US 2557028 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
L. E. DEUTSCH KEY-OPERABLE PERMUTATION Loox June 12, 1951 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 9, 1946 w@ Y v B June 12, 1951 92-55'102" f KEY-OPERABLE PERMUTATION Loox- Y v s Filed Feb. q,l 194e I f -4 'sheets-sheet 2 1 E. DEUTSCH --June12, 1951 LEDUTSCH 2,551,028
, a KEY-OPERABLE PERMUTATION LOCK l Filled Feb. 9, 194e 1 4 4 sheets-sheet 5 Jun 1`2,1951 l fLj.E.DEU'TVsHf jf y 2,557,028 z KEY-OPERABLE, PERMUTATION LOCK v Filed Feb. 9, 1946 4 sheets-sheet 4 IN VEN TOR.
Patented June 12,1951
UNITED STATES `"PilkTlEllSl'I' CFFICE KEY-OPERABLE PERMUTATION LOCK Leo E. Deutsch, Hammond, Ind., assigner to Deutsch Lock Company, Hammond, Ind., a corporation o'i'` Indiana.
Application lFebruary 9, 1946, Serial No. 646,600
(Cl. 'l0-363) altered by changing the relative position or 'posi- Ations of one or more of the locking elements.
An additional object of the invention .is to provide, in a lock of the character referred to, means for retaining an operating key against withdrawal from the lock until the locking unit" shall have been returned to a locked position. The lock mechanism therefore, cannot be 'left 'in `an unlocked condition without leaving the key yin the lock, although when the lock latch has been released and the locking unit has beenrefstored to locking position and the key removed, the latch may thereafter be closed in .instances where the improvements are employed inthojse types of locks which are self-latching, Aaspadlocks, -for example. In other Words, the 'improvements may be embodied in locks of vthev type that are key-operable to latched position or 'in the type that may be merely snapped to latched position without use of a key.
An additional object of the invention yis to` .provide a permutation lock that maybe masterized, that is, a lock that is operable byakey designed particularly for that lock as Well asbeing `operable by a master key 'that will operate `a lgroup of other locks set at different flocking combinations. Thus each of 'a Ygroup of'lo'cks used on asimilar num-ber of doors, as apartment house doors, for example, may be set each foroperation by a particular key'of the respective tenant,-and all the locks may be operable bya master key in the custody of the janitor ror other authorized person. Likewise, the locking elementsrof apa-rticular lock of the improved typ-e maybe arranged vfor operation by each'of the keys of -agroup of vlocks each ofthe latterof which hasilockin'g elements thereof arranged for 'operationo-rly-by I 'the key 'for that particular-lock. `for 'eX- 'famp1e an "outer door of anapartment"building may havealock tha-tis Aoperable Abyeach pf L'the though each key is ineffective to operate other than a particular apartment `door lock.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved key structure for use with the improved lock mechanism.
Other objects of the invention relate to various features of construction and arrangement of parts which will be apparent from a consideration of the following specication and accompanyin'g drawings wherein:
Fig. lisa broken longitudinal sectional viewfof apadl'ock provided with locking mechanismthat Ais illustrative of the present invention.
'Fig 2 is a broken front elevational View of the lock shown in Fig. 1 and viewed in the direction of arrow 2---2, the lock mechanism being in locking position within the casing.
Fig. 3 is a broken sectional view takenon `line 3-:3 of'Fig. 1.
Fig. 4' is a broken longitudinal sectional view taken online 4-4 of Fig. 2.
'Fig'. 5 isa broken side elevational view of the padlock `shown'in Fig. 1 and illustrating a suitable lock-chamber Within the casing of the padlock for receiving the improved lock mechanism.
Fig; 6 is Va sectional View taken -on line 6--6of Fig. 5.
Fig. 7 is a sectional view taken on line 1 -Tof Fig. 5.
Fig. 8 'is an elevation of an improved lock unit .removed from thecasing shown in Fig. 5.
Fig. 9 is a rear or inner end view of the lock mechanism shown in Fig. 8.
Fig. 10 is alon'gitudinal Sectio-nal view of a de- 'tachedcylindrical locking element carrier taken on a'vertical plane when the carrier is in the rela- 'tive lockingposition shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 11 is -a front elevation of the lock with the lock unit moved clockwise from they position shown in Fig. 2 toward the position Vat which -the shackles of the padlock show-n vin Fig. 1 will :be unlatched.
Fig. 12 is an explodedperspective View showing separately certain parts of the .lock unit .in separated relation.
Fig. 13 is a perspective view offa latchiactuat- 'ing -bar constituting part of the .look unitVV and also a Aretainer spring in detached relationof .a
ltype suitable for retaining the bar in yassembled relationin a locking element carrier.
Fig. 14 isa perspective View showing' vone aside of one of the locking elements or tumblers F-ig.V 15 is a perspective view-showing the :opposite sid-cof the same or a different lockingzelement.
Fig. 16 is a broken top plan view of the lock shown in Fig. 1, with a key in position in the lock ready to be turned to release the shackle latch.
Fig. 17 is a perspective view of a key for use in operating a lock of the type shown in the preced ing iigures.
Fig. 18 is a front end elevation of the key.
Fig. 19 is a sectional view taken on line I9I3 of Fig. 18.
Fig. 20 is a broken longitudinal sectional view of the key illustrating two actuator members in different relative positions in the key.
Fig. 2i is a perspective View of a detached actuator element.
Fig. 22 is a broken side elevation of the key illustrating an aperture closure slide in a retracted position within the key and a rotatable sleeve moved to a position giving access to one or" the actuator members.
Fig. 23 is a broken sectional view taken on line 23--23 of Fig. 19.
Fig. 24 is a perspective view of a closure slide removed from the key.
Fig. 25 is a broken top plan view of the key.
Fig. 26 is a broken sectional view taken on line 26-26 of Fig. 19.
Fig. 27 is a broken top plan view of a special key for use in removing a locking unit from a lock casing.
