Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2559329 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 3, 1951
Filing dateJan 4, 1951
Priority dateJan 4, 1951
Publication numberUS 2559329 A, US 2559329A, US-A-2559329, US2559329 A, US2559329A
InventorsTrod Abraham
Original AssigneeTrod Abraham
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Degrainer
US 2559329 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

A. TROD DEGRAINER July 3, 1951 2 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Jan. 4, 1951 FIG.

INVENTOR.

July 3, 1951 A. TROD 2,559,329

DEGRAINER Filed Jan. 4, 1951 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Q I iwvzyn.

Patented July 3, 1951 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE DEGRAINER Abraham Trod, Peabody, Mass.

Application January 4, 1951, Serial No. 204,321

20 Claims.

This invention relates in general to the art of tanning hides and skins and in particular to the splitting of hides and skins to recover the flesh split for further processing.

In general, the skins of all animals have one thing in common, their similarity of structure. The skin consists of two principal layers, the epidermis and the corium or derma. The epidermis isquite thin in comparison to the corium and is removed therefrom in a process preliminary to tanning. The corium or true skin is then the portion of the skin from which a useful product is tanned. The epidermis and the corium each may also be broken into secondary divisions but for purposes of the present invention emphasis is placed upon the corium and the divisions thereof.

The corium consists of two main strata, of which the upper has a granular appearance from which it derives its title, the grain. The lower of the two strata has coarser fibrous structure and is known as the flesh or fiesher. Because of the difference in fiber structure between the grain and the flesh, the two portions serve quite different purposes when separately finished.

In the case of sheepskins, the corium is sometimes split into a grain and a flesh and is sometimes left unsplit. In the particular case of manufacturing chamois leather a heavy skin is required and a thin grain known as a skiver is split from the corium to leave a comparatively thick flesh from which the chamois is made. Splitting is done by running the corium through a machine having horizontal knives which cut the skiver from the flesh. This machine, while quite accurate for most purposes, is not always practical for use where it is desired to take a very thin skiver from a corium to leave a heavy flesh suitable for tanning into chamois. This is particularly true where lighter sheepskins are used, hence the rule is to use only skins of select grade for chamois manufacture. Also, because of variable thickness in a given skin, the splitting machine may fail to remove the skiver in some areas or, conversely, if set to remove all of the skiver, out too deeply into the skin leaving either an uneven flesh, or in the worst case, out completely through the skin.

'To avoid these disadvantages, it is an object of this invention to split hides and skins without the use of mechanical cutting.

It is a further object of this invention to provide a splitting process wherein'hides and skins of light weight and variable thickness may be utilized.

It is a still further object of this invention to provide a process for splitting hides and skins which may be performed with a minimum of manual operations.

To attain these objects, the present invention consists in a controlled refrigerated surface upon which a skin is frozen flesh side down. Steam or hot water, or a mixture of both, is applied to the grain to cause blistering thereof. Then, high pressure cold water is applied to the surface to carry away the blistered portion.

For a more thorough understanding of the present invention, reference should be made to the following detailed description to be read in connection with the accompanying drawing in which:

Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a simplified manually operable version of the invention; Fig. 2 is a perspective view of an alternative embodiment including mechanically operable apparatus; Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the work table; and Fig. 4 is a side view, partly in section of the work table and the heating-pressing mechanism.

Referring to the drawing and particularly to Fig. l, a compressor II is driven by a motor iii to supply liquid refrigerant to intake line I5. A foot-operated alve I! is connected in line I5 between a work table II! and compressor I I. Work table I9 has a smooth upwardly facing surface 2| which is hollow and contains a fibrous retardant such as hemp or other suitable material for absorbing liquid refrigerant. Return line 23 serves to return gaseous refrigerant to the compressor II.

Nozzle 25 is connected to a source 26 of steam or steam and hot water and is either mounted conveniently to work table I9 for hand operation or may be passed across table I9 by mechanical means. Nozzle 21 is connected to a source 28 of compressed air or cold water under high pressure and may also be either hand or machine controlled in its passage over table I 9.

In the operation of the present invention, skin to be processed, unless moist from prior processing, is soaked in water and placed smoothly with the grain side facing upwardly upon table I9. Foot valve I! is opened and refrigerant is allowed to flow from compressor II into table I 9. The skin placed on table I9 becomes frozen and adheres thereto. When the skin is thoroughly frozen to table I9, steam or steam and hot water from nozzle 25 is played upon the exposed surface causing cooking of that surface to a very shallow depth. During this operation the flow of refrigerant from compressor I I to table I9 is maintained. to preserve the I spirit of the appended claims.

greatest part of the corium from damage from the heat being applied to the grain surface.

