|Publication number||US2549731 A|
|Publication date||Apr 17, 1951|
|Filing date||Dec 18, 1944|
|Priority date||Dec 18, 1944|
|Publication number||US 2549731 A, US 2549731A, US-A-2549731, US2549731 A, US2549731A|
|Inventors||Wattley Vincent E|
|Original Assignee||Wattley Vincent E|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (16), Referenced by (95), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 1951 v. E. WATTLEY FLEXIBLE TEST PROD 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Dec. 18, 1944 ATTORNEYS.
April 1?, H9511 v. E. WATTLEY FLEXIBLE TEST PROD 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Dec. 18, 1944 illllilllll ATTQRNEYS.
Patented Apr. 17, 1951 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
1 2,549,731 r i I FLEXIBLE TEST PROD Vincent E. Wattley, Bronx, N. Y. Application December 18,1944, Serial No. 568,694 j ;'This invention relates to improvements in instruments particularlywell adapted for use in repairing electrical equipment wherein it is necessary to bridge contacts, lead wires .or otherelectrical terminations.
The primaryobjectof this invention is the provision of atool for use in the radio and electronic field by means of which a technician may make temporary electrical connection between radio or electronic equipment and indicating or vtest instruments without the liability of shorting and with complete safety to the technician. Other objects and advantagesv of the invention'wil1 appear in the following detailed description. V
In the accompanying drawings, forming a part ofthis specification, and wherein similar refer- Figurez is aperspective view of one'F Ype of probing end for the tool.
1 Claim. (Cl '173-273) the Preferred instance, the toolis provided with a rigid assemblage where the terminals to be connected are accessible within the range of the tool; the tool including flexible means'by Figure 3 is a perspective dotted line view show- 7 ing a clamping position of the jaws of the tool end shown in Figure 2.
Figure 4 is a perspective view showing anothertype of tool end, adapted to be used. with the improved device.
Figure 5 is a longitudinal cross sectional view taken thru'the tool end of Figure 4'.
Figure 6 is a-fragmejntary sectional iew show-- which it is adaptable for reaching otherwise inaccessibly located terminals.
Inthe tool asillustrated in Figures 1 and "7, the same comprises a rigid metallic casing assemblage including an upper part I5 and a lower part [8 detachably connected at H so as to define a passageway I8 for slidably receiving a reciprocating plunger shaft 20. The latter fits snugly in the passageway IS of the part It without lateral play. The. metallic casing portion 15 has its passageway enlarged at I8 and at its end defines an internal seat 25 facing the passageway; At the hand engaging end of the tool the casing portion 15 is internally screw threaded to detachably receive therein a reduced externally screw threaded end of 'an insulation cap 30. In
lieu of this arrangement, the cap may be inter- "ciprocates thru a passageway 3| in the cap 39 and within the passageway Iii the rod-is provided with an annular flange, 33. The spiral spring .34, under compression, engages this flange at one end and the seat 25 at the other end. It
ing the manner of attachment of the handf graspingportion to the metallic shaftof the tool.
Figure 7 is a longitudinal cross sectional view taken thru the improved tool of Figure 1.
Figure 8 is a longitudinal cross sectional view Figure 9 is a fragmentary longitudinal section- 5 a1 view showing the operating end of the tool of Figure '7 partly closed.
Figures 10 and 11 are cross'sectional views taken substantially on their respective lines in Figure 7 of the drawings.
In the drawings, wherein for the purpose of illustration is shown a preferred embodiment of testing equipment and radio and electronic' instruments, etc.