In the drawings, the lock selected for the purrpose of illustrating the invention is a padlock having a casing Ii), but the improved lock mechanism may be utilized in locks of other types such as door locks, desk locks or safety deposit' locks, for example, as well as with locks of types intended for various special purposes as will be apparent from a consideration of the following specification.
The lock casing I6 as illustrated in Fig.
-whether formed as a movable or portable body portion of a padlock or of a lock housing insert- -able in a door stile or the like, is provided with a lock chamber II. The wall i2 of the chamber II is provided, intermediate the ends of the chamber, with an annular row or ring of spaced apart locking lugs I3 which are shown as integral with the chamber wall of the lock. In Fig.
' there is also shown a second annular row of lugs I3 which are similar to lugs I3 but the lugs i3 perform no locking function and could have been represented in the drawing merely as a continul ous annular rib similar to the flange from which the lugs I3 are formed but as a matter of convenience in shop operations, the lugs I3' are cut in the machine operation that forms the lugs i3.
The lock mechanism or unit I4 iits within, and is releasably retained in, the chamber II and, as shown in Fig. 12, the unit I4 comprises a locking element carrier I5 and a spring carrier I6 each generally of cylindrical shape and adapted to be assembled into the unitary form shown in Fig. 8. When in assembled relation the carrier I6 cooperates with carrier I5 in supporting the locking elements hereafter described.
The element carrier I5 is of an external diamevided with two longitudinal, diametrically op posed slots 22, in its inner periphery for receiv-v ing a bar 23 which serves as a connector for the element carrier I5 and the spring carrier I6 as later described. The outer portions of the slots 22 intersect the annular groove 20 to provide two radial apertures 2li and 25 in the carrier I5 with which apertures the opposed transverse notches 26 and 2? of the bar 23 register when the latter is in position within the carrier. The spring ring 2 I, somewhat greater than 180 of arc, seats within the groove and has ends 2I1 of reduced width which are disposed within the notches 26 and 2'! for latching or retaining the bar 23 in position within the carrier I5.
The carrier I5 is provided also with longitudinal or axially directed slots or passages 28 which are disposed in radial planes and slidably receive locking elements, each of the elements being indicated generally by the numeral 29.
r-llhe elements 29, as illustrated particularly in Figs. 14 and l5, preferably are of identical form. each comprising a mid web 30 and two longitudinal bars 3I and 32 of equal length. The bars are provided with notches 33, 34 of equal length but spaced unequal distances from the ends of the respective bars 3i, 32. In Figs. 14 and 15 are shown the opposite sides of the same element, or the iigures may be considered as showing the reverse side of one element and the obverse side of another element since, as stated, the elements are identical. t will be noted that the elements 29 are symmetrical except for the location of the notches 33, 3d. The webs are shown as bearing indicia on one side in the form of numerals 1 and 3 and on the other side the numerals 2 and 4. The indicia indicate selective positions in which an element may be inserted in a slot 28 in setting up a selected locking combination. This important aspect of the invention will be described later in greater detail since it makes possible the use of identical locking elements each in any one of four diiferent operative positions within a given slot or passage 28 which, as shown in Fig. 3, are shaped to accommodate the cross sectional form of the elements 29 and to act as guides for the latter to avoid cooking or binding of the same asthe elements are moved within the respective passages.
The spring carrier I5 is provided with diametrical slots 22a which form extensions of the slots 22 for accommodating the bar 23 when the spring carrier is assembled on the bar 23. The bar projects beyond the rear end of the carrier i6, as shown at 23a in Fig. 1.
The carrier I6, as shown in Fig. 12, is provided with radial slots 28CL which, when the carriers are assembled upon the bar 23 constitute extensions of the slots 28 of carrier I5. The carrier I6 is also provided with spring chambers 35 bored from the rear end of the carrier as illustrated in Fig. 4 and each having its longitudinal axis disposed within the radial plane of a slot 28a. Springs 36 are disposed in the chambers 35 and at the forward ends engage the adjacent ends of the webs 30 of the respective locking elements, urging the latter to the left or toward the forward end of the lock as viewed in Fig. 4.
VA disc-like closure 37 is secured to the rear end of the carrier I6 for retaining the springs 36 under compression. At the rear of the member 31 a split spring-ring 38 is provided which seats in notches 39, 39 in the rear portion of the bar 23 for releasably retaining the carrier I6 upon the bar in assembled or unitary relation with s respect to .the :carrier I as' indicated in,;11"g..;8.,
Thecarriers .I5 and I8 also are provided with co-axial'bores which provide a chamber S'Sfor a rcylindrical .plug or piston 40. A spring 4I urges the plug to the left as viewed in Fig'. 1. The plugis positioned within a slot 42 provided in the bar 23. The slot 42 is open at the forward end, asat 43, for admitting insertion .of a proper key into the carrier I5, while the upper'forward portion of the bar is shaped to provide a stop 44 which limits forward movement of the plug under the action .of the spring 4I. When the carriers I 5 andk I6 have been assembled uponthe bar 23 and secured thereto as above described, they can be inserted as a unit into the. chamber I I. Viewing. Figs. 5 and 8, it will be seenthat. in inserting the lock unit in thelock chamber, Athe spring carrier I6, being off less external diameter than the internal diameterof the. rib fromiwhich the lugs I3 were formed, will pass into thecentral passage dened by the inner ends of the lugs as shown in Fig. 1. The diameter of the rear portionA of the element carrier I5 is such that the lugs arrest the inward movement of the'unit in the position shown in Fig. l.
There are shown two retaining lugs 45 and 45 on the exterior of the spring carrier It which are wider thanthe spaces I3EL between adjacent, lugs I3. Hence to enable the lugs 45, 46 to pass inwardly beyond the lugs I3, two special notches`41, 48 are provided in the ring of lugs as shown in Fig. 3V through which spaces the lugs 45, 46 respectively may be passed. The lugs are so positioned on the carrier I6 that it is necessary (in the particular construction illustrated) to turn the locking unit to the left .beyond the normal locking and unlocking. range of movement of the unit, to permit insertion in or removal of :the unit from the casing.
