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Publication numberUS2555400 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 5, 1951
Filing dateSep 12, 1944
Priority dateJul 14, 1943
Publication numberUS 2555400 A, US 2555400A, US-A-2555400, US2555400 A, US2555400A
InventorsDe Remer Jay Grant
Original AssigneeJ G De Remer Res Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Washing machine with gyratory washing action
US 2555400 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 5, 1951 J, G, D REMER 2,555,4007

WASHING MACHINE WITH GYRATORY WASHING ACTION A Original Filed July 14. 1943 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 BY mgm-M ATTORN EY June 5, 1951 J. G. DE REMER Original Filed July 14. 1943 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 ATTORNEY June 5, 1951 J. G. DE REMER 2,555,400

WASHING MACHINE WITH GYRATORY WASHING ACTION INVENTo'R v I Jr @PA/vr ,DE FEMER BY t MNQMJCM ATTORNEY Jane 5, 1.951 f l. G. DE REMI-:R 2,555,400

WASHING MACHINE WITH GYRATORY WASHING AcTIoN original Filed July 14. 1945 4 sheets-sheet 4 INVENTOR JZY GRANT Bf Pff/vm @LIJN-M ATTORNE Patented June 5, 1951 WASHIN G MACHINE WITH GYRATORY WASHING ACTIN Jay Grant De Reiner, Darien, Conn., assignor to J. G. De Romer Research Corporation, Union City, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey Original application ll'uly 14, 1943, Serial No.

494,598. Divided and this application September 12, 1944, Serial No. 553,761

4 Claims.

This invention relates to washing machines, and more particularly to washing machines in which the laundry is washed and centrifugally dried in a single basket. This application constitutes a division of my application Serial No.

494,596 filed July 14, 1943 now Patent No. 2,533,722 December 12, 1950.

The present application relates to an improved washing action, circulation and automatic control features. In its preferred form the washing action comprises an imperforate type basket which is gyrated about a universal support loM cated under the basket to cause the basket axis to describe a conical` surface.. The basket comprises a bottom wall having an'annular trough, and an upwardly converging conical side wall. The bottom trough has inner and outer ledges and the side wall has helical blades which assist the gyrating motion to give the clothes a particularly effective cleaning operation. Provision is made to subject the clothes to continuous circulation of filtered water during washing. To this end a circulating pump and filter mechanism are provided, the iilter beingreversible for self-cleaning whenA water is discharged from the machine.' Provision is also made for bypassing the water should the nlter clog up accidentally. Suitable electric control mechanism is also provided for changing the basket movement for washing and centrifugal extraction; for reversing the filter mechanism; and for admitting hot and cold water, circulating the water and discharging it from the machine.

These and other features and improvements will appear from a consideration of the detailed description which follows, accompanied by drawm ,ings showing for purely illustrative purposes pre- 'erred embodiments of this invention.

The invention also consists in certain new and original features of construction and combination of parts hereinafter set forth and claimed.

uAlthough the novel features which are believed to be characteristic of this invention will be oarticularly pointed out in the claims appended hereto, the invention itself, its objects and advantages and the manner in which it may be carried out, may be better understood by referring to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, in which Fig. l is an elevation partly in section of a washing machine embodying features of this invention, the position of the parts being that occupied at the beginning of the drying operation;

Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional elevation show* ing in greater detail elements of the drive of the machine shown in Fig. l;

Fig. 3 is a front view of a filter of the machine shown in Fig. l, a section being taken on line 3 3 of Fig. 4;

Fig. 4 is a side view of the filter shown in Fig. 3, a section being taken on line 4 4;

Fig. 5 is a plan view, partly in section, of the iilter shown in Figs. 3 and 4, the plan View showing the port and valve arrangement, a section being taken on line 5-5 of Fig. 4;

Fig. 6 is a plan view corresponding to Fig. 5 with the port and valve arrangement in a different position after reversal of the ltering elcment;

Fig. 6c is a section on the line SrL-*6a of Fig. 4;

Fig. 7 is a section taken on the line 'i-l of Fig. 2, but showing the projection on the syrator shaft engaged against the roller on the spin shaft for gyrating the basket for the washing operation;

Fig. 8 represents an enlarged detail of the operating mechanism for the reversible filter, the solenoid being unenergized.

In the following description and in the claims various details will be identified by specilic names for convenience. The names, however, are in tended to be as generic in their application as the art will permit.

Like reference characters denote like parts in the several figures of the drawings.

In the drawings accompanying and forming part of this specioation, certain specific disclosure of the invention is made for the purpose of explanation, but it will be understood that the details may be modified in various respects without departure from the broad aspect of the invention.

Referring now to` the drawings and more particularly to Figs. l and 2, the laundry :machine according to the invention comprises, in general, a tank l] containing a clothes basket 2l. The basket is centrifugally driven by a spin shaft made up of vertical drive shaft 4B and rotor shaft fill connected by a universal joint. The basket is gyrated by a gyrator shaft indicated in general by 66. Electric motor 98 drives the gyrator shaft 65 through gyrator gears 94, l l2. and the spin shaft through spin shaft gears 55, H16. It will be noted that the spin shaft and gyrator shaft are driven in the same direction. This direction is clockwise in plan as will he more apparent as the description proceeds. Pump IEI circulates water from the bottom of tank le into filter I4 and thence the water may be delivered either into the basket 21 or into a drain pipe |56. The details of the above apparatus will be described more in detail hereinafter.

