US 2549960 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 24, 1951 J. D. CHANDLER 2,549,960
METHOD 0F BoTToMING SHOES.
Filed May 25, 1946 4 Sheets-sheet 1 April24,1951 .J.D.CHANLER 2,549,960
METHOD OF' BOTTOMING SHOES Filed May 25, 1946 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 illIl 64 n ven for James Chandler' E?? i hzl A lornez/ April 24, 1951 J. D. CHANDLER METHOD oF BoTToMING sHoEs 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed May 23, 1946 fn ven fm James D, Chandler Fjlg. I3
April 24, 1951 J. D. CHANDLER 2,549,960
METHOD OF' BOTTOMING SHOES Filed May 23, 1946 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented pr. 24, 14951 AUNI TED PAT EN T F F "l: 'CE
12,549,960 "METHDOFBOTTOD'IING SHOES James D.- Ghandler, Swampscott, Mass.,
assignor to United ShoecMachinery Corporation, Flemington, N. A.I.,sa corporation of New Jersey Application'May y23, 1946, Serial No."671,722
This invention relatesto the-manufacture of 'shoes and in'particular to the manufactureof that type of shoe in which'an' upper, or `aA portion shaped over a last in-a manneri'similar insome respectsv to the shaping of-known types of las-ted footwear; or alternatively, it-may-'be shaped-'by Ithe insertionofa last, or other form, irl-tothe shoe after the shoe has been-v given a preliminary shape bythe attachment of the upper= tov their-1'- isole.. The manufacture of shoes in-accordance with this invention is` suited to--numerous types of construction including closeduppers, uppers With-openen'ds, and lvarious strap sandalconstructions. Shoes embodying features of the present inventionmay bemadeW-ith or Without intermediate soles.
It issan object of 'this-invention toeiffecteconomies in both materialrand labor inthe manufacture vrof shoes withoutlimiting thelmanufacturer to a narrow rangeiofshoe types and methods of construction. It isa. further object of vthe-inventionto eiect. these economies in such a` manner that nosacrice ismadein the wearof shoes or in their vshape retaining qualities.
With these objects: in View,..the presentinvention in one aspect thereof consistsin providing an insole member of last bottom shape, sof securing a lining member to the foot-facing surface of the insole member that its margin extends beyond the edge face of the: insole member, causing the margin ofthe lining member' to. extend outwardly in the plane of the foot-facingsurfacef of the insole member, while the lining ymember isin said ,outwardly extending position, securing ther insoleattaching margin of anupper toithemargin only of the lining member withithe edgerof the upper in predetermined relation tothe edge face of the insole member, folding the united margins of the upper and the. lining member inwardly around the edge face of the insole member, and attaching them to the outsole-facing surface of the insole member.
vIn its application to the manufacture of shoes having closed uppers the invention/in af'further aspect' thereof consists in providing' an insole having a body portion ofy last bottom shape and an upper attaching margin' extending lengthwise of the insole from the tip line tothe breast line and omitted at the toe end of` the insole and ei:- tendingwidthwiseof the insole substantially beyond the edge face of said bo-dy portion, securing totheupperattaching margin of the insole-the 2 opposite side portions of they bottom margin of the upper only, folding the united marginsk ofthe upper and insolearoundthe body portion of the insole, attaching said united margins tothe outsolefac-ing' surface ofI theinsole, inserting a last into the upper, lasting the toe portion of the upper over the toeportion of the insole,.and completing -the shoe. Inthe practice :of the labove-described method of making shoes with closed=uppers alast is inserted into'the upper either before or' afterffolding` the unitedf margins 'o'f the' upper -an'd` insole aroundy theI` body portion oflt'hefinsole. If theupper isvvto.- be shaped by stretching it over the last, the lastisinserted before the unitedL margins are folded around the 'body' portion ofthevr insole. Otherwise the upper is initially shaped by the attachment off-said united margins to theroutsole-facing surface of the insolewhile the-shoe is ofi the lastand thereafter; they last is inserted to givethe shoe its final shape. In either casethe'end portions of the upper are shaped over the last in accordance with the usual last-ing practice;
"Inf-any of theY above constructions the upperattach-ing*margin of the Vinsole may be integral with the body portion ofthe insole, or alternatively, it may 'be-an extension of al member, such for'example asa sock lining, secured tothe footfaci-ngsurface of the insole.