is under normal compression sufficient to properly positionthe plunger, as will hereinafter be described. The end of the plunger 20, where it extendsthru the cap 30, isreduced, as shown at 40 in Figure 6 of the drawings and thereon receivesan insulation sleeve 4|. The extreme end of the portion 40 receives an insulation hand bar or handle 42. It is internally screw threaded at 43 from an outer end thereof, to receivea set i screw 44 by means of which the handle maybe .detachably connected to the end of the portion 40 ofthe plunger. The sleeve 41- extends from the flange 33 to the handle 42, so that no part f the metal portion of the plunger is exposed The .metallic casing portion I5 is externally covered with an insulation sleeve 50, shown in Figure '7' of the drawings, which at the hand grasping end is provided with la-teral extensions 5| defining a handle bar of about the same nature as the bar 44 and complementary thereto. The sleeve 5!] entirely covers the casing portion l5 from end to. end. In similar manner, the casing portion it at the lower end of the tool is eXternally provided with an insulation sleeve iiiiwhich nection with .thecasing part i5. These insulation sleeves til and 60 are complementary and when the casing parts It and it are connected, there is no exposed metal at the joint. The tool,
as thus provided, may taper with a decreasing The insulation of the sleeve 66 extends over these A walls at the end of the casing it so that the outer end of this casing I6 is not exposed. There is an overlap of the insulation, as shown in Figure 9.
I prefer to provide several operating connectors for use with the plunger 20. To that end the outer end of the plunger 20 is internally screw threaded at 80. One type of tool is shown in detail in Figures 1, 2, 3, 7, 3 and 9 of the drawings and consists of a shank or body portion 3| having a screw threaded end 82 for detachable connection in the socket 8D. The body portion BI is of about the same diameter as the plunger 20 and slides within the passageway of the casing l6, as shown in Figure 9. The outer end of body 8| is provided with divergently disposed spring jaws 82 and 83 which inherently assume the open position shown in Figures 2 and 8 of the drawings. The material of the connector is, of course, such as to establish an electrical connection; preferably being metal. The jaws 82 and 83 have terminal gripping ends 85 which are exposed; the said jaws being otherwise covered at their outer ends with insulation sleeves 81 which extend from the tip ends of these jaws to a point where the same will enter the flaring mouth of the tool casing when the jaws are retracted, as shown in Figure 7 of the drawings.
In the position of the tool part shown in Fig-' ure 7, it is seen that the spring 3t. retracts the tool so that the jaws B2 and 83 will be pressed together. The length of the passageway l8 and the spring is such that when the plunger is forced forwardly it can extend the tool end out of the housing or casing of the tool to the point of connection of the screw threaded shank 82 in the socket end 89 of the plunger 29, so that the tool end may, with facility, be detached, and another connector placed upon the plunger.
The cam action of the jaws upon the flaring wall of the end of the casing part It can be seen in Figure 9 of the drawings where the plunger is being retracted into the casing and the jaws are being forced to a closing position.
Another type of probing tool connector is shown at 9B in Figure 4 of the drawings. This consists of a body portion 9| having a screw threaded shank 92 adapted to lit in the socket end of the plunger 20. At its outer end the body 9! has a pyramidal-shaped portion 94 adapted to fit snugly in the flared mouth of the casing 16. The tool part includes a reduced conductor end 94 having an enlarged connector point 95. The shank 94 is covered by means of an insulation sleeve 96 and the exposed end of the pyramidal-shaped portion 94 is also covered with insulation, as shown at 97.
Use of the tool connector of Figures 4 and will be well understood by those skilled in the art of radio and electronic repair or testing equipment. In position in the casing portion 16, the pyramidal-sha'ped portion 94 will fit snugly in the flared mouth of the casing i B and no part thereof will project. The insulation wall 9'! prevents exposure of any metallic part of the tool connector 96 except the pointed conductor end 95.
The tool assembly above described is adapted to be used where the operator can properly insert the tool into the equipment to be tested in a straight line. There are, of course, inaccessible areas and locations where a tool of this sort will have to be used. For this purpose I provide a plunger having all of the characteristics of the plunger 20 above described, so far as spring mounting and insulation are concerned, except that at the forward end the plunger is provided with a flexible body portion 26 in the nature of a Bowden wire which at its forward end is provided with a socket providing portion 20 to which the tool connector parts above described may be attached. In lieu of the metallic casing portion l6, which is of rigid nature, I provide a flexible metallic tube l6 which has an end lfi provided with screw threads for detachable connection in the internal screw threaded socket of the part IS. The outer end of the flexible tube It is provided with a 'portion lli of the same nature as the flared end of the rigid tool casing l6, above described. A flexible insulation sleeve 60 covers the metallic portion 'of the sleeve l 6 and the associated parts 16 and I8. Except for these variations, the parts of the tool assemblage both in construction and operation, are identical with respect to those of the rigid type tool above described.
