|Publication number||US2550278 A|
|Publication date||Apr 24, 1951|
|Filing date||Jul 16, 1947|
|Priority date||Jan 17, 1946|
|Publication number||US 2550278 A, US 2550278A, US-A-2550278, US2550278 A, US2550278A|
|Original Assignee||Jean Makhonine|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (17), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 1951 J. MAKHONINE I 2,550,2'7
VARIABLE SURFACE WINGS AND TAIL FINS IN FLYING MACHINES Flled July 16, 1947 INl/E/VToR A (/5144! MAW/0M:
A 770/? NEY Patented Apr. 24, 1951 f TUNITED STATES PATENT" QFFICE' Q Q 2,550,278 V VAR ABLE SURFACE WINGS AND TAIL FINS- y INFLYING MACHINES Jean Makhonine, Paris, France Applicationiiuly 16, 1947, Serial No; 761,341
In France January 1'7, 1946 5 Claims. i.
It is well known that the higher the speed of flight of a present day aeroplane, the greater must be the loadper' square unit of its lifting surface and the smaller may be its stabilizing and manoeuvring surface. On the other hand, since the rate of minimum speed of the aeroplane is limited by the safety conditions during take-off and-landing,=the said loadper square unit,'as well as the character of the stabilizing and manoeuvring surfaces, isdetermined by these considerations. These considerations make it necessary to providethe aeroplane with greater surfaces, for both-the wings and the tail fins, than those required for normal flight. With the wings and tail fins having too large a surface for the normal high speed flight, the requisite power will be" greater than the one that would wing and tail fin surfaces as well as all its movable accessory members such as ailerons, stabilizers, landing flaps, speed-reducing flaps, fixed slots,- etc., and which, for the sake of simplicity,
will be referred to as lifting surfaces when relating more particularly to the aeroplane wing, and stabilizing surfaces when related more particularly to the aeroplane tail fins, are obtained substantially byca-using two movable end surface por-tions-to telescope into, and out of, a corresponding fixed central surface portion, means being providedfor properly-guiding telescopic displacement of said movable surface portions and controlling them from a central control station of the machine.
The invention is applicable to all types of aeroplanes, hydroplanes and, in general, to all flying machines.
The invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which similar reference numerals will designate corresponding parts throughout, and in which:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view showing a form of aeroplane wing, half-telescoped, according to the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a perspective View showing a rib mem- 21 her intended for guiding the movable parts of the wing shown in Fig. 1; and
. Fig. 3 is an end, view showing a further form of aeroplane wing according to the present invention.
Referring to the drawings, the fixed surface of the wing comprises a strong box 1 whose upper surface has been removed in part to show the inside disposition, and two flaps 2, 3 adapted to pivot on four supportsof which only 4 and 5 are visible in the drawing (Fig. 1). Telescoping into this fixed box I are two movable wing portions 6, 7 provided with streamlinedends of which only one, 8, is shown to illustrate the inside structure. Carried by the movable wing portionslfi, 1 are two flaps 9, ll) adapted to pivot on two supports, of which only one, II, is visible in the drawing, and telescope into the fiaps 2 and 3. Disposed in the two movable wing portions ,6, i are spars l2,
H3, H5, l5 which are offset relatively to one another and may be displaced longitudinally past one anotherin the fixed Wing portion l. The, movablewing portions '6, I are provided with housings l5, ll, l8, l9 indicated by dotted lines in the drawing.
The telescopic displacement and guiding oi the-movable-wingportions 6, 1 are assured on onehand by thesaid spars l2, [3, M, 5 passing through, and supported in, the apertures2l, 22 provided in a central rib like frame member 20, ,andon the other hand by the end frame ribs 23, 25 provided on thegfixed wing portion l. The length of stroke'of each movable wing portion 6 or 1 is nearly equal to the half-span of the fixed wing portion I. Free spaces available in the movable wing portions 6, 7, such asthose denoted by 25, 26, 2'0, 28 and 30, may serve for housing therein tanks, arms and/or any other objects.