As indicated in Fig. 2, in the illustrated embodiment of the invention, the locked position of the unit is the vertical position, that is, the positions wherein a mark 49 on the unit I5 is aligned with a mark 50 of the casing. The unit is designed to be turned clockwise, in the particular -.lock
illustrated, to effect the release of the particular latching means employed. Thelatching mechanism of the illustrated padlock will be described later. In removing the locking unit from vthe casing, the units must be turned by a special key to the left or counter-clockwise from the vertical or locked position shown in Fig. 2 or until the lugs 45, 46 register with the respective notches 41, 48. This position of registration of thelugs and notches is indicated in Fig. 11 to be rabout 72 from the vertical or locked position. In this relative angular position of the locking unit, the lugs and 45 will be in registration with notches 41 and 48 and hence the unit can be moved axially outward from the casing. The same relative position of the unit with respect to the casing is required in replacing the unit in the chamber II.
In removing or replacing a unit it can not be rotated into or from the normal'or locked position wherein marks 49 and 50 register unlessithe locking elements 29 are shifted axially to cause the operative notches 33 or 34, whichever are'on the radial outermost edge ofthe elements 29, to register with the locking lugs I3 in the lock chamber. A special removal key 5I shown in Fig. 27 is provided for that purpose. .The key 5I is similar to the service key shown in detail in Figs. 17 Vto 26,-inclusive, vand later described in detail, except that' the key5 I is not provided-.with
asretaining 'rib-51h01' a p-in` receiving channel-:52.a shown1inf-Fig519. `The key 5I, however, is providediwith Vadjustable actuator members or pins 53 corresponding in number and adjusted-correlatively-tothelocking elements 29 and each of which actuator members is adapted to engage the forward endl of theiinner-most bar '3| or 32 of the respective locking-elements for shifting the elements inwardly. When Va proper removing keyfBI. is in position in thelocking unit, the respective outer-mostslots 33 or 34 ofthelocking elements will' be aligned with the plane of the lugs I3 and thus permit the locking unit to be turned clockwise or counter-clockwise as Viewed in`Fig. 11. YThe-unit may be turned until the mark-.49-hasbeen moved to a position indicating registration of lugs-45 and 46 with the notches 41'and 48 as in removing a unit from the casing or until marks 49 and 5I! vare in Vertical registration asshown in Fig. 2 when the unit is in the lockedposition. When the key 5I is withdrawn after the unit has been turned to the locked position just mentioned, the springs 35 slide the locking elements 29 forwardly until the same are arrested by engagement of the forward ends of the radially outer-most bars of each element with the vertical stop wall I9 as shown in Fig. 4.
When the various locking elements are in the position `shown in Fig. 4, that is, whenthe forward ends of the outer-most bars thereof are in contact with the wall I9, the notches in said bars are out of registration with the lugs I`3 and the rear portions of said bars extend between adjacentlugs I3 and hence the locking unit can notbe turned in either direction. Neither can the unit be moved forwardly from the chamber when the unit is in lockedV position by reason of the fact that the retaining lugs 45 and 46 are out of registration with their respective notches 41 and 48.
When the lock is to be operated by an appropriate service key such as a key shown in'Figs. 17 to 26', inclusive, the key is inserted in the-forward endl of the lock whereby a slot 54 in a core member 5'5? o'f the vkey registersfwith the-forward hooked end of the bar 23. The forward end of the core engages the spring actuated vplug 4U 'whiler the forward ends of the actuator members 53 engage the forward ends of the corresponding inner-most bars of the locking element which are exposed at the forward end of the carrier'I'5 .(as shown inl Fig. 2), thus moving the lockingA elements to the right as viewed in Fig'. 4 until'the'outer-most notches 33 or 34 thereof register vwith or are disposed in the plane of the lugs I3. When the locking elements have been thusA moved, the locking unit can be turned clockwise by the key as viewed in Fig. ll thus turning'the bar'23, the inner end of which, as above described, projects beyond the inner end of'thespring carrier I 5.
`The'nner projecting end of the bar 23 is indicated by numeral 23a and is utilized for releasing-"thelatching mechanism of the particular vtype of lock with which the improvements are employed. The latching means may comprise'a'bolt or other conventional form of latching element but the particular type of lock shown in the Hdrawing is a padlock having a shackle --56 provided Awith arms of different length. The shorter arm51 is 'provided with an .under-cutlocking. recess 58 therein while a similarlockingrecess 59 is provided in the^longer arm :of .the shackle. The shorter arm is adaptedto projectntofa chamber'f-l provided 7. in the casing IIJ while the longer arm projects into a chamber 62 also formed in the casing. The longer arm is provided with a chamber 63 in which is seated a spring B4 which shifts the shackle to the right or outwardly as viewed in Fig. 1 whenever the latching members are moved inwardly, as viewed in Fig. l, by rotation of the bar 23 as above described.
The arms l and 58 of the shackle 56 are latched in inner` positions by means comprising a pair of similar locking dogs 65 and 63 shown in Fig. 7. A pair of springs 'i and 68 is provided which urge the dogs in an outward direction or into position wherein the outer notched ends extend into the respective recesses 6I and 62. The shape of the recesses 58, 59 cooperate with the mating forms of the dogs to prevent the latter being jarred from latching relation without use of a proper key. The dogs 55 and 65 are provided with cam like formations 69 and 78 each of which is adapted to be engaged and actuated by an edge portion of the rear end 23a of the bar 23. Hence as shown in Fig. 7, when the bar 23 is turned clockwise sufficiently by a proper key the dogs 35 and B will be retracted inwardly of the casing against the action of the respective springs 3'? and 68 until the outer ends of the dogs recede from the notches 53 and 59 of the shackle arms, whereupon the spring 33 will shift the shackle to the right as viewed in Fig. 1, to a position wherein the shorter arm 56 is outside the chamber 5I. rihe padlock thus will be unlatched. The longer shackle arm B8 is provided with an axially directed groove 'ii which communicates with an annular groove 12. The groove 'i'I receives the outer end of the dog 85 and permits the shackle to be moved outwardly by the spring Eli when the dog 35 has been moved inwardly sufficiently to register with the groove lI. When the shackle has been moved to the outer-most position, the inner end of the dog B6 is engaged by the shoulder 'I3 which resists further outward movement of the shackle but the shackle can be swung about the axis of the longer arm Si] by reason of the provision of the annular groove 'I2 as will be understood.
