US 2559708 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July l0, 1951 1'. P. CALHOUN 2,559,708
LAUNDRY APPARATUS Fo'R WASHING Ann csqu'rm'ucunc;v cLomEs Filed March "r, 1945 4 sheds-sunt 1 m1111111/ lll 111/ lll/l Clttomeg Her ber C. Cover) July 10, 1951 T. P. wfzALl-IOUN LAUNDRY APPARATUS FOR WASHING AND CENTRIFUGING CLOTHES 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 7, 1945 n u O Bnventor h l 45 f'| I il l i ///////////////l///////// Tuyro R C01 QQH Cittorneg Ufilness HUI-bevi C. Covecg My 1o, 1951 I, P, CALHOUN 2,559,708 l LAUNDRY APPARATUS FoR wAsmG AND csn'x'arrucmc mm1-:Es
ttomeg July 10, 1951 'r'.l P. cALHoUN LAUNDRY APPARATUS FOR WASHING AND CENTRIFUGING CLOTHES 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Hatch 7, 1945 winsss Herber .Coveg Patented July l0, 1951 2,559,708 LAUNDRY APPARATUS FOR WASHN G AND CENTRIFUGIN G CLOTHES Taylor P. Calhoun, Fall River,
houn administran-ix of said Taylor P. Calhoun deceased Mass.; Ann E. Cab
Application March 7, 1945, Serial No. 581,513 15 Claims. (Cl. 68-25) speed to separate the from the clothes by centrifugal force.
It has heretofore been customary in comprised a barrel mounted to rotate or to oscillate about a horizontal axis; and a satisfactory type of centrifuge has comprised a basket rotated at high speed about a vertical axis. The use of two separate pieces of apparatus for domestic use, or even in various commercial laundry and cleaning establishments, involves various problems inherent in transferring the clothes from one apparatus to the other, and the operations cannot be accomplished automatically. It has therefore been proposed to combine the two in a single apparatus in which a basket carrying the clothes is first rotated about a horizontal axis is rotated about a vertical axis for the centrifugal extracting of the uid in the clothes. proposed double axis apparatus, the power is applied through transmission gearing, clutches and other devices which require making and breaking mechanical connections before the basket movement can be changed from one axis to the other; and many problems are involved in adapting such a machine for an 'automatic operation through a complete washing, rinsing, centrifuge cycle.
Other 'types of combination apparatus have involved rotating the basket about the same horizontal or obliquely inclined axis for both the washing and .centrifuge operations; but the centrifugal force set up by a high speed whirling of an unbalanced mass of clothes produces a high Attempts at compensating for this out of balance condition in a single axis machine have not been Wholly satisfactory. Moreover, no attempt has been In such applying power to rotate selectively about two different axes a basket that is universally mounted to seek a running balance or to reduce or eliminate vibration.
A primary object of this invention is to overcome such problems and to provide a double axis machine in which the clothes basket may be rotatively moved either continuously or oscillatively about one axis, and preferably a horizontal axis, for the cleansing operation, and thereafter rotated rapidly about a different and substantially vertical axis for the centrifuge operation, and wherein compensation, either partial or full, is made for any out of balance condition of the which permits the loaded basket to attain a static balance at the end of the washing operation and then lock it in that position for the centrifuging stage.
Another object of the invention is to provide laundry apparatus having two independently controlled power driving mechanisms for rotatively moving the basket slowly about a horithe centrifugal extracting step, and which will accelerate and decelerate the basket movement smoothly.
A further object of the invention is to provide a laundry apparatus in which the clothes basket ismoved about two different axes for the washing and centrifuging operations, and wherein the power drives for the two movements are maintained always in an operative relationship with the basket, so that each may be selectively employed for moving the basket without the disadvantages involved in making and breaking mechanical drive connections, and the various stages of washing, rinsing and centrifuging may be readily accomplished merely by suitable control of the power to the two drives, as well as the introduction and removal of the cleansing and rinsing fluids.
A further object of the invention is to provide a laundry apparatus having the clothes basket rotatable about two different axes for the washing and extracting operations in which the basket is universally or otherwise so mounted that it will never be out of balance or, the nature of the balance being disturbed by movement of the clothing or any other inuence affecting the location of the center of gravity, will tend to compensate automatically for such out of balance condition by moving to restore its center of mass into alignment with the axis of rotation, and wherein power driving mechanism is maintained in operative relationship with the basket and may be applied for rotative movement of the basket irrespective of the position which the basket has assumed in seeking to compensate Yfor an out of balance condition.