Referring now further to Figs. 1 and 2, the washing machine has an outer tank or casing Il closed by a cover Il. The cover II has a central lid I2 hinged atI3. The lid I2 serves as a support for a filter I4 and may be closed during nonuse of the machine causing the filter to move Y into a horizontal position inside the casing lil,

The casing lIi has an outer wall I5 connected to a tapered bottom I6 at I1. The bottom, in turn, is connected to a substantially cylindrical inner wall I8 at I8 and has an annular trough or depression 2li about the inner wall i8 forming a sump 2 I. Y

The casing is supported by a base 22 consisting of an annular member 23 of L-shaped cross section and a plurality of legs 24, preferably three or four. A spider 25 is connected to the base by screws 26 and supports various shafts and bearings for a basket or receptacle 21 in which laundry and other articles are washed and centrifugally dried.

The basket or receptacle 21 has a tapered side wall 28 provided with an inturned flange 2Q at its upper and narrow end. The wide end of the side wall 28 is connected to a relatively heavy bottom wall at 3|. The bottom wall 35 has a raised central portion 32 surrounded by an annular troughV 33 which is bordered at the outside by a raised peripheral portion 34 forming a ledge at 35. Adjacent the ledge and at the widest part ofthe receptacle 21 a plurality of bleeder holes 36 are provided in the side wall 26. The bleeder holes are preferably 6 in number and have a diameter of about .18 inch for a household washing machine of the specifications given below.

Helical blades 31 are mounted on the inside of Y the wall 2S in order to impart, in connection with the ledge 35 and trough 33, a certain desirable vortex motion to the contents of the receptacle, as will be later described. The blades extend upwardly in the direction of spin movement of the basket. The blades are preferably of triangular cross section as shown at 38. A balance ring 33 (Fig. l) is secured to the receptacle and helps to distribute the total mass of the receptacle such that the center of the mass of the empty receptacle lies in substantially the same horizontal plane as the center of the mass of the normal full charge of wet laundry treated therein. This mass distribution together with the relatively heavy weight of the empty receptacle 21 minimizes the effects of unbalance of laundry'placed in the receptacle and of varying weights of laundry.

The receptacle 2l is supported by a rotor shaft 40 secured to the hub 4I of the receptacle at 42. The rotor shaft 46 is made in two telescoping parts 43 and 44 Vfor convenient assembly. The inner part 43 of the rotor shaft 4Q is forked at 45 to receive a pin 46 in the outer part 44. The pin 46 prevents turning between the two parts 43 and 44 of the rotor shaft 40 which at its upper end is closed by a plug 41.

The rotor shaft 4E! is mounted for rotation with, and freedom to tilt relatively to, a substantially vertical drive shaft 48 mounted in oilless bearing 49 in gyrator shaft 5S and in oillessrbearing Eil in the hub 5| of the spiderrE. The rotor shaft and drive shaft 48 are connected by a universal joint 52 secured to the shafts by pins 53 and 54`respectively. rThe flexible shaft for rotating the basket on its own axis including the rotor shaft 40, and drive shaft 48 with universal joint therebetween is sometimes referred to, for convenience, as the spin shaft.

At its lower end the drive shaft 48 carries a beveled friction gear 55 secured thereto by a key 55 and set screw 51. The hub 5I of the spider 25 is sealed at its lower end by a packing ring 58 compressed by a washer 59 and ring-nut 59 threaded on the hub 5I at 6|.

The universal joint 52 has a flange 52 resting on an oilless thrust ring 54 supported by a shoulder E5 of a gyrator shaft 56. The gyrator shaft t6 carries oilless bearing 45 for the drive shaft 4S. The gyrator shaft 66 is journaled in radial bearings 51 and 58 in the hub 5! of the spider 25. The gyrator shaft 56 has also a shoulder 69 resting against oilless thrust rings 15 and 1I on a corresponding shoulder 12 in the hub 5|. Thus the weight of the basket and clothes is taken by the hub 5I and has no effect on the pressure between the friction plate 11 and friction head 15 described more in detail hereinafter.

The gyrator shaft 65 has an upper flared portion 13 which is connected to the main portion of the gyrator shaft 14 and carries a sphlally curved friction ring 15 at its widest portion. The surface cf friction ring "I5 has its center of curvature at the center of the universal joint 52. A ring 1t of friction material such asclutch or brake-lining is secured to the friction ring 15 and is acted upon at the other side by a corresponding spherically curved friction plate 11. The friction plate 11 is secured to a sleeve `Il!! having self-lubricating or oilless bearings 3| rotatable and axially slidable on the outer part 44 of the rotor shaft 4.5i. A collar 18 overhanging ange 19 secures friction plate 11 and sleeve 80 together.

The sleeve '80 has a lower flange 82 welded to it against which a tapered helical compression spring 83 rests whose other end is secured to the upper flared portion 13 of the gyrator shaft 66 by clamps 34.