"The invention willl now bedescribed withl referenceto the-"accompanying drawings illustrating `various alternative embodiments thereof, and will be pointed out in the appended claims.
In the 'dra-wings,
Fig.V 1 is -aA plan Viewv illustrating theshank vand forepart of a-sock-lini-ng attached tothe corresponding portion ofl an insole;
' Fig. A2- is a planviewsimilar` to-Fig. 1 illustratingan alternativeconstruction` consisting of the combinationfwithaninsole of a tape attachedto and projecting beyond the margin of theinsole;
Fig. 3 vis-aplan'yiew` similar to-Fig 1 looking at the outsole-facing surface of the insole, a portion of the-marginA of the'sockl-ining together with the margin of-an-upper 4attach-ed thereto being wipedinwardlyover the margin of the insole;
Fig. li is -a i perspective yviewillustrati-ng aportion *off the'v margin' of an insole and av portionv of an' upperstitched'tov themargin of the insole;
"'Fig'." v5l isv a sectional View showing the partsv ilinstr-ated inFig. 4in their position after the next succeeding'step in the making of the` shoe;
Fig. "6 is a sectional viewsimilarv to Fig. 5 illustrating' a modifieation in the attachment of" the upperV to 'the' margin of" the insole;
Fig. '7 is a sectional View illustrating marking instrumentalities and a combined insole and sock lining mounted in predetermined relation thereto Fig. 8 is a perspective View illustrating a portion of a combined insole and sock lining and a portion of an upper attached to the margin of the sock lining;
Fig. 9 is a sectional View illustrating the parts shown in Fig. 8 in their position after the next succeeding step in the making of the shoe;
Fig. 10 is a sectional View showing portions of a platform and an outsole attached to the assembly illustrated in Fig. 9; v
Fig. 11 is a perspective view similar toFig. 8 showing an alternative construction;
Fig. 12 is a sectional view similar to Fig. 9
showing the assembly illustrated in Fig. 11 in itsY arrangement after the next succeeding. step in the making of the shoe;
Fig. V13 is a sectional vievl` similar to, Fig. 12 illustrating another alternative construction;
Fig. V14 is` a plan view similar to Fig. 3 illustrating the application of the construction shownin Fig. 3 to the manufacture of shoes having closed uppers;
Fig. 15 is a sectional view similarto Fig. 10
illustrating an alternative construction; Fig. 16 is a sectional View illustrating a portion of an insole having a stitch receiving rib applied toits outsole-facing surface and a sock liningv attached to its foot-facing surface, a portion of an upper being shown attached to the margin of the sock lining; n
Fig. 17 is a sectional view illustrating the parts shown in Fig. 16 at a later stage in the making ofthe shoe, an outsole being shown stitched to a Welt secured to said rib;
Fig. 18 is a cross-sectional View showing the upper of Fig. 14 loosely mounted on a last; and
Fig. 19 is a section on the line XIX- XIX of Fig. 14. Y
Fig. 1 illustrates a composite insole comprising an insole member 2li and a sock lining 22' cementattached to the insole member. The sock lining has a margin 24 substantially wider than rthe usual lasting allowance of an upper. l Preferably the width of the margin of the sock lining projecting beyond the edge lface ofthe insole member is suflicient to permit a secure cement attachment of said margin to the outsole-facing surface of the insole member after wrapping said margin around said face of the insole member.A Tn the illustrated construction the margin 2li has its toe portion recessed or scalloped or pinked at 26 to obviate the occurrence of pleats in the margin in wiping it over the margin of the insole. IAn upper, preferably of the type having an open toe and an open heel, is provided with a sole attaching margin of uniform and predetermined Width. The upper is located longitudinally of the sock lining with' relation to match marks (not shown) and is positioned Widthwise of the sock lining by arranging its edge to coincide with a mark V28 formed on the margin of the sock lining. As
shown in Fig. 8 an upper 3E) is positioned on the margin of the sock lining with its inner surface contiguous Vto the upper or foot-facing surface of the sock lining, the upper being secured in this position by stitches 32. The margins of the sock lining and the upper thus united are wrapped around the edge face 34 of the insole member, the sock lining and the insole member 'having previously been coated with cement so that the united margins are attached to the outsole-facing 1 The wrapping of the margin of the sock lining about the margin of the insole member brings the edge 36 of the upper inwardly under the outsole-facing surface of the insole member and locates it in predetermined and uniform relation `to the edge facev 34 of the insole member thus producing a shoe the forepart of which has a foot-receiving opening having accurately predetermined girths., Preferably said girths are slightly less in-length than corresponding girths of the last which is forced into the shoe to expand the upper to its final shape. It will be vunderstood that in order to achieve the results above described it is necessary not only to provide an accurately pretted upper with a uniform and predetermined sole attaching margin but it is also necessary to locate the mark 28 on the sock lining in uniform and accurately predetermined relationto the edge face S of the insole member. In accordance with my preferred method this is accomplished Yby cementing the sock lining to the foot-facing surface of the insole member and mounting the assembly on a block or bed plate 38 (Fig. 7) with-the insole member seated in a recess corresponding ,thereto in size and shape and having Vertical Walls which accurately locate the assembly in a predetermined position on said bed plate. A suitably constructed marking member il@ is mounted on a carrier (not shown) which brings the marking member into engagement with the-sock lining with its marking edge in uniform v and kpredetermined spaced relation to the vertical Y member.