A further object of the invention is to provide a construction having a double axis suspension for the clothes basket which permits cleansing or rinsing iiuid to be introduced to the interior of the basket during its rotation about either of said axes.
Another object is to provide for oscillation of the basket for a washing operation and continuous rotation for centrifuging. Other objects will be made apparent or pointed out in the following disclosure.
Although the various principles and aspects of my invention herein described may be applied separately or in various combinations in many types of apparatus. I have illustrated in the drawings certain preferred embodiments having them in combination. The preferred laundry apparatus has a basket mounted for oscillative or rotative movement about one axis, and preferably a horizontal axis, for the cleansing operation and further mounted for rotation about a substantially vertical axis for centrifugally extracting the fluid therein. The basket is so exibly or universally mounted that, in accordance with the laws of motion, it will move laterally to bring the center of mass into alignment with the axis of high speed rotation and so seek and preserve a static balance at the beginning of the centrifuge stage or maintain a running balance during high speed rotation aboutavertical axis.
The support for the clothes lled basket may comprise a. universal joint carrying the basket as a depending or an inverted pendulum with the parts so arranged that the basket may swing automatically to permit its center of mass to seek axial alignment with the center of the universal suspension joint. The basket may also be supported on gimbal rings or flexible or resilient supports or other suitable constructions which permit the center of mass of the basket and its contents to move towards a position of static or running balance. Power may be applied selectively to rotate the basket either continuously or oscillatively about one axis for the cleaning operation or to rotate it continuously about the vertical axis for the centrifugal extraction of fluid by means of drive mechanisms which are maintained in operative relationship with the basket for al1 positions thereof. Although the power drive may be an electric motor, I prefer to employ a ymotor operated by fluid under pressure and particularly for moving the basket during the washing operation. For example, the fluid propulsion for rotating the basket about either a substantially horizontal axis or a vertical axis or bothv may comprise a pelton wheel drive. This type of iiexible drive may also be employed for rotating the basket about either or both axes in double axis laundry apparatus having no compensation for providing a running balance. The fluid jet pelton wheel drive is preferred since it may be maintained in an operative relationship with the basket, so that control of the basket movement requires merely a manual or automatic control of suitable valve mechanisms.
The application of these various principles of my invention to different and preferred types of laundry apparatus is shown in the accompanying drawings, and in which:
Fig. l is a vertical elevation, partly in section. showing one form of construction in which the clothes basket is revolved about both horizontal and vertical axes by means of pelton wheel drives, and wherein the basket is so suspended that it may seek a running balance during centrifuging and so compensate for an out of balance arrangement of the clothes;
Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the machine, with parts broken away to show the interior construction;
Fig. 3 is a section taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1 showing the operation of the upper valve;
Fig. 4 is a section taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. l showing the operation of the lower valve;
Fig. 5 is a vertical elevation, partly in section, of a modified construction having a basket mounted on gyroscopic gimbal frames which are so arranged that the basket may move to align its center of mass with the vertical axis of centrifuge rotation; f
Fig. 6 is a top plan view, partly broken away, of the construction of Fig. 5;
Fig. 'l is a fragmentary vertical section of a modification in which the basket trunnions are mounted on resilient supports and provision is made for forcing a uid jet into the basket;
Fig. 8 is a detail showing the swivelled pipe for propelling the pelton wheel;
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary detail showing how the basket is rotatively oscillated; and
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary detail showing an automatically operated lock for the statically balanced basket.
Referring first to the construction shown in Figs. 1 to 4 inclusive, clothes may be Washed or cleaned in a suitable fluid, such as a solution of soap and water or a dry cleaning fluid, such as gasoline or benzine, by oscillating or tumbling them in a basket which moves, and preferably rotates, about a horizontal axis. In this construction, the basket I0 is shown as substantially spherical in shape, although other shapes may be employed. This basket is preferably made of sheet metal provided with a-large number of suitably located, close spaced perforations Ii so arranged that the cleaning fluid may pass between and through the clothes in the basket. For tumbling the clothes, a set of baffles or ribs l2 may be provided. These may .be formed by crimping the walls of the spherical basket in the process of manufacture, or as illustrated in Fig. 2 this may comprise a V shaped solid or perforated rib that is welded or otherwise secured in place. Each of the ribs, of which there may be four, may extend inwardly to a considerable distance. such as about one-third of the radius. The ribs may be arranged as desired, such as crossways of the basket with their` inner edges parala horizontal lel with the tated about carried upwardly until they slide on the ribs and thus are tumbled through the cleaning uid within the basket. It desired. the basket may have a central vertical partition perpendicular to its axis of rotation. This divides the clothes so that the wet mass is less subject to tearing strains during centrifuging, as may be set up lby the centrifugal force pulling the clothes in opposite directions across the vertical axis.