The spring 33 through the sleeve 8E) exerts a combined vertical and horizontal thrust on the frictional erection assembly 15, 16, 11. The thrust against the friction surfaces may be of the order of 25 to 30 pounds for an average family size washing machine of the specification given below. The centering force measured at the level of the friction plate 11 may be of the order of 20 to 25 pounds when the basket is in its extreme tilted position with the machine at rest. In general, the spring 83 may exert a centering force sufcient to maintain the basket 21, lled with laundry and water, upright with the machine at rest, but insufficient to prevent the basket from tipping over when the gyrator shaft is rotated for washing. The action of the centering spring will be discussed more at length-hereinafter.

The sleeve `85 carries a further flange 815 forming an abutment against which the hub 86 of a resilient roller 81 rests, the roller being held in place by the plate '51. The roller 81 serves to cushion the shock when the rotor shaft 40 of the loaded receptacle 21 tilts yagainst the flared portion of the gyrator shaft `ISS.

A projection or lug `39 is provided on the flared I portion 'E3 of the gyrator shaft SB in the path of the roller 31. When the gyrator shaft 65 is rotated while the rotor shaft 4I] supporting the loaded receptacle 21Y is in a tilted position, the projection 85 rests Vagainst the side of the roller S1 carrying the rotor shaft 48 along, as indicated by the arrow in Fig. '1, and producing a gyrating or H-wobbling motionof the vreceptacle and its contents.

'In orderto .prevent washing liquid from entering the space inside the flared portion 13 of the Lgyratorshaft 58, a cup-shaped splash ring 90 is secured'tolthe hub-4| of the receptacle. Under certain conditions, depending upon `the type of water or soap, considerable foam or froth may .beiformed by thefagitation. To'prevent this foam or frothfrom getting inside wall I8, a bell-shaped l skirtnr'b'ody 92 is connectedto the friction anem- Iber `17| at 99 extending into `the sump 2| below `the level vof the liquid normally filling the sump `during the soaking, washing-and rinsing Apericds Aof the machine.

The `gyrator shaft 55 carries `a lbeveled friction gear 9-4, the hub 195 of which is secured to the shaft `by a key S-Gandheld in place .by a set screw .9-1.

Motive power is supplied to the beveled friction .gears 55 `and 94 on the drive shaft 48 and the `gyrator shaft 461S, respectively, by a motor 98 having a hollow armature shaft 99 carrying xed clutch disk I 08 bearing against a friction ring |09 secured to one of the clutch disks |08 or IOI. The thimble |05 is rigidly secured to a sleeve |05', to a disk |08', and to .clutch disk |08, these parts `forming a unitary hub structure to support `the Yrelatively soft friction gear |06 to insure it turning with thimble |95. This structure is journaled on hollow shaft 99 by an oilless bearing |06.

The otherend ofthe inner shaft |04 is squared as at |-.|0 -and carries the thirnble I I I of a second frictiongear-I ITZVhaVing a square holepermitting ,the thimble i I I towinove axially of, but not to turn relatively to, the shaft |04. The second friction gear is also provided with a clutch disk I|3 bearing against a friction ring |I'4 secured to one of the clutch disks `I or I I3. A compression spring ||.5 bearing against a collar H on 'the 'inner shaft D|04 and against thethirnble I I I ofthe'friction gear II2 forces the clutch elements of "both gears |05 and ||.2 together. `Since both gears v|06 and II2 are fixed on the shaft |04 against rotation, they rotate equi-angularly'regardless of the slip of the spin .shaft `clutch I'll, |09, |08 and of the gyrator shaft clutch |00, `|'|4, I'I3. The thimble III is rigidly secured to a sleeve III which in turn is rigidly secured 'to clutch'disk I I3 to form a unitary hubstructure to support and hold Ythe relatively soft friction gear |'I2 to insure the gear I|2 turning with thimble III This structure is journaled on hollow shaft 99 byv oilless bearings II2.

Thus, arrangement is vmade for a cooperative action between the spin shaft clutch IOI |08 and the gyrator shaft Iclutch |00, II3. The clutch plates |00 and IUI, being rigidly secured tothe hollow shaft 99, must rotate together. Similarly, the clutch plates |08 and II3 being rotatively secured to the rinner shaft |04 must ro- 4tate together. This means that `one clutch cannot slip without the yother also slipping. This f ranged that no substantial slippage 'takes place `between the gears'themselves, but all 'ofthe slippage takes place in the clutches. The amount of slippage in the clutches is controlled by the rcelerated from .zero fto J'spin drying speed, fas -Will be hereinafter explained more in detail. The lhollow motorshaft on Whichthe motor .gears'are `press the sets `of friction gears together to obtain friction `.driving without slipping rof vthe gears.

The motor 98 is 'mounted on a utiltable 'support I |"I hinged at t||8 `to a channel-like link "I-I9, as shown in"Fig. l. The link |'I9 is pivotedfat |20 to the hub 5I -o`fthe spider L25. A bracket |2I is secured to the link AI I9 between the 'pivots I I8 and |20. A pair of drawbars I 2l2 are fastened to the bracket I2'| at 1I23, `the open ends of `which are hooked to coil springs |24 connected to `.brackets |25 riveted to 'the spider V25. The force of the springs `|24 urges themotor 98 towards fthe hub 5| of the vspider 125 and 'tends to maintain the pairs of Vfriction gears I55, '|06 and 94, I I2 in engagement.