After the cooking of the grain surface is complete, high pressure air or cold water is played across the cooked surface to separate it from the remainder of the corium and to flush it away. The valve I1 is then closed and the skin is removed for further processing.

Referring now to Fig. 2, the work table, compressor and the intake and outlet lines are the same as those of Fig. 1. However, in this embodiment of the invention there is provided a perforated spray tube 32 to which is connected a valve 35 and a pair of pressure lines 33 and 34. Fittings 3| and 3| connect to the ends of spray tube 32 and are moveable in the directions indicated by the arrows to pass the spray tube longitudinally over the table IS. A motor or other suitable means (not shown) is utilized to impart suitable motion to the fittings 3| and 31. Pressure lines 33 and 34 are connected flexibly to sources of steam and cold water (not shown), valve 35 permitting the injection of either fiuid selectively.

The operation of the apparatus of Fig. 2 is substantially similar to that of the apparatus of Fig. 1, except that in this instance, after the skin is frozen to the surface 2|, steam, or mixed hot water and steam are admitted to the spray tube 32 which is then passed longitudinally over the table at a speed sufiiciently slow to provide complete coverage of the skin surface and suitable blistering thereof to the desired depth. lhen valve 35 is manipulated to admit high pressure cold water'to spray tube 32. Perforations 33 are suitably disposed such that the streams emanating therefrom are at an acute angle to the skin causing a flushing action along the surface of the skin to remove the blistered portion thereof.

Fig. 3 illustrates a feature of the present invention which is incorporated in the embodiments disclosed. Within the hollow table top Hi, there is disposed fibrous hemp or other absorbent material substantially filling the hollow area. When liquid refrigerant is introduced into the table, it is absorbed by the packing whereby efficient extraction of heat from the table top is performed before the refrigerant returns in gas-- eous form to the compressor.

Referring now to Fig. 4, an alternative embodiment is shown. Here, a heavy roller 52 is utilized to apply heat and pressure simultaneously to the skin. Roller 52 is guided and drawn over the table by means of fittings and 51, which are moveable longitudinally of the table to rotate the roller 52 over the skin. Perforations 53 may be used to apply steam to the skin if desired, or they may be blocked to provide only dry heat and pressure thereto. Flushing for removal of the blistered skin may be accomplished by the manually controlled nozzle of Fig. l, the spray tube of Fig. 2, or by introducing high pressure cold water to the roller with the perforations unblocked, and looking the roller against rotation to maintain a suitable angle between streams and skin for flushing.

Although there have been shown and described only specific embodiments of the invention, there are many possible modifications thereof and the invention is only to be limited by the scope and What it is desired to secure by Letters Patent and claim is:

l. The method of splitting a. pickled skin which comprises the steps of smoothly spreading said skin out, freezing said skin, applying heat to the grain surface of said skin to blister said surface, while maintaining the remainder of said skin in frozen condition, and applying a flushing solution to remove said blistered grain surface from said skin.

2. The method of splitting a pickled skin which comprises the steps of spreading said skin smoothly on a surface with the grain side facing outwardly, refrigerating said surface to freeze said skin thereto, applying heat to said grain side to cause blistering thereof, and flushing the blistered portion from said skin.

3. The method of splitting a pickled skin which comprises the steps of spreading said skin smoothly on a surface, introducing a refrigerant to rapidly extract heat from said surface causing said skin to become frozen thereto, applying a stream of hot water to said grain side to cause cooking thereof to a predetermined depth, and applying a high pressure stream of cold Water to flush said cooked portion for said skin.

4. The method of splitting a pickled skin which comprises the steps of spreading said skin smoothly upon a surface, refrigerating said surface to cause freezing of said skin thereto, applying heat to the exposed side of said skin to cause cooking thereof, and removing said cooked surface portion.

5. The method of splitting a pickled skin which comprises the steps of exposing a surface of said skin, freezing said skin, applying heat to said exposed surface to cause cooking thereof while.

maintaining the remainder of said skin beneath the heated surface in frozen condition, and removing the cooked portion of said surface.

6. Apparatus for splitting a skin, comprising means for freezing said skin, means for applying heat to an exposed surface of said skin to cook a portion thereof, and means for removing said cooked portion.

'7. Apparatus for splitting a skin comprising, a refrigerated surface for receiving said skin, means for spreading said skin smoothly upon said surface, means for freezing said skin to said surface, means for applying heat to the exposed side of said skin, while maintaining the remainder of said skin in frozen condition to cook said exposed side to a predetermined depth, and means for removing said cooked portion from said skin.

8. Apparatus for splitting a skin comprising, a hollow structure, a source of refrigerant connected to said hollow structure, means for spreading said skin upon the surface of said structure, means for permitting admission of said refrigerant to said hollow structure to cause said skin to become frozen to said surface, means for heating the exposed side of said skin while maintaining the remainder of said skin in frozen condition to cause cooking of said skin to a predetermined depth, and means for removing said cooked portion from said skin.