In order to permit rotation ofthe basket about axis, it is provided with trunni'ons Il in axial alignment which are mounted in radial and end thrust ball bearings I6 of suitable construction. I'he outer bearing raceway is carried inner cylindrical surface oi' a bearing on the depending arms of a i'rame 2li, as illustrated.
The gimbal frame 20, which may be made oi' tubes or anged sheet metal, may comprise a set oi' U-shaped arms (Fig. 2) extending .radially peripherally spaced locations to the ring I8. These arms are mounted for rotation about 'a on top of the horizontal ilange of the sleeve 21 and keeps foreign matter out of the joint. A nut Suspended from and secured to the vertical equatorial ring- I8 are frame members 32 (Fig. 1)
'and compensate for a normal out of balance conhinged or sliding of the basket may be omitted.
6 dition that may' arise from an uneven distribution of clothes. through one or Accessv to the basket may be had more suitably located lockable doors 42 which may be brought into augment with an opening in the outer casingnormally closed by a door I3.
A primary feature of this invention involves the propulsion of a basket which is arranged for rotative movement about not require the throwing of clutches to connect and disconnect the power. For this purpose, I
vpreferably employ two separate motors or driving a suitable supply pipe.
lower end of an elbow This comprises a nozzle 48 projecting substantially horizontally from the through a pipe 56 with a suitable source of fluid pressure.
Although the pipes U and 56 may receive fluid under pressure from other sources, such asa tap from the municipal water system, I prefer to employ a self-contained iluid pressure system in which the cleansing fluid is forced under pressure to propel the pelton wheels. In this construction, the outside fluid container or casing 68, which carries the basket structure, may be shaped as a hollow body of rectangular or cylindrical cross section. The lower plate 38, together with the adjacent walls of the casing and a partition 6I form an enclosure for an electric pump unit arranged to propel fluid through the pipes 5I and 56. The waterqor other cleaning fluid may be introduced into the casing through a valved pipe line 62 shown at the top right hand corner of Fig. l. In a normal washing or bath rinsing operation of the device, cleaning fluid will besuch that the perforated basket I0 is about a third filled. A sight glass 63 may be located within a rectangular slot in the casing wall so as to show the height ofY the fluid, and a valved overflow pipe 64 may also be provided to determine the fluid level. The fluid passes downwardly basin at the right of the pump casing.
The pump unit comprises an electric motor 61, or other suitable source of motive power, which drives the propeller of a suitable centrifugal pump 68 axially aligned with nected to the shaft of the motor. The pump receives cleansing fluid from the sump 66 through a central pipe in the partition 6|. The fluid is driven centrifugally by the pump through the connection pipe 16 into a valve casing 1| which is arranged to control the iiow of the fluid to the two pelton wheels as well as the removal Aof the cleaning uid from the washing zone.
The valve, which may be of suitable construction, comprises a rotary cylindrical or disk shaped member 12 (Figs. 2 and l3) provided with a horizontal passage 13 subtending anl arc of 90 and adapted to connect the pumpline with the pipe line 50 when the rotary valve'is in the position of Fig. 2. This connection is made through two of three holes spaced by 90 in the outer cylindrical wall 14 within which the valve part 12 rotates. When the valve 12 is rotated through 90 to the position of Fig. 3, then the pump line 10 is connected with the pipe 56 which causes a jet to strike the buckets 54 and whirl the gimbal frame and the basket carried thereby about the axis of the ball and socket joint.