In re-latching the padlock, the locking unit may be turned by the key to the position shown in Fig. 2 whereupon the plug or plunger 43 expels the key from the lock and the springs 35 shift the locking elements 29 forwardly or to the left to the position shown in Fig. 4 thereby preventing the locking unit from being turned without reinsertion of a proper key. The shackle 56 may then be swung until the groove 'H registers with the end cf the retracted dog 68 and the shackle then pressed inwardly, the groove 'H effecting alignment of the shorter arm 5'! with the chamber 6i. Pressing inwardly on the shackle causes the oblique surface 'I4 to engage the oblique surface 'I5 of the dog 65 and thus force the dog 35 inwardly against the action of its spring until the shackle has been returned to the position shown in Fig. 1 whereupon the dogs are snapped outwardly by their springs, into their respective locking recesses 58 and 59 of the shackle arms as shown in Fig. 1. If desired the shackle may first be pressed inwardly as described and the locking unit then key-actuated to the locked position.
Refering again to Figs. 14 and 15, it will be seen that each locking element 28 can be inserted in any receiving slot 28 in any one of four relative positions within the same or other passage 28.
For example, the element shown in Fig. 14 may be inserted in a passage 28 with the notch 33 thereof in the radial outer-most position. In that instance, the slot 34 of the element 29 will be ineffective in the locking operation since it lies in the radially inward edge of the element. Since the slot 33 is offset from the center of the bar 3I, the notch 33 will occupy a different position with respect to the lugs I3 if the element is withdrawn from the notch 28 and reinserted with the other end of the bar 3I adjacent the wall I9. Likewise, it will be seen that the element 29 shown in Fig. 4 may be inserted in a slot 28 with the notch 33 outer-most and with either end of the bar 32 in contact with the wall I9. Since the notch 34 is offset from the transverse center line of the bar 32 a distance different from that of notch 33, it will be seen that each locking element may be inserted in a slot 28 of the carrier I5 in any one of four different positions and that to move such locking element into unlocking position wherein the outer-most notch 33 or 34 thereof will lie in the plane of the locking lugs I3, the particular element 29 will require inward shifting a diierent distance for each of the said four possible positions mentioned. The particular lock shown is provided with eight locking elements which are identical and each of which, as stated, can be inserted in one of the slots 28 in any one of four positions.
A particular combination to which the lock is set may readily be changed by withdrawing the locking unit from the chamber II by use of the special key 5I shown in Fig. 27, and thereafter releasing the spring 38 and sliding the spring carrier I6 from the bar 23 as illustrated in the exploded View, Fig. 12. When the spring carrier I6 has been removed as mentioned, the locking elements 29 in the carrier I5 can be slid from their respective positions and the relative position of all or some of the elements altered thereby altering the lock combination. Altering the lock combination necessitates re-setting the service key for that particular lock since varying the position of the outer slots 33 or 34, whichever may be radially outer-most with reference to the carrier I5 requires diiferent degrees of sliding movements of the reset elements 2.9 to effect registration of the outer-most notches thereof with respect to the plane of the lugs I3 for unlocking purposes.
As above stated, a service key for use with the improved lock is shown in Figs. 17 to 26, inclusive. The key comprises a core member 55 to the rear end of which is attached a finger piece 18. Mounted on the forward portion of the core 55 is a non-rotatable cylindrical casing member 'I1 which, as shown in Fig. 18, is provided with eight channels 18 in its inner periphery, which channels extend in an axial direction. Each channel 'I8 is adapted for receiving the forward portion of one of the actuator pins 53 which, as shown in Fig. 21, are provided with four transverse notches '18. The actuator pins 53 are disposed upon the exterior surface of the core 55 and may be adjusted outwardly or inwardly to lvarious positions as indicated in Figs. 22 to 25,
inclusive, whereby each pin is adapted to contact the exposed end of the radially inner-most :bar 3| or 32 of a particular locking element 29 and to move it to the right as viewed in Fig. 4, to shiftthe element to the unlocking position, that is, to a position wherein the outer-most Vnotch 33 or '34 thereof will be disposed in the .plane ofthe locking lugs I3. For the purpose of ,attacca retaining. theactuating pins53 in properlyl ad'- justed positions, af rotatable cylindrical sleeve 80' is provided which is `shown asknurled at its outer surface'and-which. atits forward end is provided with an inwardly directed flange 81 which'is continuous :about the inner periphery of the sleeve Sti-exceptV that'it is provided with a cross notch 8.'as shownvv in Fig.` 26. A second cylindricalmernber 83 is shown at the rear end of the core 55 which is non-rotatable and is provided with .channels 8'4 which are axially aligned with the channels 18 of the other nonrotatable sleeve 11. The sleeves 'H and 83 are secured in position -by aspline 15a whichat its rear end is anchored to the core 54 by any suitable means as by swaging the'same to prevent its forward movement within the splinev groovesl provided within the members 11 and 83. The aligned channels 'i8 and'lil thus retain the respective actuator members 53 in. properly aligned positionalong the surface `of the core 55 but permit the actuator elements 53. to be vshifted to the right or left as viewed in Fig. 19 for adjusting the outer ends of the actuator elements to positions for elfectingjthe movement of the corresponding lock elements 29 to unlocking positions when the key is inserted in the lock.