9. Apparatus for splitting a skin comprising, a hollow structure for receiving said skin, said hollow structure containing an absorbing material, a source of liquid refrigerant, means for admitting said liquid refrigerant to said hollow structure to cause said skin to become frozen thereto, means for heating the exposed side of said skin while maintaining the flow of said liquid refrigerant to said hollow structure for causing cooking of said exposed side to a predetermined depth, and means for removing the cooked portion of said skin.

10. Apparatus as in claim 9 wherein said source of liquid refrigerant is connected to said hollow structure by means of a hollow line, said admitting means comprising a valve inserted in said line to control the flow of said liquid refrigerant.

11. Apparatus as in claim 10 wherein said heating means comprises a source of steam and a nozzle for applying said steam to said exposed side of said skin.

12. Apparatus as in claim 11 wherein said removing means comprises a source of cold water at high pressure and a nozzle for playing cold water upon said cooked portion of said skin.

13. Apparatus for splitting a skin comprising, a table having a hollow top and a smooth upper surface for receiving said skin, a compressor for providing liquid refrigerant to said hollow top, a valve for controlling the flow of said liquid refrigerant, an absorbent material within said hollow top for retaining said liquid refrigerant therein, a source of steam and a nozzle for application thereof to said skin, and a source of cold water at high pressure and nozzle for application thereof to said skin.

14. Apparatus for splitting a skin comprising, means for freezing said skin, means for applying heat and pressure simultaneously to said skin to blister said skin to a predetermined depth, and means for removing said blistered portion of said skin.

, 15. Apparatus for splitting a skin comprising, a surface for receiving said skin, means for refrigerating said surface to freeze said skin thereto, a heated member, means for pressing said heated member against said skin, means for passing said heated member over said skin while maintaining said member pressed against said skin to cause blistering of said skin to a predetermined depth, and means for applying fluid at high pressure to said skin to remove said blistered portion thereof.

16. Apparatus for splitting a skin comprising, a hollow table having a, flat surface for receiving said skin, a source of refrigerant, means for admitting said refrigerant to said hollow table to cause freezing of said skin thereto, a heated iron, means for pressing said skin to said table with said heated iron to cause blistering of said skin to a predetermined depth, a source of fluid under high pressure, and means for applying said high pressure fluid to said skin to remove the blistered portion thereof.

1'7. Apparatus for splitting a skin comprising, a surface for receiving said skin, means for freezing said skin to said surface, means for blistering said skin to a predetermined depth, and means for removing said blistered portion of said skin.

18. Apparatus for splitting a skin comprising, a surface for receiving said skin, means for freezing said-skin to said surface, a source of steam, a source of high pressure cold water, a spray tube disposed above said surface, a valve for selectively admitting steam or cold water to said spray tube, and means for moving said spray tube over said surface, said spray tube having perforations formed therein for ejecting jets of fluid against said skin whereby said skin may be blistered by steam from said source and said blistered portion may be flushed from said skin by said high pressure cold water.

19. Apparatus for splitting a skin comprising, a refrigerated flat surface, means for freezing said skin thereto, a rotatable hollow roller disposed upon said flat surface, means for admitting steam into said hollow roller, means for rolling said roller over said skin to apply simultaneous heat and pressure thereto causing blistering thereof to a predetermined depth, and means for applying high pressure fluid to said blistered portion to cause removal thereof.

20. The method of splitting a skin which comprises the steps of, freezing said skin, applying simultaneous heat and pressure to a surface of said skin to cause blistering thereof to a predetermined depth, and removing the blistered portion with high pressure fluid.

ABRAHAM TROD.

No references cited.

Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1 *None
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4770010 *Dec 4, 1986Sep 13, 1988Juan Cots TanaProcedure for removing the layer of hairy elements from a complete animal skin
US4901542 *Nov 21, 1984Feb 20, 1990Lester GidgeMethod and apparatus for increasing leather yield from tanned hides
US5900685 *Feb 6, 1996May 4, 1999Light & Sound Design, Ltd.Anti-noise system for a moving object
DE4010816A1 *Mar 30, 1990Oct 2, 1991Ulrich Dipl Ing FiedlerAnimal skin component separating - uses pressure jet stream of fluid medium directed at an angle to the surface
DE4010820A1 *Mar 30, 1990Oct 2, 1991Siegfried Dipl Ing BeckAnimal skin cleaning - uses controlled medium jet stream directed at angle at moving material
Classifications
U.S. Classification69/1, 69/21, 8/150.5, 69/9
International ClassificationC14B1/14
Cooperative ClassificationC14B2700/25, C14B1/14
European ClassificationC14B1/14