:Thespin gears 55 and |08 may be temporarily Vdisengaged and the gear 55 arrested by a Vsolenoid I 21 having an armature |28 adjustably `connected at |29 'to the center of a substantially U-shaped double armed lever |30. The lever is pivotally mounted at I8| lto a pair of brackets |32 secured to thehub 5I by screws |33. In Fig. l. only one of the brackets |32 is visible. The lever supports acradle |33 intrunnions |34.

The 4cradle is fitted with a brake `lining |35 bearing against the periphery of the gear when the Asolenoid |27 is energized and `the cradle |33 is lifted. The free end |36 of the lever I 30 bears against a pair'of adjustable studs |31 `on la pair of arms |38 secured to the tiltable support |l`|f`| `at |39. If the armature l|28 is drawn into the solenoid |21, -the `free end |36 of the lever v|30 moves clockwise `about the pivot |'3-'I, `disengaging spin gears 55 and |06 Without, however, disturbing the engagement of-gyratorfgears l`94 `and I lf2. The solenoid |21 is mountedon a bracket =I49 secured to the spider 25.

4trolledby a valve |46` operated `by a solenoid |41.

The conduits |42 and V|43 lead into a mixing manifold |48 equipped with -a `thermostatically operated switch |49 for-controlling the Aproper water temperature. The `manifold |48 leads to the intake |59 of a centrifugal pump |'5I which is also connected 'to anoutlet l|52 of the lsump '2| through aduct |53.

The pump v|5I is mounted Ain trunnions |54 in brackets V|55 secured to the spider 25 and thas a 'friction gear |56 on the pump 'rotor shaft |51.

A spring |58 connected `to'apin v|59 `in the pump `housing `I5-| and :to the hub 5I of the spider 25 tends to tilt fthepump uabout its `pivot axisso as to: maintain the friction gear |56 on the pump shaft in engagement with the gear 91| of the gyrator'shaft. The pump I5! has an outlet |60 to which a hose |6| is connected leading to an intake duct |62 of the lter I4 having a hose coupling |63. The filter has an outlet spout |64 for discharging iiltered washing liquid into the receptacle and an outlet duct |65 for discharging liquid and impurities into a hose |66 leading tol a point of liquid disposal such as a drain (not shown).

Referring to Figs. 3 to 6, the lter has a base |61 suitably secured to lid |2 (Fig. 1) as by screws 248. Base |61 supports a cylindrical transparent wall |68 of a suitable material such as heat resistant glass. The Wall |68 has a top ring |69 mounting a plurality of spring fasteners for holding in place a removable top member |1| having lugs |12 for the fasteners |10. The top ring |69 is also secured to lid l2 by screws 268. The top member |1| has a gasket |13 against which the rim |69 of wall |68 bears for tightly sealing the filter. The inlet duct |62 has a sliding iit with bracket which is connectedY to base |61 by pivot |14. After loosening the fasteners |16 the lter may be opened by raising the top member |1| and swinging it about pivot |14, the slidingt between inlet duct |62 and bracket |15 permittingthis operation.

The top member |1| forms an inlet chamber |16 to which inlet duct |62 is connected. The bottom wall of chamber |16 has an elongated nozzle |19 adapted to discharge a jet of liquid into the interior |11 of the filter. size for the nozzle of a household washing machine is approximately 1/8 by 2 inches measured at the narrowest portion. f

The interior |11 is subdivided into two chambers |19 and |90 by a filtering member orscreen |8| mounted in a frame |92. The frame |82 nts snugly with its sides against the inside of the transparent wall |69 and is held in the top member |1| by a pivot pin |83 inserted in a bore |84-in the top member. The top of the frame |32 is spaced from top member |1|V to provide an overiiow space from one side of the lter to the other. The bottom of the frame |82 is held betweenprojections |85 of a rotary base member |86 having a shaft |81 and a pinion |98 thereon. The overflow space at the top of frame |82 handles the water now in the event an unusually dirty wash clogs up the screen.

The pinion |88 meshes with a rack |89 in the base |61 permitting rotation of the ltering screen through an arc of 186. The arrangement of the rotating mechanism |88, |89 is such that in one end position the ltering screen |8| is parallel to the elongated nozzle which is so inclined as to discharge a jet of iuid against the one side of the filter at a relatively sharp angle of approximately '1 degrees. In the other eX- treme position the filtering screen |8| is reversed so as to receive the iet of fluid on the other side to remove the impurities |90 which may have collected on the one side.

The rotary base member |86 has two control ports |9I and |92- therein cooperating with three discharge ports |93, |94 and |95 in the base |61 forming a valve arrangement. Discharge port |93 leads to the outlet spout |64 and discharge ports |99 and |95 which are interconnected by a duct |96 lead to the outlet duct |65.

In the position shown in Fig. 5 washing liquid is discharged into the input chamber |19 caus- AV suitable ing impurities to collect in the chamber |19 and on the side of the screen |8| facing the chamber |19 as shown at |90. The liquid is ltered through the screen |8| and leaves the outlet chamber through the discharge iport |93 registering with the control port |92 in the rotary base member |66. 1n this position the control port |91 does not register with a discharge port and the discharge ports |94 and |95 are closed.