Wall of the recess in the bed plate 38. It will be seen that the operation of the member iii) produces on the foot-facing surface of the sock lining a mark having aY uniform and predetermined spaced relationto the edge face of the insole member'as, for example, the mark 28 illustrated inV Fig. 1. After inserting a last into thesnoe to expand the upper to its nal shape, the shoe is completed by the cement attachment of an outsole to the shoe bottom.
It is usually desirable to slit the margin of the sock 'lining at those portions of the shank portion of the sock lining Where the edge face'of said lining'is of concave curvature in order to facilitate the wrapping' of said margin about the margin of the insole member.' I prefer to form the required slits in said margin before coating the margin with cement for attachmentv to theV insole member. I have found, however, that in order to coat said margin in a cementing machine, it is desirable that said margin be substantially continuous and unbroken. In the illustrated construction I have achieved'this objective by form- Y ing in the concave portions of the margin 24 slits 42 which do notl extend tothe edge of the sock lining but terminate close enough to said edge so that the material between theendof 4the slits and the edge of the Vseek lining is ruptured Ywith no appreciable effort in wrapping the margin of the sock lining around the margin of the insole Fig. 3 illustrates the operation of Wrapping the "united margins of the upper and sockliningaround the margin of theinsole memeber at .the inside portion 'offthe shank".-
In accordance with one method contemplated.VA
bythe present invention, after :the united margins ofthe upper andthe sockllining are wrapped:
around the insolemember and. cementzattached:
thereto, a last (not shown) lis..v.fo`rced intotheI upper.` thereby expanding the Vforepart of the upper-to its. final. shape. Thelast remains Vinthe.v
shoe during the remaining:shoe-#makingl operai-v tionsand until the upper has set to the'shapeof the last. After inserting the.last,:.the outsoleattaching surface of the inturned marginof the upper is roughed,if necessary, for the application of cement thereto, said roughingzoperation. pref` erably being performed in amachinezsuchas that illustrated in United States -Letters Patent No. 1,989,078, granted January 29,1935, on anfapplication led. inthe name of CharlesG.`Bro-- strom.. The roughing operation removes the greater part ofithe exposed portions :of thestitches 32 attaching the upper to the margin ofv the sock lining, In order to prevent any separa tion of the upper from. the socklininginthe wear vofthe shoe and because of such weakening of.the.stitches,-Iprefer to usefor the 'outsole `atl taching operation a cement which, when appliedL to the roughed marginof the uppenwill' work into andr around the frayed end portions 'offfthe stitches and 'securelyfhold them in placefin thef upper and prevent the upper fromworking yaway from .thestitches I have found that pyroxylin cement ywill .hold the -upper and the stitches against separation and will'also provide -a-suf-' ciently strong attachment for theoutsole. In-
somecases it maybe found desirable --to use-two` or more rows of stitches in securing-the upper to f themargin of the sock lining instead. of va single# rowof stitches 32 Aas shown in Figs18 `and 9;- If
because ofthe thinness ofthe upper-material it* should be desirableto avoid the roughing opera tion, orrif the upperis made of 'a-material which does not lend itself readily to the vroughingo-p eratiom-I propose tosecure the margin of the-V upper to the margin of the sock lining byia-plu-.-
If the shoe is to be provided'with a platform sclafIcontemplate the usev ofeither of two al ternative constructions,one illustrated in Fig.Y 10 and the other in Fig. 15. Inthe first-mentioned construction a platform sole'44, the marginal portion -cf whichis bound or-flnished by a suitable Wrapper 46, is cement attached'to'the shoebot-w tom4 1in the mannerfabove described for-outsole attachment `and an loutsole 48 issecuredprefev erably by cement to saidwplatform sole. In the construction illustrated in Fig. 15, a platform Wrapper 50 is secured to the margin of an upper 52 by stitches 54 which also serve to secure the upper to the margin of a sock lining 56. After the last is inserted a platform sole 58 is laid on the platform Wrapper which is then in outspread position and the wrapper is wiped up and over the edge face and bottom surface of the platform sole and cement attached thereto. An outsole 60 is then secured to the platform sole as above described.