It is possible to operate this tool'under such conditions that electrical connections between terminals, lead wires and contacts may be established with great facility. The operator need only. use one hand since the handle bar 34 may rest against the thumb or in the palm of the hand and adjacent fingers used with the bar extensions to perform the reciprocatory function of the plunger.
The insulation parts of the instrument may be of rubber, synthetic resin or any thermoplastic material. It will be noted that all metallic parts of theinstrument are covered when the instrument is in repose, as shown in Figure 1, except the contact-tips at the ends of the jaws, and
- that is also true of the flexible type of tool shown i in Figure 8.
Various changes in the shape, size and arrangement of parts may be made to the form of invention herein shown and described, without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the following claim.
In a tool for use in connection with electrical appliances the combinationof an elongated casing insulated from end to end and having laterally extending opposed handles at one end thereof and an open outwardly flared mouth at the oppo site end, said casing having a passageway therethru and a flared entrance in said mouth, a reciprocatory plunger in said passageway having an end extending from that end of the casing which is provided with handles, said plunger at its end adjacent the handles of the casing being provided with insulation handles spaced from and beyond the handles of the casing, spring means normally forcing the handles of the casing and plunger relatively apart and retracting t plunger within the casing; and a pair of inherently opening spring gripping jaws connected upon the end of the plunger opposite the handies, said plunger and jaws being so constructed and arranged with respect to the casing that when the plunger is urged by the spring means to the limit of its retraction in the casing said jaws will engage in the flared mouth in a contracted clamping relation, said casing and 5 plunger each including a rigid portion adjacent to the handle end of the tool and a long flexible portion connected to the rigid portion at the jaw end of the tool, the flexible portion of the plunger being disposed Within and operating within the flexible portion of the casing to assume a flexible length of the assembled device.
REFERENCES ClTEl-D The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 804,229 Hutchinson Nov. 14, 1905 1,008,018 Cunningham Nov. 7, 1911 1,071,978 White Sept. 2, 1913 Number Number
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US804229 *||Jul 27, 1904||Nov 14, 1905||Thomas C Hutchinson||Forceps and the like.|
|US1008018 *||Oct 23, 1907||Nov 7, 1911||Kendrick And Davis Company||Tweezers.|
|US1071978 *||Sep 2, 1913||Device for removing hairs.|
|US1390481 *||Apr 16, 1919||Sep 13, 1921||Victor Bardin||Electrical connector for engine spark-plugs and other purposes|
|US1515860 *||Mar 26, 1923||Nov 18, 1924||Charles J Schmidt||Electrical connecter|
|US1650779 *||Jan 25, 1924||Nov 29, 1927||North East Electric Co||Testing electrode|
|US1869181 *||Sep 6, 1929||Jul 26, 1932||Bell Telephone Labor Inc||Electric test connecter|
|US1911470 *||Mar 9, 1929||May 30, 1933||Bendix Brake Co||Flexible cable|
|US1999663 *||Jan 30, 1931||Apr 30, 1935||Arthur E Paige||Liquid dispensing apparatus|
|US2074324 *||Sep 18, 1934||Mar 23, 1937||Mueller Electric Company||Clip connecter|
|US2222110 *||May 22, 1939||Nov 19, 1940||Knapp Monarch Co||Tester|
|US2276736 *||Mar 31, 1941||Mar 17, 1942||Walter Olson||Contact attachment for current indicators|
|AT140147B *||Title not available|
|GB222490A *||Title not available|