Asshown in Fig, 19, the rotatable sleeve '83 is provided with an aperture or window S which normally is closedby a spring actuated gate or slide 86 having ends 85e of reduced thickness vthat'are slidably .guided inchannels 'Ila and 83a ofthe lsleeves 11 andl 83. The forward portion of the closure gate "86extends, as vshown in Fig. 26, normally through the notch l82 provided in the annularlange 8'! of the sleeve Ell). When the gate 83 extends through the notch 82 as shown in Figs. 19 and 26, the sleeve 8U cannot bel rotated'. The gate 85; however, is provided with a transverse notch 871 inthe forward portion as shown in Fig. 19. which, by moving the gate to the leftas viewedzin Fig. 19 against the action ofa spring', will registerv with the flange 81 andV thus permit the sleeve'fBiJ to' be rotated. The positioning oftheirlange V3| within they notch 81 retains the gate .86 .in .the retracted position during" rotation of the sleeve but when the sleeve has been restored to the position wherein the notch 82zof the ange iregistersrwith the gate 35, thelatter willmovedlby the spring 88 to the Vright as viewed in Fig; 19 Ythus re-latching the sleeve against rotation and. closing .the aperture 35 to prevent entrance'of foreign matter into the interior of theikey.V
Upon .retraction'of' the gate 86 as abovel described, the'sleeve llmay be rotated to bring the aperture. 85 into registration successively with the notched portions of the various actuator pins 53; When the aperture 85 registers with a particular actuator pin 53,' the notch 32 in the ange 3l will register with that particular pin thus enabling that pin-to be shifted axially forwardly or rearwardly as desired.
The channel-'H8L of the cylindrical member il extends to the forward end of the member-and permits the insertion-of a pin or wire therein for shiftingthe gaterearwardly as above described." Ashould-er-of the notch B'lengages the forward edge of member 'il as a stop when the gate 86 is spring actuated to the forward position shown infFig. 19. Theendsof the gate Stare; shown as symmetrical but the reduced rear end and rear transverse notch thereof do not perform any-function. The ends of @the gate are symmetrically lformed.sinceffsuch is `of .advantage in 1 the 10 assembly ofthe gates. within the` keysinasmuch as a gatemay `be inserted in a key lwith either end of the ga-te outermost.
As shown in Fig. 20, the fourth notch 'I9- of the uppermost pin 53- therein shown (counting from the left) receives the flange 8ll and thus that pin is vretained in an axially `adjusted positionshown. The lower-most `pin 53 shownin Fig. 20, has 'its second notch` (counting from Vthe left) in registration with the iiange 8|,.thus retaining that pin 53 against axialdisplacement.
The fournotches 19 of each pin are correlated to the indicia on'the lockingelements 29 comprising the numerals 1,2, 3, `and 4 which preferably are applied to the elements as shown in Figs. 14 and 15. Referring to Fig. 20, the upper pin 53 the-rein shown extends a minimum distance beyond the forward end of sleeve 11 by reason of the fact that the flange 8| is located within the fourth notch 19 counting from the left. nFig. 22, four actuator pins are shown in four different positions, the pins being indicated in said figure by numerals 53 with distinguishing exponents l, 2, 3, and 4. Pin 531; eX- tending farthest to the right while'pin 534 extends the least distance to the right of the end ofthe sleeve Tl. Referring to Figs. 14 and 15, it will be seen that the numerals 1 and 4 on the respective sides of the-locking elements therein shown are inthe up-right position. If the element shown in Fig. 14 is inserted in one of the slots 28 with the numeral 4 remaining in the upright position and with the'left hand endfof the element shown in Fig. 4 first inserted in' a slot so that it contacts Vthe stop wall i3, the uppermost slot 33 of theY element will occupy what may be designated' position number 4, thatis, it will be located in position adjacent the right hand end of the carrier l5 orY in the relative position designated .334 in Fig. 12. If'the 'element shown in Fig. 15 is next inserted in oneof the slots 28 without changing its relativev position with reference to th'e carrier shown in Fig. 12, the slot 33 will occupy the position indicatedat 331 in Fig. 12, that is, slot 331 will occupy the extreme left position, whereas, as stated, slot 334 occupies the extreme right hand position. 1f a locking element, such as the element shown in Fig. 15, is rotated in its own plane through an arc of from the position shown in said ligure, the numeral 3 'will be in the vertical position corresponding to the numeral 1 of Fig. 15. If such element in the-altered relative position described should :then be placed in a slot 218, the slot 34 Ywill 'be outer-most and will foccupy a position correspondingto that indicated at 343 in Fig. 12. That'is,Y it willfbepositioned slightly to the left of the vertical'transverse plane of the slot 334 in Fig. 12. If an element in they position of element29 of Fig. 14' should be similarly rrota-tedin itsl own vplane through an arc of 180, the numeral 2 will ybe in an up-right position oocu'pying the relative' position now occupied by said numeral 4 in said figure, andthe slot 34 in bar'32 will then be upper-most. If such element while in such reversed position should be placed in a slot 28; the slot 34V would then occupy a position corresponding to position of slot 342 of Fig. 12. Axially considered, slot 342 is' disposed in a transverse plane between slot 331 and slot 343. rIhese several positionsof the slots 33 and 34 are correlated to the positions of theactuator pins of the key. Since a slot/33 in the position of slot 334 is disposed inlthe position closestfto the plane ofthe loclnngiflugs l.3,-it will be seen that to bring such slot 334 into the plane of the lugs, the respective actuator element will require movement to the right a minimum distance as viewed in Fig. 12. The projecting end of the pin indicated at 534 in Fig. 22 will so move the element bearing the notch 334 when the key is moved into the lock for unlocking the same. Likewise the locking elements shown in Fig. l2 bearing the slots 343, 342 and 331 being spaced progressively greater distances to the left from the plane of the locking lugs will be moved into such plane by the progressively longer effective end portions of the actuator elements 533, 532 and 53l respectively when the key is pressed into the lock.