In the apertures 52 l 22 in the central rib memberZEi (shown in detailinEig. ,2) there are provided sixteen guiding rollers 3|, eight for each of the apertures 2| and 22, four in the righthand portion and four in the left-hand portion of each aperture. These rollers are adapted to rotate freely on axles 32 made fast to the rib member 20. The controlling device comprises two pinions 33 which by acting upon corresponding racks 5!, 52, 53 and 54 (shown in Fig. 1) made fast to the corresponding movable spars permit the control of the longitudinal displacements of the movable wing portions 6, 1. The
pinions 33 are made fast to shafts 34 which are so interconnected as to be controlled by gears 35, 36 driven by a suitable chain 38. The latter is extended to a central control station of the aeroplane by means of the gear 36 and an additional gear 31.
When the conditions of lateral stability call for use of a wing with a dihedral, the latter may be obtained by forming the wing elements into a circular arc. Such a wing, half-telescoped, is shown in Fig. 3 which is an end view thereof and in which I is the fixed portion of the wing, 6 and I are the movable portions thereof, 12 and I4 denote movable spars, l6 and I8 are the housings for said spars, 2D is the central rib member, while 23, 24 are the end ribs of the fixed portion of the wing.
While the specific description hereinabove is concerned more particularly with the construction of a variable surface wing of the aeroplane under consideration, it will be understood that in a similar way may be constructed a variable surface tail unit thereof, without departing from the spirit of the invention which is intended to be defined by the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In a flying machine a variable lifting surface constituted by a fixed central surface portion and two corresponding movable end surface portions, the latter being adapted to be telescoped into said fixed portion, longitudinal spars adapted to support the external surfaces of said two movable portions, each spar of one of the said two movable portions being offset relatively to the corresponding spar of the other, whereby the spars of one of the said two movable portions are fully inserted in between the corresponding adjacent ones of the other portion when these two movable portions are in their full telescoped position, abutmentmeans provided on said fixed portion and movable portions for limiting telescopic displacements of the two movable portions in the fixed portion, means for guiding and longitudinally displacing said spars, and means for controlling longitudinal displacements of said spars from a central control station of the machine. V
2. In a flying machine a variable lifting surface constituted by a fixed central surface portion and two corresponding movable end surface portions, each of the latter having a span substantially equal to one-half of that of said fixed portion and being adapted to be telescoped into said fixed portion, means for limiting telescopic displacements of said two movable portions in said fixed portion, longitudinal spars having a length substantially equal to the span of said central surface portion adapted to support the external surfaces of said two movable portions, each spar of one of the said two movable portions being offset relatively to the corresponding spar of the other, the spars of one of the said two movable portions being entirely inserted in between the corresponding adjacent scoped into said fixed portion, means for limit-' ing telescopic displacements of said two movable portions in said fixed portion, longitudinal spars to support the external surfaces of said two movable portions, each spar of one of the said two movable portions being offset relatively to the corresponding spar of the other,
the spars of one of the said two movable portions being fully inserted in between the corresponding adjacent ones of the other when the two movable portions are in their full telescoped position, a central supporting member provided in said fixed portion having an opening therein to permit passage therethrough for each two of said adjacent offset spars, suitable rollers arranged in said opening to support and guide between them said two adjacent offset spars, racks made fast to said two adjacent offset spars so as to face each other, an intermediate pinion arranged in said opening to form with said racks a rack-and-pinion mechanism for effecting longitudinal displacement of said two offset spars, and means for controlling said mechanism from a central control station of the machine.
l. A surface according to claim 3, wherein said fixed portion includes a space within for accom modating substantially all of each of said movable portions, whereby a high ratio of variation in surface is obtained.
5. A surface according to claim 3, wherein said central surface portion comprises a tubular member having a circular curvature about an axis situated in its vertical plane of symmetry, said spars being circularly curved and being displaceable about the same axis.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,833,995 Jensen Dec. 1, 1931 2,056,188 Hayden Oct. 6, 1936 2,076,059 Asbury Apr. 6, 1937 2,294,367 Fleming Sept. 1, 1942
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|U.S. Classification||244/215, 244/218|
|International Classification||B64C3/54, B64C3/00|