|GB553869A *||Title not available|
|IT295939B *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2758947 *||May 2, 1952||Aug 14, 1956||Northrop Aircraft Inc||Method of insulating a clip|
|US2934738 *||Jun 7, 1956||Apr 26, 1960||Cambridge Thermionic Corp||Electric meter probe|
|US3202953 *||Jan 7, 1963||Aug 24, 1965||Abbey Electronics Corp||Electrical connector|
|US4033350 *||Sep 18, 1975||Jul 5, 1977||Chitose Corporation||Hair tweezer device|
|US4299224 *||Jun 6, 1979||Nov 10, 1981||United States Surgical Corporation||Disposable clip applier|
|US5222973 *||Mar 9, 1992||Jun 29, 1993||Sharpe Endosurgical Corporation||Endoscopic grasping tool surgical instrument|
|US5236437 *||Jul 14, 1992||Aug 17, 1993||Wilk Peter J||Surgical instrument assembly and associated technique|
|US5250074 *||Jul 14, 1992||Oct 5, 1993||Wilk Peter J||Surgical instrument assembly and associated technique|
|US5304183 *||Mar 23, 1992||Apr 19, 1994||Laparomed Corporation||Tethered clamp retractor|
|US5368601 *||Apr 30, 1992||Nov 29, 1994||Lasersurge, Inc.||Trocar wound closure device|
|US5403328 *||Feb 3, 1993||Apr 4, 1995||United States Surgical Corporation||Surgical apparatus and method for suturing body tissue|
|US5403329 *||Mar 21, 1994||Apr 4, 1995||United States Surgical Corporation||Instrument for closing trocar puncture wounds|
|US5415666 *||Mar 4, 1993||May 16, 1995||Advanced Surgical, Inc.||Tethered clamp retractor|
|US5507757 *||Oct 18, 1994||Apr 16, 1996||Lasersurge, Inc.||Method of closing puncture wounds|
|US5512839 *||Apr 7, 1994||Apr 30, 1996||Mdm Elektrosystem Ag||Test probe for electrical measuring instruments, particularly for voltmeters|
|US5626588 *||May 3, 1995||May 6, 1997||Lasersurge, Inc.||Trocar wound closure device|
|US5662663 *||Feb 23, 1995||Sep 2, 1997||United States Surgical Corporation||Surgical suture instrument|
|US5941890 *||Jun 26, 1998||Aug 24, 1999||Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.||Implantable surgical marker|
|US6066174 *||Jul 17, 1998||May 23, 2000||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Implant insertion device|
|US6083237 *||Oct 23, 1998||Jul 4, 2000||Ethico Endo-Surgery, Inc.||Biopsy instrument with tissue penetrating spiral|
|US6245072||Mar 9, 1999||Jun 12, 2001||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Methods and instruments for interbody fusion|
|US6261302||Jun 26, 1998||Jul 17, 2001||Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.||Applier for implantable surgical marker|
|US6280464 *||Jun 7, 1999||Aug 28, 2001||Endovascular Technologies, Inc.||Prosthesis gripping system and method|
|US6319257 *||Dec 20, 1999||Nov 20, 2001||Kinamed, Inc.||Inserter assembly|
|US6425903||May 9, 2000||Jul 30, 2002||James W. Voegele||Implantable surgical marker|
|US6595995||Dec 21, 2000||Jul 22, 2003||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Methods and instruments for interbody fusion|
|US6945984 *||Aug 23, 2001||Sep 20, 2005||Alcon Grieshaber Ag||Micro surgical instrument|
|US7154286 *||Jun 30, 2005||Dec 26, 2006||Interconnect Devices, Inc.||Dual tapered spring probe|
|US7300440||May 21, 2003||Nov 27, 2007||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Methods and instruments for interbody fusion|
|US7303220 *||Sep 29, 2003||Dec 4, 2007||Richco Inc.||Connector coupling/decoupling tool|
|US7473255 *||Feb 8, 2006||Jan 6, 2009||Synthes (U.S.A.)||Transbuccal plate holding cannula|
|US7594919 *||Jul 23, 2004||Sep 29, 2009||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Artificial disc inserter|
|US7942894 *||Jan 31, 2006||May 17, 2011||Codman & Shurtleff, Inc.||Embolic device delivery system|
|US8062325||Jul 31, 2006||Nov 22, 2011||Codman & Shurtleff, Inc.||Implantable medical device detachment system and methods of using the same|
