31] at'a l'evel abo'vefthe base lth'ereoi. This configuranon is :re'peated along the entire len'gth o f element 30 so "that when said 'erememjis inserted within triangular groove 30 said element is incontactwith the base thereof at spaced intrvam and abuts the'slo'piiig sides etsam groove at the ta eringedges or portions a It and t Id and at the parallel sides or narrow portions "31c. element 31 is's'imirarly disposed in the next adjacent triangular channel but in inverted .position. This disposition for elements '31 within adjacent triangular bh a'nnls 30 having their apices alternately in opposite directionsprovides a'f'pyrainidal construction unit equivalent to the construction V illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 with the "distinction in the present modifications thatoppos'it'e pairs of sides of each'pyrarnid are formed indifferent elements of the unit, namely elements 30 and 31, each pyramid 'being also truncated by the omission of the apex thereof. Eliilelflil 31 maybe inddifiedhy the vdIfiisS idILOi narrow, parauel sides portions 310, so thatj it comp ises a series or anernata imverted m;- a'n'gles. With this modification the assembled unit will comprise complete jpyrariiids without truncation of the apices thereof,
The sloping walls of triangular channels in may be corrugated as at 32 longitudinally "to fOIm "recesses 'fOl' reception 0f abutments Oi lugs 33 formedintegrauyiwith f0? tions 3| 0 of element 3|. Lugs 33 are automati: cally received within the recesses or corrugations 32 when elements 3| are inserted within the triangular channels 30. Any suitable auxiliary means, such as welding, may be employed to further secure elements 3| within grooves 30, if desired.
The construction units may be reinforced by the use of a net or mesh-like element between the pyramidal or other projections of the component elements, as shown in Fig. 9 which illustrates one form of reinforcing element applied to a construction unit having square based pyramidal projections similar to those shown in Figs. 1 and 2. As has been previously pointed out, interlocking lugs 13 and recesses [4 are located at approximately the mid-points of the sloping edges of each pyramid and the reinforcing net element may comprise two parallel sets of strands of a suitable material 35, 36 which intersect at right angles and are spaced apart to provide square openings equal in size to the cross-section of pyramidal projections 12 at the level of the interlocking lugs l3 and recesses M, which is at approximately one-half the altitude of said pyramidal projections. When the net element is placed in position over element Ila strands 35 and 36 will assume a position on the pyramids determined by the size of the openings defined by said strands, which position should be immediately below lugs I3 on pyramids 12a. When the second element llb is assembled in position on element I la to form the construction unit 10, pyramids 121) will enter the net openings and recesses 14 will be brought into interlocking engagement with lugs l3 with strands 35 and 38 of the net element lying between said lugs and said recesses. Strands 35 and 36 therefore give addiv tional stability to the assembled construction unit and further prevent separation between its component elements Ila and Nb. When certain other geometrical projections, such as hemispherical projections, are employed in the structure of the assembled units, instead of the pyramidal projections illustrated in the drawings, there may be only point contact between contiguous projections. In these cases the presence of a reinforcing net element 35, 36 is particularly advantageous.
As has been previously pointed out the construction units may be fabricated in various ways depending upon the characteristics of the material employed. One method contemplates the use of individual projections, such as the pyramidal projections of the drawings, secured together at their abutting edges by welding or other means. Alternatively, a tongue and groove construction might be used to inter-engage the projections, with or without auxiliary means such as welding or adhesives.
The construction units of my invention may be enclosed in planar or curved sheet members so that the air spaces within the units will be completely enclosed not only to impart greater strength to the units but also to improve the heat and sound-insulating properties thereof. If curved sheet members are used to enclose the construction units, the units may be employed in the construction of curved or dowel roofs or other curved structural elements.
Since certain modifications may be made in the construction units of my invention without departing from the scope thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the foregoing description and shown in the accompanying drawings be interpreted merely as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
The form of construction herein shown, instead of being used themselves as roofing elements, may in perforated form be used as construction elements in which they will serve as a reinforcement for the overlaying concrete.
The size and number of perforations may be varied at will.
1. A- building construction unit comprising a pair of rigid plate-like elements, each element comprising a plurality of substantially closed geometrical projections of identical predetermined shape arranged in rows and having bases which are continuous with said element around the entire periphery thereof, each of said projections having four identical triangular panels each interconnected along its sides to the next rows, and having said elements being disposed in relatively inverted position with the projections of one element symmetrically intercalated between the corresponding projections of the other element, each of said projections having four identical triangular panels each interconnected along its sides to the next and forming together a square open base, said projections being formed with interlocking means to prevent separation of said pair of elements after assembly, and a reinforcing net-like member engaging said interlocking means externally of each element on the projections of each element, and encompassing each element. 7
3. A building construction unit comprising a pair of rigid plate-like elements, each element comprising a plurality of geometrical projections of identical predetermined shape arranged in rows and said elements being disposed in relatively inverted position with the projections of one element symmetrically intercalated between the corresponding projections of the other element, each of said projections having four identical triangular panels each interconnected along its sides to the next and forming together a square open base, said projections of either element having a lug midway of each pair of adjoining edges of said panels, said projections of the other element having recesses cooperating with said lugs to prevent separation of said pair of elements after assembly, and a reinforcing net-like member engaged between said cooperating lugs and recesses externally of each element on the corresponding projections of said pair of elements,- and encompassing each element.
4. A building construction unit comprising a pair of rigid plate-like elements, each element comprising a plurality of pyramidal projections arranged in rows, and having bases which are joined to each other, each of said projections having four identical triangular panels each interconnected along its sides to the next and forming together a square open base, said ele- 'inent's bein :disposed in relatively inverted -113losition with the pyramidal projections one element --symmetrically 'intercalated between the corresponding pyramidal projections of the other element, said projections being :formed with interlocking means to prevent separation of said pair :of elements :af-ter assembly.
:5. building construction unit comprising a pair of rigid'plate-like elements, each element comprising a plurality of pyramidal projections arranged in rows, each "of said projections .hav-
ing four identical triangular panels feach interconnected along its sides to the nextand forming together a square 'o pen base, 'sai'd elements being disposed in relatively invertedposition with :the pyramidal projections of one element symmetrically intercalated between the corresponding pyramidal projections of the other element, said projections being formed withinterlocking means to prevent separation of said .pairs of elements after assembly, and a reinforcing net-like member engaging said interlocking means externally of each element on the projections of each element,;=and encompassing each element.
6. A building construction unit comprising a pair of plate-like elements, each elementcomprising a plurality of pyramidal projections arranged in rows, each of said projections having four identical "triangular :panels each interconnected 'along its sides 'to the next and forming together a'square openbase, said lements being disposed "in relatively Tinverted position with the pyramidal projections of one element symmetrically 'intercalated between the "corresponding a 8 pyramidal projections \of the :other =element,:1s'a;id "proj actions being formed *;with interlocking means to prevent separation of said pair :of elements after :assembly, and :a reinforcing met-dike member engaging said interlocking zmeans ron' th'e iprojections reach ae'lement, \each 'rpyramidal iproje'ction on each element having corrugationslformed in the traces thereof extending parallel to "the base of said "pyramidal projection, to provide greater rigidity and :strength to the assembled unit.
REFERENCES CITED "The following references are of record in the file of this patent UNITEDSTATES PATENTS 75,020 Switzerland vMay 516,, 1191.7