US 2553973 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 1951 A. KELLER ET AL 2,553,973
VANE TYPE HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR Filed Feb. 1, 1946 :E-T-E'T-E all! INVENTORS AUGUST KELLER 13 RR?! I3 STEWART B. MC LEOD 3O BY ir- ATTORNEY Patented May 22, 1951 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Mich., assignors, by mcsne assignments, to Detroit Harvester Company, Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Michigan Application February 1, 1946, Serial :No. 644,856
2'Claims. 1 The present invention relates to a vane type hydraulic actuator.
In the application of hydraulic power to various types of devices it is desirable to provide a compact, relatively inexpensive, positive actuator to permit the application of the mechanical forces transmitted to the actuator from the hydraulic pressure fluid. The use of hydraulic actuators in connection with automobile'bodies for such purposes as raising and lowering the automobile windows, operating windshield wipers, and performing similar functions has previously been retarded due to the relatively bulky, inefficient,
and relatively expensive devices previously suggested as the hydraulic actuator members. Vane type actuators previously were utilized chiefly with a source of vacuum power. Typical of such devices is the conventional vanetype'windshield wiper motor. However, such devices have not "been generally used in many such installations as power thus available was insufficient for many of the uses in which power application is desired. Prior attempts to adapt conventional types of vacuum powered vane type actuators for use with hydraulic pressure systems were not satisfactory due to the bypassing of the hydraulic pressure fluid from one side of the vane to the other, with the consequent loss-in efficiency in operation of the device. A recently suggested use for hydraulic actuators is in the raising or lowering of automobile body windows. In order to lock the body, it is necessary that :the windows be maintained in their raised positions. This is readily accomplished by trapping the hydraulic pressure fluid in the line after the windows are raised. If, however, the hydraulic fluid can by- ,pass the actuator, this locking effect is lost.
It is, therefore, a principal object of the present invention to provide an hydraulic actuator of the oscillating vane type which is particularly characterized by its compactness of design, high efliciency in operation, and relatively low cost resultin from the ability to manufacture it in large volume by mass production methods.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide an hydraulic actuator of the oscillating vane type which may be readily installed .within the body panels of a conventional type of automobile body construction, and in which hydraulic pressures of suflicient magnitude to eifect movement of the vane 01' to lock the vane against movement without bypassing the hydraulic fluid may be selectively exerted or maintained on opposite sides of the oscillating vane.
Other objects of this invention will appear in the following description and appended claims, reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification wherein like reference characters designate corresponding parts in the several views.
Fig. 1 is a plan view showing an hydraulic actuator embodying the present invention with a portion of the cover broken away.
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the hydraulic actuator of the present invention showing the cover removed from the actuator and revealing the interior details of the chamber and the actuator vane.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view with parts broken away taken substantially on the line 33 in the direction of the arrows Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is a cross section taken substantially on the line 4-4 in the direction of the arrows Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary enlarged plan view of the actuator vane.
Before explaining in detail the present invention it is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the details of construction and arrangement of parts illustrated in the accompanyin drawings, since the invention is capable of other embodiments and of being practiced or carried out in various ways. Also it'is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation.
An hydraulic actuator embodying the present invention includes a housing comprising a base member ID, and a cover member ll preferably formed ofa suitable die cast material. The base 10 and the cover H are joined together by a plurality of removable bolts 52. A suitable re silient gasket i3 is providedin the sealing groove of the base member l8 and the mating flange oi the cover member H and prevents any leakage of hydraulic pressure fluid between the parts. The base member it! is provided with a plurality of lug members 14 for attaching the actuator to a support or bracket adjacent the point of use.
Hydraulic'ports l5 and I6 extend through the cover member ll and discharge hydraulic fluid into the chamber ll on-opposite sides of the oscillating vane 18. The port [5 is connected with an hydraulic line l9 and the port it is-connected with an hydraulic line 20. By suitable types of conventionally known control valves (not shown), the direction of the flow of hydraulic fluid from a pressure source (not shown) is controlled .so .as .ato .supply the pressure :fluid selectively through either the port P5 or the port [6 to effect movement of the vane l8 in the desired direction.
The vane l8 of the hydraulic actuator is attached to an oscillating power take-01f shaft 2|, which may be suitably connected with the device or part which it is desired to operate by means of the hydraulic actuator of the present invention. Since hydraulic pressure fluid may be selectively introduced through the ports I and I6 which open into the chamber H on opposite sides of the moveable vane 58, it will be seen that the movement of the vane [8 in either direction is a power movement so that a flow of hydraulic power is delivered to the shaft 2| during its movement in both directions.
In many instances, it is desirable that the vane I8 travel at substantially the same speed in both directions of its movement and that it deliver to the shaft 2! a substantially equal pressure at all intervals of its power stroke in either direction. In such instances, it is not necessary to provide any auxiliary devices to vary the speed or power delivered by the vane l8.
In other applications a diiferential speed of movement of the oscillating vane i8 may be desired, as for example, when the actuator is used in operating certain conventional types of window regulators. In such instances, a spring such as the spring 22 may be provided in the stop 23 formed in the base casting ii). When the face of the oscillating vane 18 contacts the spring 22 the resistance to movement of the vane I8 is determined by the strength of the spring 22, and this in turn controls the rate at which the vane I8 is permitted to move after it reaches a point of contact with the spring 22. It is to be understood that if a differential speed of movement is desired durin the movement of the vane in the opposite direction that a similar spring and stop may be provided on the opposite side of the chamber Hi. It is also to be understood that the time when the differential speed is employed is controlled by the point at which the face of the vane contacts the end of the compression spring. The rate of movement of the vane thereafter is controlled by the relative hydraulic pressures utilized and the pressures exerted by the spring 22 when under compression.