From the above, it will be understood that where a locking element is re-set in the locking unit to alter the normal position of its slot 33 or 34, a corresponding adjustment must be made for the respective key actuator member 53 so that when the key is pressed into position in the lock, the exposed portion of the key actuator member for each locking element will be capable of shifting the respective elements 29 the precise distances required to cause the outer-- most slots 33 and 34 to be aligned with the plane of the locking lugs I3 whereby the locking unit can be rotated within the chamber |i. It is for the purpose just described that the sleeve 80 may be rotated, when released by the shift ing of the gate 86, to provide access through the aperture 85 to each of the actuator elements 53 so that by the use of a pick or pin or other small tool, the actuator elements can be shifted to bring any one of the respective notches T19 into the plane of the flange 8|. As the aperture 85 progresses from one actuator element to the next and the flange 8| passes through the annularly aligned notches 79 of the adjusted elements 53 and retains them in the re-adjusted position.
When the sleeve has been returned to the normal position shown in Fig. 17, the notch 82 in the flange 8| will permit the spring 83 to move the slide 8S into the position shown in Fig. 19 thereby closing the aperture and retaining all the actuator elements in their adjusted positions which, as stated above, must be correlated to the relative positions of the respective outer-most notches 33 or 34 of the elements 29.
As stated above, the service key shown in Figs. 17 to 26, inclusive, is provided with a rib 52 at thc forward end of the sleeve il and an annular channel 52a. It will also be noted in Fig. 19 that the forward portion of the sleeve 'il is provided with a slot which is in effect a continuation of the slot 54 of the core 55, the slot of the sleeve 11 being indicated by the numeral 'i's'b in Fig. 19. When a service key is inserted in the lock the slot 54 and slot 'Hb accommodate the upper forward hooked portion of the bar 23 and provide engagement with the bar 23 for turning the same when the key is turned. The rib 52 above mentioned is insertable in the forward end of the carrier I but in entering the carrier, the rib acts against pins 90 and 9| provided in the forward portion of the carrier. The outer ends of the pins extend into the annular channel formed in the exterior surface of the forward end of the carrier I5 and are engaged by the bifurcated ends 92 of a spring 33 which is disposed within the channel Il. The spring normally urges the pins 99 and 9| inwardly so that the inner ends thereof project inwardly of the inner face of the carrier I5. Hence, in placing the key in position in the lock, the pins are cammed outwardly by the rib 52 of the key as shown in Fig. 16. lPin 9| is somewhat longer than pin 90 so that to enable the pin 9| to be moved outwardly a sufficient distance to admit the key into the position shown in Fig. 16, a recess 94 is provided which extends radially outward from an annular channel 95 provided in the wall of the chamber II. The recess 94 is located to register with the pin 9| when the lock is in the locked position shown in Fig. 2, that is, when the marks 49 and 53 are in registration. The pin 99 being of less length than pin 9| requires no recess for accommodating its outward movement when the key is inserted, the depth of the channel I? being adequate. Hence, when a service key is pressed into a lock when the latter is in the position shown in Fig. 2 and then turned in either direction, the key is retained in position' against the expelling action of the spring operating plunger 4i) and of the spring pressed locking elements 29, since to enable the key to be withdrawn, the pin 9| would be required to move outwardly, but such movement can not occur since by reason of such rotative movement of the pin 9| with the unit, the pin is no longer in registration with the recess 94 and the depth of the channel 95 is inadequate to accommodate the required outward movement of the pin to release the key. Hence ythe pins 93 and 9| serve to retain the service key in the lock from the instant the key is moved from the locked position shown in Fig. 2. Not only is the service key locked against removal when the unit is out of the vertical or locked position, but since the diameter of the pin receiving channel 52a of the key causes the outer end of the longer pin 9| to project into the channel 95, should the unit be turned by the service key to the position wherein the lugs 45, 46 register with the slots 4': and 48 the unit can not be removed from the chamber. The service key is retained in the lock by the pins 9|) and 9| until the lock is returned to the locking position shown in Fig. 2 whereupon the pin 9| registers with the recess 94 and permits the spring actuated plunger 44 and the pressed elements 29 to expel the key from the lock. When the key is expelled, all the locking elements 25 are shifted to the left as viewed in Fig. 4 by the respective springs 3S to move the respective outer slots 33 and 34 out of registration of the plane of the locking lugs I3 thereby preventing rotation of the locking unit except by the ref insertion of a proper key. The two spring pressed pins 9|), SI acting on opposite sides of a key, tend to center it upon insertion in the lock.
From the above description, it will be obvious why a special key 5| is required in removing the locking unit from the chamber. As stated, the key 5| shown in Fig. 27 is not provided with a rib corresponding to rib 52 of the locking key but on the contrary is provided with an annular surface 96 of a diameter such that it may be inserted in the lock without causing the outer end of the longer pin 9| to extend into the channel 95 of the casing as occurs when a service key, by reason of the dia-meter of the pin receiving channel 52a, is inserted in the lock as shown in Fig. 16. The actuator elements 53 of the removing key 5| are set to correspond to the combination set up in the particular lock, the locking unit of' which is to be removed, and 'when inserted insuch lock is rotated to the left as above described to move the retainer lugs 45 and 43 into registration with the slots 4l and 49 in the ring of' lugs I3, as described. In the particular structure disclosed,l the angular range of movement of' the. unit from the` verticat position shnwnfinzEig'. 2..to the unit-removing position is.: about: 72.9,. that is, from; the position. wherein the mark:IiSrreg-isf` ters with the mark 5B to the.A position .where the mark 49 registers with the. 'mark9:-. Whenqin thisy position, thefrictional engagementy ofthe special key I with the lockingr unit mayK enable the unit to: be slid forwardly fronrithe. casing whereupon the particular.''settingv of the locking elements. 29. can be changedifdesired.; How-a ever, the removing key 5l preferably. is provide-d with. an eye 97 at its -rear end whichi cantbeerrgaged withfthe hook or stopft?! ofv the'bar Zai-for withdrawing the lock unit from the chamber when the unit has been moved tothe removal; position above mentioned; Any/change in thiexsetting of the locking elements; 2.9 must, of course', be-ace companied by corresponding changes. in the lrel'- ative positions of the corresponding:actuatorele ments 53 of the service key. Similar changes must, of course, be made in the positions. of the actuator elements 53: of the speciali removal key 5I to enable subsequent removal: of the Ilocking unit.