After reversal of the ltering screen |8| by rotation of the base member |66 through an arc of 180 the discharge port |93 is closed and the ports |99 and |95 are opened by control ports ISI and |92 registering therewith. VThe impurities are now at |90, the side of the screen |8| facing the outlet chamber |89 and further impurities Ymay have collected at the bottom of the inlet chamber |19. The jet of liquid discharged from the nozzle |18 now serves to remove the Y impurities from the screen |3I, and'both chambers |19 and |80 are iiushed through discharge ports |95 and |94, respectively, leading to the outlet duct |65 and thence to a point of liquid disposal.

Referring now also to Fig. 8, the rack member |89 for reversing the screen |8| and actuating the valve arrangement |9| to |95 is operated by a double armed lever |91 which is pivoted at |98 on the lid I2 and engages the rack member |89 at |99. A spring 200 urges the lever |91 in a clockwise direction against theaction of the armature 20| of a solenoid 262. The armature 26| is connected to link 203 by pivot 25e/i, the link 203 having an elongated slot 205 engaging a pin 266 on the lever |91. In Fig. 1 the solenoid 202 is energized While in Fig. 8 it is cle-energized. Slot 295 permits the pin 206 to move therein, which together with the movement of plunger 29| into its retracted position in solenoid 262, permits closing of the lid I2. The horizontal swivel connection |63 between flexible supply tube |6| and inlet duct |672V and the corresponding connection between outlet duct |65 and Ydrain hose `|66 facilitate opening and closing the lid I2. The lid may be held in open position inV any suitable manner. A

It will be understood that this invention may be applied to any size machine either for household purposes or for commercial laundryI purposes and that the various dimensions and the proper speeds of the spin and gyrator shafts will be determined by those skilled in the art depending upon the particular size and design desired.

However, for purposes of disclosure, a specific example of house laundry machine is given. This example applies to the type in which the gyrator shaft rotates during the drying period. The spinner basket may be approximately 20 to 22 inches in diameter at the bottom and its height may be approximately l0 to l2 inches. The weight of the empty basket including balance ring may be 30 to 40 pounds. The weight of the clothes and water remaining in the clothes, when maximum spinning speed is reached, may be approximately 20 pounds. The distance between the center of the universal joint and the center of mass of the basket may run aboutV 15 or 16 inches. The spinning speed of the spin shaft may run about 900 to 1100 R. P. M. and the gyrating speed of the gyrator shaft may run about to 115 R. P. M. The maximum amplitude or gyration (diameter of the path of basket axis) measured at the top of the basket may be' 4 to 9 inches. The machine may hold 6 to Sgallons off water with` about 8` pounds-,of dry clothes and the-machinemay circulate water at the rate of l2 tolgallons of water per minute.

The operation ofthe washing machine so far described is asiollows:

AfterY opening the lid i2 and placing the filter in an upright positionlaundry is placed ini the receptacle 2l'. Cold and'hot waters are admitted@ from the supply lines |42 and |43 through the solenoid controlled valves hid and |55. The water flows through the manifold |48 to the, intake |i1of the pump |5| and also into the sump 2| of the tank or casing i0. Soap flakes or powder may be placed inthe tank |53. Where itinixes with the water, or into a receptacle through which water` flows, such as the chamberk |19 of the iilter i4. The motor 98 is then started which in the starting` phase of the operations is tilted about the pivot IIS such that only gyrator gears H2 and 9A are in engagement while spin gears4 |05 and 55 are disengaged. The motor 9B is held in this adjustment by the lever |30 bearing with its free-end |36. against the arms |38 of the. tiltable motor support ii'i. At the same time the cradle |33v carrying the brake liningv |35; rests firmly against the periphery of the spingcar 55 arresting the same:

The motor 98' driving the gear 94 also drives thepump |5I the friction gear |56 of which rests against the periphery of the gear 94. The pump |5i. feeds the` washing liquid from the sump 2| of the casing, ill through the hose |ii| to the filter lil. The washing liquid enters the filter i4 through` intake duct |62, is discharged, through the nozzle |18 into input chamber |19, passes throughthe filtering screen |8| into outlet chamber |85 and is directed into the receptacle E? through the outlet spout |54..

At the saine time washing motion is imparted to the. receptacle 21 through the gyrator shaft 65. Due to rotation of the gyrator shaft and under the weight` of the laundry placed into the receptacle 2:1 and of the washing liquid flowing. into it. through the outlet spout |64 ofthe filter I4, the rotor shaftll of the receptacle 21 tilts about the center of the unversal joint 52 against the centering action. of the spring 83. En this tiltedposition the `roller 8.1 rests against the flared portion 13 of the gyrator shaft 66 and the roller 81 comes to rest against the projectionS-S (Fig. '1) on the inside of thegyrator.` shaft 56, 13 causing the rotor shaft 4|), with the receptacle 21 to make a wobbling or gyrating motion about the uniye1sal2joint552, inthe direction of the arrow in-Fig. 7.