If it should be found desirable to avoid the use of a sock lining, this may be achieved by employing the. construction: illustrated in FigaA, 5 and 6.. In this construction an A'insolesZ preferably. .1f of grain. leather with itssgrain sur-face facing their foot is formed "with a :wide margin dicorre-,aM
sponding to the marginy 24 of the,sockllininglinie` Figs. B and 9. Anupper- 66 is locatedA with'relae tion to a mark 68 on the margin 54 in the manner:
heretofore described and secured to ysaidmargin byxstitches l. The thickness of the marginzfl-i is reduced preferably by rabbetingf-th'e.'saidfmar gin as: shown. iniFig.; 4- in order-to permit thefunited margins ofntheuppcr and "insole Ytonbe wrapped around the edge face AI2 of the insolelas shown in Fig. 5 and cement'attached to'th'eloute'.-
sole-facing surface of the insole.
In Fig.` 2 there is illustrated an alternative 'cone struction comprising an'insole *14' to whichnazf,
member; illustrated asavtapel is securedgfby'f anindex forthe location of the bottom .edgetofr an upper to be` stitched to the tape. The tapeA 1811 isrpreferably the usual. bias, cut.binding'.tapes When theA construction illustrated in Fig. 2 is eme.- ployed,1 the foot-facing, surface kof the insolefand the'marginv of thetape v'llare coveredby -asuitr-y able sock 'lining (not shown) which -isinserted into theshoe afterzit'isotherwise completed Ine-lh this construction the sock lining may be madefo cardboard ifdesired thus permitting a` saving inthe cost of materials over the construction lli-'.-
lustrated in Figi. 1.
The useofthe loosefsock'l lining also makes possible various color. combina-- tions which cannot be2-achieved when 'the -con struction villustrated in Fig. lis used, andfalso eliminates the. necessity of a heel pad; It .vvill'loeV understood that the desired result may also be achieved lby employing the assembly illustrated= ingFig. 1 -inconjunction with a loose sock lining.
In Figssll and .12 there is illustrated an.alter. i
native'construction characterized by a sock lining 5 86 having-a relatively narrow margin 88 extend-f2 ing beyond the, edge faceof an'insole member 290' to ywhich" the sock lining. ris -cementV attached,
Attached to the margin 88 of the sock lining by stitches 92 is an upper.94, the margin of which* is substantially Wider than-the marginef 'theV upper :3U illustrated in Figs-8 and 9 Yand extends.'
beyondthe edge of thesock lining. Inth'is con-Q struction the. *upper and vsock .lining are locatedfA relatively to eachLotherib'y 'causing thexedge of@ the ysock-lining to register with `an-ndex mark 96vonrthe inner'surface of the-upper. Thisfcona. struction' is employed to advantage when` the -costi ofthe ,sock,;liningmaterial is a critical factor-f. ItA will alsozsbe seenY that "in thisV construction the `,widthof/theff margin-of the upperisnot critical',V thefonlyrre in--themanufacture of a shoe.
quirement'being that there be 'suicient uppery materialv extending., beyond the 'edgefofuth'e sockf-f lining for cement attachment to the outsole-fac-i' ing surface of the insole member as shown in Fig. 12. The outsole is cement attached to the inturned margin of the upper after roughing the margin of the upper to permit the cement to penetrate it. In this construction no thought need be given to the effect of the roughing operation on the stitches 92 since the upper is secured to the insole member by cement as above described and the portion of the stitches remaining after the roughing operation will in .any case be adequate to hold the sock lining against misplacement.