The improvedf lock structure is such that a numberY of locks. may beI correlativelyset so that each. is adapted to be operated. bya particular key and all adapted to: be operatedv by a. master key. They following master' keying table.' is .an example of the setting of. six. lockszwhioh are operable by a master key.v
cuiout-l kslxorensaA @mais @time geweest# girati @pages In the table, the iirst column represents theS-actuator members of a key numbered". 1 `to' 8, in'- clusive as indicated in Fig.. 17 where the numerals appearv on the exterior of the sleeve Tl'. Column A represents. the setk positions' of vthe actuator members' of, the master key; that is,'nu meral 2 indicates that actuator member Non" 1 set in the No. 2 position, which correspondsto the axially adjusted position 532' of Fig. 22'. The second numeral 2 of column A indicates' that actuator member No. 2 occupies the same relative aX- ially adjusted position as member No.. 1. The; table represents that member NoL. 3' is: set in the No. 3 position corresponding to the axial position533 f of Fig. 22. Elements i to 8' are set in positions 2, 1, 1, 3, 4 respectively.
ColumnsH B; C, D, E', F, and G' indicate the set:- tings of the locking elements of. siX locks'. For example, column B indicates that the rstl'o'ck` ing element of that lock'is correlatively -set for actuation to. unlocking position; bythe first actuator element of ther key in column A," which said position corresponds to the position 342 vin Fig; l2. The next" locking element of lock Bis also set in the number 2 position. In the number 3 positionof the lock there is no locking ele'.- ment as indicated by a zero in column B". The same is'true of the number 4 positionbut locking elementA number 5 of column Bis.r set. inthe number l position as is. also locking. element' 6.. Lock.- ing. elements 7' and 8 of column B. are set innumber 3 positions.
The positions of the remaining. locks C toG, inclusive, will. now be understood.A It will.` be
seen-that the -rnaster key' having the. setting indicated in; column A will operate all the locks having. the settings indicated inv columns B to G- but that any keyl having its. actuator members 53= set particularly to operate any one of the locks B to G' will' not operate any lock having. the setting indicated byI any other column i-n the table.
Likewise, it is possible to arrange the looking elements of a groupy oi looks so that thev keys for each of said locks will operate only the -one lock in the group for which that key combination is set, but all' such keys will operate another lock not in thef group. For example, the improved locks may be n-tted to a number of apartment doors, eachlock having a key thatv will operate that lock only of that groupl but the look of the outer door of. the apartment. building may `have its. locking elements.- so set that that. particular lock may beunlocked byy each of the group of keys.
The following table illustrates the master locking arrangement mentioned.
y A l B C D E F The left. hand column of numerals. l to 8` 'designate .the respective locking elements of the various locks. Column A indicates a setting of the looking elements of the outer door` of the apartment. The zerosin column A. indicate that in positions 2, 5 and 8 there are no locking elements inthe. outside door ofthe apartment. Column B indicates a setting of the locking elements of the lock on apartment B. Likewise columns C, Dy E,. and F indicate thev settings of. locking ele.- ments in the respective apartments C. to. F, in.- clusive. A key having its. actuator elementsV set to unlock apartment door B. will not unlock the doors of apartments C', D, E, or F but as will be seen, it will unlock the outer apartment door A. The same is true of the keys set to operate the doors of, the apartments C, D, E, and F that is, each such, key will operate only each lock of apartments C, D, and. F respectively but will also unlock the look of. outer door A.
While in the drawings. a. locking. unit provided with eight locking elements is shown, it will be apparent thatr locks embodying the principles of the invention may be made havingmore or less than eight locking elements. Likewise it will be apparent that while the locking elements shown and described are identical and thus are adapted for economical machine production, special locking elements may be used in conjunction with the other elements to provide different locking combinations if desired. For example, it may be desirable in a master. locking arrangement. to utilize in certain positions. in such. locks special looking elements having notches of greater length than that of the notches 33 and 34. shown in Figs. 14 and l5 whereby a key actuator. pinset .in any one vof the. four above described positions will shift. such elementto an unlocked position. Likewise it will be apparent that. the locking. elements may be made in various designated. series, asfor example, a series wherein all. the. notches of the elements are off-set from the.v transverse center line of the elements as in the elements disclosed in the drawings while other series of elements may have the notches off-set distances greater or less than those illustrated. Actuator pins for the keys for such various lock series will of course be modied accordingly. Hence While I have shown and described a particular structure that is illustrative of the improvements various changes may be made in the structure within the spirit of the invention.
1. In a lock, a lock casing provided with a cylindrical chamber provided with a plurality of inwardly directed co-planar spaced apart locking lugs, a rotatable locking unit in said chamber provided with a plurality of radially disposed passages for receiving slidable locking elements, and locking elements slidable Within said passages and each provided with two locking portions on each of the opposed longitudinal edges and each having a transverse slot in each longitudinal edge, the slots of each element being, off-set dissimilarly from the transverse center line of the elements to provide locking portions of different length, said locking elements being insertable in a said passage in any one of four positions in each of which positions one of said locking portions on the outer-most edge of the element normally extends between adjacent lugs of said chamber for locking said unit against rotation, each of said transverse slots being of a width to accommodate said lugs whereby upon sliding movement of said elements to positions wherein the slots in the outer-most edges of said elements are disposed in the plane of said lugs said unit is rotatable in the casing from said locked position.
2. In a permutation lock, a lock casing provided with a cylindrical chamber having a plurality of inwardly directed co-planar locking lugs, a rotatable locking unit in said chamber provided with radially disposed passages and a plurality of slidable locking elements in said passages each provided with two locking portions on each longitudinal edge, all of said locking portions being of different length, each of said elements being insertable in a said passage in any one of four positions for rendering a selected locking portion of the respective element operable to extend into locking relation between adjacent lugs whereby the range of movement required to slide any locking element out of locking relation with respect to said lugs is correlated to the length of the selected locking portion of the respective element.