The washing liquid fed by the pump i5! fills the-basket 21 faster than'the liquid drains off through the bleeder holes 35 causing excess wash.- ing liquid constantly to spill over the inturned ange-25t The speed ofY gyration during washingmay be suflicientlyfhigh to prevent the basket from retaining-g` much water because the centrifugal force, due to gyration ofthe basket, causesthe. water to bank up along the side wallof the basket and move around the basket in the direction of basket movement. This excess liquid carries with it iloating impuritiessuch asl lint, curdi andother matter which otherwise would adhere to the laundry. The excess` liquid overflows intothe casing I'where it collects in the sump and is` recirculated through the filter idiwhich removes the impurities.

The laundry inside the receptacle 21 is thoroughly agitatedfand partakes-of two-distinct' major motions imparted to the contents due` to the novel shape of the inside surface of the receptacle. Firstly the ring of clothes moves continuously about the rotor axis, or axis of the ring of the clothes, in a direction opposite to the movement of water and the direction of gyration. In addition, the baffles or helical blades 3.1 together with the trough 33 and the ledge 35, set up a vortex motion on the clothes as indicated by arrows 281' in Fig. 2. During these two major movements the laundry is further agitated by inoving past the ledge 35 and the edge Zil` of the raised central portion 32.

The conical shape of the basket, the inclined bafiles 31 and the raised central disk 32 assist in giving the clothes the vorte-X movement. The central disk tends to shove the clothes to the outer edge of the smooth bottoni 33 of the baskct. The helical bailies 31 serve to knock the clothes up the side of the basket and the outer ledge 35 at the bottori; of the basket serves to boost the clothes every time it hits them. The inertia of the clothes tends to hold the mass more nearly in a central position while the gyrating basket moves under it, batting the clothes to obtain the vortex action.

At the end of the washing cycle the machine is shifted from the washing to the drying position. For this purpose the solenoid |21 controlling the brake arrangement |30, |35 for the drive shaft 48 and the tilt of the motor 984 is deenergized, causing the brake to release the drive shaft i8 for free rotation and further causing engagement between the gear 55 on the drive shaft and the corresponding gear |06 on the motor shaft. The drive shaft i8 driven by the motor 98 through the torque limiting clutch lili, |59, |93 is gradually accelerated and causes the rotor shaftii and the receptacle 21 to spin. The high spinning speed of the receptacle 21 causes the washing liquid to be discharged therefrom through bleeder holes 35 by centrifugal force leaving the contents in a semi-dry state.

Simultaneously with the shifting of the machine to the centrifugal drying position, the filter solenoid 202 is energized, reversing the iiiltering screen |8i, closing the outlet spout |64A and causing the washing liquid fed by the pump |5| to clean the screen IBI and iiush the two, filter. chambers |19 and |80. The two chambers |19 and are connected to the outlet duct |65 through the open valves |9|, |94 and |92, |95 and the liquid contained in the casing l0 thus drained through drain pipes |55, |66.

After the spin-drying the laundry may be rinsed in one or several changes of hot or cold rinse water. For this purpose the machine is shifted to the washing position in which the drive shaft 48 is arrested, the spin gears |56 and` culated and filtered to remove impurities which.

otherwise would adhere to the laundry.

After the rinsing the water is againidrained, the filter ill` cleaned and the. laundryl centrifugally dried, as hereinbefore explained in con` nection with the finalV phase of the washing, action. The time' of the iinal drying may be somewhat extended to remove moisture to al higher degree than between washing and rinsing or between rinses.

When the basket and its contents are spinning for centrifugal extraction, they act as the rotor of a gyroscope. Normally, the contents of the basket are not evenly distributed, giving the basket a certain unbalance. Hence, the center` of mass of the spinning mass, including the basket, its contents and everything spinning therewith, will not always coincide with the geometrical axis of the basket. Therefore, the spinning mass rotatesl about its actual center of mass and not necessarily about its geometrical axis. The rotating gyroscope, which is the spinning mass, under certain conditions will tend to precess, that is, its axis will move in a spiral path departing more and more away from Vertical. Upon departure of the basket axis from vertical, the rotating gyrator shaft, through the spherical friction members, exerts an accelerating force on the basket tangential to the path precession of the basket, causing the basket to move toward vertical.

Thus, the basket and its contents is free to spin about its actualY center of mass and the stabilizing devices maintains the basket in upright position. The action of the centering spring, in balancing the dead Weight of the basket and its contents, assists in the stabilizing action.