|US8216302||Apr 28, 2009||Jul 10, 2012||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Implant delivery and deployment system and method|
|US8366720||Jul 31, 2006||Feb 5, 2013||Codman & Shurtleff, Inc.||Interventional medical device system having an elongation retarding portion and method of using the same|
|US8398685||Nov 25, 2008||Mar 19, 2013||Synthes Usa, Llc||Transbuccal plate holding cannula|
|US8403837||Jun 1, 2010||Mar 26, 2013||Covidien Lp||Deployable jaws retraction device|
|US8449606||May 14, 2007||May 28, 2013||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Balloon mitral spacer|
|US8480730||May 14, 2007||Jul 9, 2013||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Solid construct mitral spacer|
|US8486136||Aug 31, 2010||Jul 16, 2013||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Mitral spacer|
|US8506623||Jul 10, 2012||Aug 13, 2013||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Implant delivery and deployment system and method|
|US8579909 *||Mar 20, 2007||Nov 12, 2013||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc||Methods and instrument for vertebral interbody fusion|
|US8591460||Jul 28, 2009||Nov 26, 2013||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Steerable catheter and dilator and system and method for implanting a heart implant|
|US8597347||Nov 15, 2007||Dec 3, 2013||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Heart regurgitation method and apparatus|
|US8603114 *||Aug 3, 2009||Dec 10, 2013||Triple-C Medical Corporation||Anastomotic device for tubular organ|
|US8663241 *||Jan 17, 2003||Mar 4, 2014||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Device for full thickness resectioning of an organ|
|US8778017||May 14, 2007||Jul 15, 2014||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Safety for mitral valve implant|
|US8845684 *||Nov 30, 2011||Sep 30, 2014||Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Tissue closure device with resilient arms|
|US8852270 *||Nov 15, 2007||Oct 7, 2014||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Implant delivery system and method|
|US8858636||Apr 9, 2010||Oct 14, 2014||DePuy Synthes Products, LLC||Intervertebral implant|
|US8888844||Jan 10, 2012||Nov 18, 2014||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Heart valve implant|
|US8894705||Apr 23, 2013||Nov 25, 2014||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Balloon mitral spacer|
|US8922196 *||Mar 15, 2013||Dec 30, 2014||Paul Nicholas Chait||Multifunction test instrument probe|
|US9232998||Mar 15, 2013||Jan 12, 2016||Cardiosolutions Inc.||Trans-apical implant systems, implants and methods|
|US9232999||Jul 16, 2013||Jan 12, 2016||Cardiosolutions Inc.||Mitral spacer|
|US9259317||Sep 12, 2008||Feb 16, 2016||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||System and method for implanting a heart implant|
|US9274144||Dec 30, 2014||Mar 1, 2016||Paul Nicholas Chait||Multifunction test instrument probe|
|US9289297||Mar 15, 2013||Mar 22, 2016||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Mitral valve spacer and system and method for implanting the same|
|US9301852 *||Apr 23, 2012||Apr 5, 2016||Jossi Holding Ag||Instrument for engaging an engaging means on an implant|
|US9301853 *||Apr 7, 2011||Apr 5, 2016||DePuy Synthes Products, Inc.||Holder for implantation and extraction of prosthesis|
|US9307996||Dec 12, 2006||Apr 12, 2016||DePuy Synthes Products, Inc.||Detachment actuator for use with medical device deployment systems|
|US9333088||Aug 28, 2014||May 10, 2016||DePuy Synthes Products, Inc.||Intervertebral implant|
|US9517129||Aug 13, 2013||Dec 13, 2016||Cardio Solutions, Inc.||Implant delivery and deployment system and method|