3. In a lock, a locking unit provided with a plurality of longitudinal passages therein each for receiving a locking element, and a plurality of identical locking elements slidably positioned in said passages and each comprising four locking portions of different length, each of said elements being insertable in a said passage in any one of four positions for disposing a selected locking portion of the respective element in locking relation with respect to a cooperating locking member in a lock casing and requiring sliding movement of the element a distance correlative to the length of said selected locking portion in moving the same out of the respective locking relation.
4. In a lock, a lock casing provided with a cylindrical lock chamber provided with an annular row of spaced apart inwardly directed locking lugs, a key operable locking unit in the chamber comprising carrier means for a plurality of axially slidable locking elements, and a plurality of similar locking elements disposable in the carrier in any one of four different relative positions for cooperation in any of said posiM tions with an adjacent pair ofsad lugs for pre-Y venting rotation of the unit from a given position and each element being provided with a transverse slot positionally correlated to the selected operative position of the respective element for requiring axial adjustment of the element a distance peculiar to the selected position for eifecting alignment of the respective transverse slot in the plane of said lugs for releasing said unit for movement from said given position.
5. In a lock, a rotatable locking unit comprising a locking element carrier and a spring carrier in axial alignment, a plurality of longitudinally disposed complementary slots in said carriers providing passages for slidable locking elements, locking elements in said passages, a plurality of spring chambers in said spring carrier, a spring in each spring chamber engaging one of said locking elements for biasing the same forwardly of the unit, said locking elements each being shaped to enable the same to be positioned in a said passage in any one of four positions in setting up selected locking combinations, and means releasably securing said carriers together for movement in unison and enabling separation of the carriers for releasing said locking elements from the respective passages to enable alteration of a selected combination.
6. In a lock, a casing open at its forward end, a rotatable locking unit insertable into said casing through said open forward end and comprising a locking element carrier and a spring carrier in axial alignment, a plurality of longitudinally disposed complementary slots in said carriers providing passages for slidable locking elements, locking elements in said passages, a plurality of spring chambers in said spring carrier, a spring in each spring chamber engaging one of said locking elements for biasing the same forwardly of the unit, said locking elements each being shaped to enable the same to be positioned in a said passage in any one of more than two operative positions in setting up selected locking combinations, and means releasably securing said carriers together for movement in unison into and out of said casing through the open forward end thereof and enabling separation of the carriers for releasing said locking elements from the respective passages to enable alteration of a selected combination.
7. In a lock, a locking unit comprising a forward and a rear carrier each provided with a plurality of complementary slots adapted to provide composite slots for retaining locking elements therein when said carriers are secured in axial alignment, a plurality of locking elements each provided with a pair of locking portions of different lengths on two opposed edges thereof, said elements being slidably disposed within said slots with any one selected locking portion of each arranged in cooperative locking relation with respect to other selected locking portions of the other elements, and means for releasably securing said carriers in axial alignment.
8. A locking element comprising a member having locking edge portions on two opposed side edges thereof, said locking edge portions being provided each with a transverse slot dissimilar-.ly offset with respect to the transverse center line of the element to denne four locking edge portions of unequal length.
9. A locking element comprising a pair of parallel bars and a common web portion connecting said bars, said bars projecting beyond the ends of the web portion and having transverse slots olf-set unequal distances from the transverse center line of the element to divide each bar into a plurality of locking portions of diiferent length and each differing in length from the length of the locking portions of the other bar.
10. A rotatable locking unit comprising a front and a rear carrier for locking elements, said carriers being provided with aligned slots extending longitudinally through the carriers and disposed in a diametrical plane thereof, a bar disposed in said slots and projecting through the rear carrier, a groove in the exterior surface of the forward carrier intersecting said slot at opposed portions of Vthe carrier and providing apertures through which portions of said bar extend into said slot, a resilient retainer member disposed in said groove and engaging said portions oi said bar for securing said forward carrier in assembled relation with respect to the bar, and means at the projecting end of said bar for securing said rear carrier thereto.
11. A locking unit comprising forward and rear carriers, slots open at the adjacent ends of the carriers for cooperation in receiving locking elements when the carriers are separated and for retaining said elements in the slots when said carriers are assembled in abutting axial relation, each of said carriers having a passage therethrough disposed within a diametrical plane of the carrier, a member extending through the passage of each carrier and projecting from the rear carrier to provide a latch operating member, means securing said forward carrier to said member, and means releasably securing said rear carrier to said member in abutting axial relation with respect to said forward carrier. l v
12. A lock comprising a casing provided with a cylindrical chamber, said-chamber being provided With an annular groove in the wall thereof and with inwardly directed spaced apart lugs,
a key-rotatable locking unit provided with a key-receiving recess in the forward end thereof and provided with an outwardly directed lug adapted to be passed between a pair of adjacent inwardly directed chamber lugs upon insertion of said unit into the chamber in a given assembling position of relative rotation with respect to a locking position of the unit, said outwardly directed lug on said unit being arranged to cooperate with said chamber lugs for restraining removal of the unit from the chamber in any relative position of rotation of the unit removed from said given assembling position, locking elements carried by said unit for locking cooperation with said chamber lugs for restraining rotative movement of the unit from said locking position, said locking elements having key-operable means actuatable by a proper key inserted in said recess for moving said elements from positions of locking cooperation with said chamber lugs, and key engageable means in said unit for preventing insertion of a. key into or removal from said recess when said unit is out of said locking position, said key engageable means being displaceable in latching cooperation with said groove in the chamber wall for preventing removal of said unit from said chamber upon movement of the unit by said key to said assembling position.
LEO E. DEUTSCH.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 180,255 Miller July 25, 1876 1,384,392 Laski July 12, 1921 1,998,900 Lombardo (I) Apr. 23, 1935 2,019,399 Deutsch Oct. 29, 1935 2,019,400 Deutsch Oct. 29, 1935 2,090,114 Deutsch Aug. 17, 1937 2,170,205 Lombardo (II) Aug. 22, 1939 2,325,310 Deutsch July 27, 1943