' Thecentering spring operates to increase the lifting torque or restoring torque under all conditions of operation, that is to say, both while the spin shaft is accelerating for a centrifugal drying operation and after the spin shaft has acquired centrifugal drying Speed; and the machine is also enabled to handle increased out-ofbalance forces due to an undistributed load or other causes. The centering spring increases the lifting force caused by the rotating gyrator shaft at all usable gyrator shaft speeds, or in other words, causes the gyrator shaft to exert any given value of lifting torque at lower gyrator shaft speeds.

l The amount of centering torque exerted by the centering spring depends upon the design of the machine and the results it is desired to accomplish. With the use of a rotating gyrator shaft for both drying and washing, the centering spring should not exert toc great a centering force or else the basket will not take an cifcenter position for the gyrating washing action. Furthermore, if the centering spring exerts tooY much centeringV action, considerable vibration may be transmitted to the outer tank from the basket during centrifugal drying. Thus, with a machine of the type of Figs. 1 and 2, the centering spring may exert a sufficiently strong centering torque to hold the basket and its contents stably in central position with spin and gyrator shafts Stationary, provided the centering torque exerted by the centering spring is sufciently weak to enable the centrifugal force caused by .the rotation of the gyrator shaft for Washing to throw the basket outwardly so that the roller mounting is referred to as a stable mounting; Where the centering force exerted by the centering spring is insufficient to accomplish this result, the mounting Will be referred to as unstable. It will be'understood that the spring may exert a centering force of such value as to obtain a stable mounting when the basket is empty and unstable when the basket is filled with clothes and water; or, stable when the basket is filled with clothes holding residual water remaining after draining and unstable when the basket is lled with clothes and undrained water. In all of these cases, the spring improves gyroscopic stabilization.V In the preferred case, the centering spring should exert a centering force sufficiently strong to make the mounting stable with the basket filled with clothes and excess undrained Water, the spring exerting centering torque approximately fifty percent more than the tippingtorque caused by the Weight of the basket and contents acting through the distance from central position to full olf-center position.

The constant ratio motor clutches IUI, |08 and H10, i I3 improve the operation of the machine at the beginning of a centrifugal drying period. These slip clutches not only reduce the load torque on the motor caused by accelerating the basket and its contents from zero spin, but also act to increase the lifting or restoring torque on the basket during this period. At the end of a rinsing or washing operation, wherein Vthe spin shaft is held stationary and the gyrator shaft rotates, when the machine is shifted to the drying position, the gyrator shaft continues to rotate and the stationary spin shaft begins to accelerate. This substantially increases the load torque on the motor and for this reason the gyrator shaft would ordinarily slow down somewhat. However, I have found that greatly improved operation can be obtained by deliberatelyV slowing down the gyrator shaft to a predetermined extent during the acceleration of the spin shaft. By the use of the constant ratio clutches the spin drive gear and gyrator drive gear are coupled together and must rotate as a unit. This imposes a predetermined speed ratio between the spin and gyrator shafts which exists, regardless of the speed of the motor or the slippage of the motor clutches. This slows down the gyrator shaft to a more efficient stabilizing speed while the spin shaft is accelerating.

In practice this speed ratio may be taken to be about 10 to 1 on the basis of about 1100 R. P. M. spin speed and a R. P. M. gyrator shaft speed during the centrifugal drying period with a full load and after the basket has acquired drying speed.

This improved operation results from the relationship between the various gyroscopic forces set up. If the gyrator shaft speed be too high as compared with the spin shaft speed, the lifting or restoring force, available to move the spinning mass toward central position, is considerably reduced so that, in some cases at the beginning of the drying operation, where there is considerable out-of-balance, the restoring force may be so small as to cause bumping of the roller against the inside of the gyrator shaft. With the gyrator shaft speed kept down within the proper relation to the spin shaft speed, the restoring or lifting torque generated is considerably increased and Will effectively prevent bumping of the roller and cause the basket to approach centering Vposition even when the load in the basket is considerably unbalanced and the spin shaft is rotating at a relatively low speed.

The features and advantages of structure and operation of the washing machine hereinbefcre described are numerous.

The construction of the movable receptacle 2l for. theV articles to be washed results in a highly efficient washing action, During the washing, soaking or rinsing process the laundry is vigorously agitated without the use of a mechanical agitator in the receptacle which are commonly found in conventional washing machines. In the receptacle 2'! the contents are agitated by currents or turbulence of the liquid produced by the peculiary wall and bottom configurations of the receptacle, more particularly the helical blades 3l, the ledge 35, the circular trough 33 and the raised central portion 32.

By providing bleeder holes 3B, large enough for quick and efficient draining during the spin drying phase,` but small enough in relation to the amount of washing liquid circulated and fed into the receptacle during the washing, soaking or rinsing periods, there is a constant overflow of washing liquid during said phases. The overflow effectively removes from the receptacle scum, curd, lint and other floating impurities which otherwise would be caught in the laundry during the spin drying following each of the washing, soaking and rinsing phases. The advantage of thus removing impurities will be apparent when it is seen that during the spin drying, the laundry is thrown against the side walls of the receptacle covering the bleeder holes 36 and acts in this position as a filter for the liquid which is being drained therethrough by centrifugal force.

The effectiveness of the washing action of the machine is further enhanced by the filter I4 removing insoluble impurities from the washing liquid and feeding iiltered liquid into the receptacle. The progress of the washing process may convenienti;7 be observed at the transparent lter housing in which the impurities accumulate. A particular advantage of the filter Structure is the self-cleaning arrangement by means of which the ltering member itl is automatically cleaned and its chambers |79 and |80 flushed at the end of each washing, soaking or rinsing operation. It is notable that the filter I4 is extremely compact, does not interfere with the placing into or removing of laundry from the receptacle 21 and that at all times the delicate filtering screen |8| is enclosed and protected against injury.