|US9545305||Aug 18, 2014||Jan 17, 2017||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Mitral valve spacer and system and method for implanting the same|
|US20030195519 *||May 21, 2003||Oct 16, 2003||Thomas Zdeblick||Methods and instruments for interbody fusion|
|US20040056492 *||Sep 23, 2002||Mar 25, 2004||Traber Robert S.||Reaching apparatus kit and method of using same|
|US20040059346 *||Jan 17, 2003||Mar 25, 2004||Adams Ronald D.||Device for full thickness resectioning of an organ|
|US20050067847 *||Sep 29, 2003||Mar 31, 2005||Zellak Darren James||Connector coupling/decoupling tool|
|US20060030860 *||Jul 23, 2004||Feb 9, 2006||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Artificial disc inserter|
|US20070001695 *||Jun 30, 2005||Jan 4, 2007||Marx Donald A||Dual tapered spring probe|
|US20070179520 *||Jan 31, 2006||Aug 2, 2007||Stephen West||Embolic device delivery system|
|US20070213726 *||Feb 8, 2006||Sep 13, 2007||Synthes, Inc.||Transbuccal plate holding cannula|
|US20070255399 *||May 14, 2007||Nov 1, 2007||Eliasen Kenneth A||Balloon Mitral Spacer|
|US20070265700 *||May 14, 2007||Nov 15, 2007||Eliasen Kenneth A||Safety for Mitral Valve Plug|
|US20070288007 *||Mar 20, 2007||Dec 13, 2007||Burkus J K||Methods and instrument for vertebral interbody fusion|
|US20080288061 *||May 14, 2007||Nov 20, 2008||Maurer Christopher W||Solid Construct Mitral Spacer|
|US20090048668 *||Sep 12, 2008||Feb 19, 2009||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||System and Method for Implanting a Heart Implant|
|US20090076556 *||Nov 25, 2008||Mar 19, 2009||Synthes Usa||Transbuccal plate holding cannula|
|US20090131849 *||Nov 15, 2007||May 21, 2009||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Heart regurgitation method and apparatus|
|US20090132033 *||Nov 15, 2007||May 21, 2009||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Implant Delivery System and Method|
|US20090240326 *||Apr 28, 2009||Sep 24, 2009||Cardiosolutions||Implant Delivery and Deployment System and Method|
|US20100022948 *||Jul 28, 2009||Jan 28, 2010||Cardiosolutions||Steerable Catheter and Dilator and System and Method for Implanting a Heart Implant|
|US20100249498 *||Mar 11, 2010||Sep 30, 2010||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||Endoscopic Apparatus for Manipulating Tissue|
|US20100324668 *||Aug 31, 2010||Dec 23, 2010||Cardiosolutions, Inc.||Mitral Spacer|
|US20110015669 *||Nov 5, 2008||Jan 20, 2011||Corcosteugi Borja F||Forceps|
|US20110040153 *||Jun 1, 2010||Feb 17, 2011||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||Deployable jaws retraction device|
|US20110251628 *||Aug 3, 2009||Oct 13, 2011||Cheol Woong Kim||Anastomotic device for tubular organ|
|US20110301612 *||Apr 7, 2011||Dec 8, 2011||Synthes Usa, Llc||Holder for implantation and extraction of prosthesis|
|US20120022559 *||Sep 30, 2011||Jan 26, 2012||Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.||Methods and devices for placement of an intra-abdominal or intra-thoracic appliance through a natural body orifice|
|US20130012984 *||Jul 7, 2011||Jan 10, 2013||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Surgical instrument for grasping an elongated member|
|US20130138145 *||Nov 30, 2011||May 30, 2013||Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Tissue closure device with resilient arms|
|US20130249533 *||Mar 15, 2013||Sep 26, 2013||Paul Nicholas Chait||Multifunction Test Instrument Probe|
|US20140074248 *||Apr 23, 2012||Mar 13, 2014||Jossi Holding Ag||Instrument for Engaging an Engaging Means on an Implant|
|US20150088193 *||Sep 8, 2014||Mar 26, 2015||Katalyst Surgical, Llc||Membrane removing forceps|
|U.S. Classification||439/482, 294/100, 439/593, 606/206|