In Fig. 13 there isl illustrated still another alternative construction in which a sock lining 98l andan upper E00 have margins of uniform and predetermined widths, the upper being positioned relatively to the sock lining by positioning its bottom edge to coincide with the edge of the socklining; j
fFig; 14 illustratesy the application of this inventionvto a shoe having a closed upper. This shoe is made on the last, the toe portion |02 and the heel portion |04 having the usual lasting allowance and being lasted over `and fastened to an insole |06 in the usual manner. Between the tip line and the heel breast line the bottom margin Yof the upper is relatively narrow, the edge of the upper being indicated by the numeral |08. Referring to Fig. 19, the bottom margin of the upper between the tip line and the heel breast line is secured to the margin of a sock by stitches H2, the upper being located on the sock lining with reference to an index mark asV in the construction illustrated in Figs. 8 and 9. The girthwise dimension of the upper is such that when the upper and sock lining are lasted over an insole mounted on a last H6, the upper is drawn tightly around the last and shaped thereto. It will be understood that uppers having open toes and open heelsV and shoes having sandal type uppers may also be shaped over a last in accordance with the method ,above described.
In Figs. 16 and 17 there is Villustrated a modified construction in which the upper illustrated in Figs. 8 and 9 is mounted on an insole provided with an inseam rib. Referring to Fig. 16, a sock lining H8 having an upper |20 stitched thereto is secured to the foot-facing surface of an insole member |22. Secured to the margin of the outsole-facing surface of the insole member is an inseam rib |25 which may be of any known construction. The illustrated insole member is of substantial thickness, and contrary tothe usual practice in Goodyear Welt shoemaking, the thickness of the insole member is the same at the margin as it is at its central portion. In the manufacture of this shoe the united margins of the upper andscck lining are wrapped'aroundY the margin of the insole member and secured to the rib |24 by stitches |26 (Fig. 17), said stitches serving also to secure an outsole-attaching welt |28. From this point the manufacture of the shoeY proceeds in accordance with known methods of manufacturing Goodyear welt shoes.
In the manufacture of the various constructions above described, the last may be inserted into -the shoe either before or after the united margins of the upper and insole areY wrapped around the body portion of the insole and secured to its outsole-facing surface. If the last is inserted before said margins are wrapped lining i lll around and secured to the insole the upper receives its final shape in said wrapping operation, the dimensions of the upper being such that the upper is drawn down to the last and in most cases stretched as in the usual lasting operation when the upper is Wrapped around the insole. If the united margins are permanently attached to the insole before the last is inserted into the upper the upper is expanded to its final shape by the insertionY of the last.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. Thatmethod of making shoes which comprises providing an insole member of last bottom shape, so securing a lining member to the foot-facing surface of the insole member that its margin extends beyond the edge face of the insole member, causing the margin of the lining member to extend outwardly in the plane of the foot-facing surface of the insole member, while the lining member is in said outwardly eX- tending position securing the bottom margin of an upper to the margin only of said lining member with the edge of the upper in predetermined relation to the edge face of the insole member, folding said united margins inwardly around the edge face of the insole member, and attaching them to the outsole-facing surface of the insole member.
v2. That method of making shoes which-comprises providing a flat insole having a body portion the edge face of which delineates the periphery of the interior of the shoe bottom and an upper-attaching margin extending lengthwise of the insole from the tip line to the breast line and omitted at the toe end of the insole and extending widthwise of the insole substantially beyond the edge face of said body portion, securing to the upper-attaching margin of the insole the opposite side portions of thebottom margin of a closed upper only, folding the united margins of the upper and insole around the body portion of the insole, attaching said united'margins to the outsole-facing surface'of the insole, inserting a last into the upper, lasting the toe portion of the upper over the toe portion ofthe insole, and completing the shoe.
. JAMES D. CHANDLER.
REFERENCES CITED VThe following references are of record in the nle of this pat-ent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,436,050 Miner Feb. 17, 1948