Quietness of operation and freedom from vibration are achieved by the peculiar mass distribution of the receptacle 21, more particularly by the arrangement of the heavy weight bottom wall 38 having a trough 2B therein and the balance ring 39, the mass distribution being such that center of gravity of the empty receptacle lies substantially in the same horizontal plane as the center of the mass of the normal full charge of the laundry placed therein. Hence, the center of mass of the loaded basket does not shift very much vertically with different amounts of laundry nor does it shift very much horizontally due to uneven distribution of the laundry.

A high degree of quietness and smoothness of operation of the washing machine is further attained by the hereinbefore described frictional erection device 15, 16, 'l'l in connection with the centrally arranged spring 83. The central spring B3, it will be noted, serves a double purpose. It firstly tends to maintain the rotor shaft 40 vertical, counteracting a tipping of the same, and cushioning the impact of the rotor shaft 40, tipping against the flared end 13, of the gyrator shaft .speeds than without this centering force.

i4 65, at the end of the spinning period. Secondly, the spring 83 forces the spherically curved friction plate 'il into engagement with the friction concentric, no erecting torque is exerted on the` rotor shaft all, l0 by the frictional erecting means.

In general, spring centering force, either suffrcient or insufiicient to make the mounting stable, increases the restoring torque generated by the forward rotation of the gyrator shaft at any speed and increases the range of gyrator shaft speed.

over which a restoring torque is generated. This spring centering force also causes a restoring torque to be generated at lower gyrator shaft In addition, this centering force makes it possible to obtain anv appreciable restoring torque'with a stationary gyrator shaft or evenwithy the; gyrator shaft rotating backwardly.

While certain novel features of the invention have been disclosed and are pointed out in the annexed claims, it will be understood that various omissions, substitutions and changes may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

What is claimed is:

1. In a washing machine, an open top basket having an annular, trough-shaped bottom forming a central raised hub-like portion and having an annular upstanding side wall, said hub-like portion being relatively smooth circumferentally, said basket being adapted to hold washing liquid for the washing operation, a series of substantially helical ribs disposed on the inside of said upstanding wall, means for imparting a gyratory movement to said basket during washing to cause its axis to describe the surface of a cone whose apex is below the basket, said ribs extending upwardly in the direction of gyration of the basliet,` and means for preventing the rotation of the basket about its own axis during washing.

2. In a washing machine, an open top basket having an annular, trough-shaped bottom :forming a central raised hub-like portion, and having an annular upstanding side Wall, said basket being adapted to hold washing liquid for the washing operation, a series of substantially helical ribs disposed on the inside of said upstanding wall, means for imparting a gyratory movement to said basket during washing to cause its axis to describe the surface of a cone whose apex is below the basket, said ribs extending upwardly in the direction of gyration of the basket, means for preventing the rotation of the basket about its own axis during washing, and means for spinning said basket for drying.

3. In a washing machine, an open top basket having an annular upstanding side wall portion and a central, raised hub-like portion, said portions forming an annular trough-shaped bottom portion, a series of substantially helical. ribs disposed on the inside of said side wall portion, said basket being adapted to hold washing liquid for the washing operation, means for imparting a gyratory movement to said basket during washing to'cause its axis to describe the surface of a cone, said ribs extending upwardly in the direction Qi gyration of the basket, and means for preventing the rotation of the basket about its own axis during washing.

4. In a washing machine, an open top basket having' an annular upstanding side wall portion, a central, raised hub-like portion, said portions forming an annular, trough-shaped bottom portion, afseries of substantially helical ribs disposed on the inside'of said side wall portion, means for imparting a gyratory movement to said basket during. washing to cause its axis to describe the surface of a cone, said ribs extending upwardly in the ,direction of gyration of the basket, said basket being adapted to hold washing liquid for the washing operation, and means for controlling the rotation of the basket about its own axis during washing, whereby to cause the clothes to take the form of a ring lying in said trough-shaped portion, in which the clothes move upwardly at the outside of the ring and downwardly at the center of the ring, simulating a vortex.

JAY GRANT DE REMER.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent:

Number 16 UNITED STATES PATENTS Name Date Greenberg Feb. 17, 1920 Wappat Oct. 5, 1926 Dunham Mar. 25, 1930 Schroeder Aug. 12, 1930 Schroeder Feb. 21, 1933 Motycka Mar. 10, 1936 Behan Dec. 28,1937 Reed Feb. 8, 1938 Motycka Nov. 22, 1938 Bendix May 16, 1939 Bassett Dec. 17, 1940 Kuhn Mar. 10, 1942 McMahan June 23, 1942 Dyer Mar. 16, 1943 Dyer Aug. 3, 1943 Kirby Oct. 12, 1943 McCleary Jan. 18, 1944 Clark Apr. 11, 1944 De Reiner May 30, 1944 Wardwell Nov. 14, 1944 Candor June 19. 1945

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Classifications
U.S. Classification68/23.00R, 68/25, 68/12.24, 68/152, 68/12.13, 74/86, 68/18.00R, 68/172, 68/53
International ClassificationD06F21/00, D06F39/10, D06F21/12, D06F39/00
Cooperative ClassificationD06F21/12, D06F39/10
European ClassificationD06F21/12, D06F39/10