The stops 23, in addition to acting as spring seats, if desired, also provide a positive stop so P that the moveable vane it cannot move to a position where it blocks off the supply of hydraulic pressure fluid through the ports [5 or 16. Thus a portion of the chamber I? always is in communication with the hydraulic inlet port l5, and the vane I3 is never in a position in which the port is closed so that it is prevented from moving in the opposite direction in response to the flow of fluid through the hydraulic ports IE or Iii.
It is to be understood that the hydraulic ports 5 and I6 function both as fluid inlet and fluid outlet ports. When hydraulic fluid under pressure is being admitted to the chamber I! through the port IS, the movement of the vane I8 is toward the port It. During this time, the port 16 acts as a discharge port so that fluid is being drawn from the chamber I? through the port [6 at the same time that fluid is being supplied to the chamber through the port l5.
It will be seen that the efficiency of the actuator of the present invention depends upon maintaining a fluid tight seal between the faces of the actuator i8 and the walls of the chamber I! .so as thereby to prevent bypassing of the hydraulic pressure fluid from one port to the other without exerting a force upon the vane I8.
As best shown in Figs. 2 and 4, the moveable vane l8 comprises a body portion 24 preferably formed of a steel forging. A sealing facing 25 preferably formed of a resilient material impervious to the hydraulic fluid used, such for example, a suitable resilient plastic material such as synthetic rubber or a similar plastic elastomer, where the fluid is oil, is moulded or otherwise secured on the body portion 24 of the vane 18, and is formed to provide angularly extending sealing lips 26 which contact the inside face of the base casting l0 and the inside face of the cover member ll. When the hydraulic pressure fluid is supplied to the chamber l1, it exerts a pressure on the lips 26 causing them to engage tightly with the adjacent surfaces of the base member In and the cover member II. The pressures thus increase the sealing effect of the lips 26 and a fluid tight seal is created which prevents bypassing of the hydraulic fluid from the port 5 to the port I6, or vice versa. The covering 25 with the lips 26 extends completely around the end portion of the vane [13 as shown in Fig. 2, and thus bypassing of the fluid, at the end of the vane I8 is pre vented. The resilient covering also extends around the base portion of the oscillating vane l8 and extends concentrically around the shaft 2|, as indicated by the numeral 21, and is so formed as to provide a plurality of extending lips 28 which engage with the adjacent inner end surface portions of the base member It] and the top member ll. Concentric lips 39 engage the inner surface of the base casting l0 and concentric lips 3| engage the inner surface of the top casting II to provide a fluid tight seal around the shaft 2|. As in the case of the lips 26, the pressure when exerted on the lips 28, 36, or 3| increases their sealing contacts with the adjacent wall surfaces and thus acts and prevents the bypassing of the fluid from one side of the vane [8 to its other side.
From the foregoing it will be seen that we have provided a novel form of hydraulic actuator device which is particularly characterized by the compactness of its design, and in which provision is made to assure the efficient operation of the unit. The unit is so constructed that it may be readily manufactured in large quantities at relatively low costs by mass production methods.
1. An hydraulic actuator of the hydraulic vane type including a housing having a fluid tight chamber, a movable vane having end face portions and front and back face portions and pivotally mounted for oscillation in said chamber, hydraulic ports opening into said chamber on opposite sides of said vane and communicating with a source of hydraulic fluid, a resilient sealing member secured to said vane and having a continuous resilient pressure sealing lip extending outwardly therefrom on each of its end portions and extending longitudinally of its front and back faces and concentrically about the pivotal mounting to establish a fluid tight contact with the adjacent surfaces of said chamber, and a stop on each end wall of said chamber and extending inwardly thereof to a point beyond the opening of said ports in said chamber to prevent movement of said vane to positions restricting the free flow of hydraulic fluid through said ports.
2. An hydraulic actuator of the hydraulic vane type including a housing having a fluid tight 5 chamber, a movable vane having end face portions and front and back face portions and pivotally mounted for oscillation in said chamber, hydraulic ports opening into said chamber on opposite sides of said vane and communicating with a source of hydraulic fluid, a resilient sealing member secured to said vane and having a continuous resilient pressure sealing lip extending outwardly therefrom on each of its end portions and extending longitudinally of its front and back faces and concentrically about the pivotal mounting to establish a fluid tight contact with the adjacent surfaces of said chamber.
AUGUST KELLER. STEWART B. MCLEOD.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
Number Number 6 UNITED STATES PATENTS Name Date Reynolds Sept. 30, 1902 Fawkes Oct. 19, 1909 Frank Sept. 6, 1910 Yost Apr. 11, 1916 Moehn Sept. 12, 1916 Brinker May 4, 1926 Lip-pert Apr. 12, 1927 Bannister July 10, 1934 Horton et a1 Aug. 27, 1935 Wilhelm Sept. 29, 1936 Bridenbaugh Jan. 5, 1937 Osborne Apr. 5, 1938 Horton July 30, 1940 Dodge Nov. 17, 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date Germany Nov. 1, 1929