The rotary valve disk 12 is keyed to an operating shaft 16 this shaft extends upwardly to a position out of the path of the revolving gimbal frame and basket where it may be operated by means of a bevelled gear 11 on the shaft meshing with a gear 18 keyed on a cross shaft suitably mounted on the machine and which is operated by a handle 18 arranged on the outside of the casing 60. The lower end of the shaft 16 connects with a further rotary disk shaped valve plate 80 (Figs. l and 4) in a valve casing 8| resting on the bottom wall of the washer. The casing 8| is provided with an opening 83 close to the casing floor which gives access to the fluid within the sump 66. The rotary plate 6|! has a passage 82 suhtending an arc of 90 and arranged to connect the hole 83 with a valved drain pipe the level of the through a passage 65 in the Wall 38 and lls the sump 66 or settlingY the con- 69 connected with an opening (Fig. l) passing therethrough, and.
Y 66 is connected with the centrifuge propulsion which empties into the sewer or. other outside pipe line for removal of the uid from the washing machine. The upper valve disk 12 also has a vertical hole 86 (Figs. 2 and 3) adapted to connect an opening 81 in the partition 38 with a drain pipe 88 which is so located above the valve structure that the cleaning fluid may be drained down to the level 89 (Fig. l)
These various valve parts are so arranged that `when the handle 19 is thrown to one position the pump may send fluid under pressure through pipe 50 (Fig. 2) to the pelton wheel buckets 45 which causes the basket to revolve about a horizontal axis and tumble the clothes through the cleaning fluid contained within the casing. The other valve passages are closed at that time. When the upper valve is moved to the position of Fig. 3, the vertical hole 86 through the upper valve disk 12 connects with the drain pipe 68 and the fluid drains `off until it reaches the level 89 below the basket. At the same time, the pump system comprising the jet 55 and the pelton buckets 54 on the gimbal frame 20, and thus starts rotation of the frame 20 which ultimately whirls the basket at the high speed required to dry the clothes.` The clothes may be rinsed repeatedly by simply whirling out the old cleaning fluid and then introducing fresh fluid through pipe 62 while the valves are in the positions of Fig. l for tumbling the clothes. When the machine is to be entirely emptied, the handle 19 'is .thrown to a further position at which the lower valve 80 permits the fluid to pass through the exit pipe 84. This lower valve remains closed during both the washing and the centrifuging of the clothes, so that the sump always contains fluid for operation of the pump.
It will thus be seen that the cleaning fluid, such as an aqueous soap solution, will serve to operate the pelton Wheel for tumbling the clothes while the outer casing is filled with water at the required level. Also, the rinsing water serves the same purpose. When the clothes are to be centrifuged, enough of the last rinse water remains in the sump to operate the high speed pelton wheel 54. It may also be noted that centrifugal force prevents the clothes from being wetted by water splashing from the pelton buckets 54, s o that the extracted.
In the construction of Figs. 5 and 6, I have shown a preferred form of the invention in which the basket carrying the clothes is universally mounted for automatic compensation of any out of balance condition that arises at the start of the centrifugal extracting of the fluid. In this construction, the basket |00 is mounted on two pivotally connected gimbal frames |0| and |02 arranged for rotative motion about two axes at right angles to each other.
The basket may be spherical in shape or otherwise suitably shaped. If desired, the basket may have a central partition so arranged that the clothes may be roughtly divided into two equal portions when first put into the machine. A suitable door |03 on the basket and a communieating door |04 on the outer casing are provided for introducing the clothes. The basket may be formed of perforated sheet metal suitably shaped and crimped to provide the clothes tumbling ribs or paddles |05.
At diametrically opposite points on a horizontal equator (Fig. 6) are two trunnions or bosses |06 secured to the basket. The gimbal frame |0I is fluid will be adequately .surround the post ||4, lsoi.' the bearings rests on "such as from a centrifugal vane pump ausavos ring and made either of a ilat band or tubular metal, such as rustless steel. This ring is likewise provided with two bosses |08 diametrically opposed to the bosses |09 oi' the basket, and pins |09 passing through the two sets of bosses form bearings i'or the basket within this gimbal frame I Any other suitable bearing construction may be provided.
The gimbal ring |0| is likewise pivotally secured to the depending arms of the semi-circular yoke frame |02. At the right hand side of the yoke, a bearing pin ||0 secured to and projecting radially from the inner ring |0| projects into and rotates within a suitably shaped bearing hole in the outer frame |02. At the leit hand side, a special bearing structure is provided as will be described, and the parts are so arranged that the inner ring is mounted for rotation about axially aligned bearings lying in a horizontal plane. If desired, suitable ballor roller bearings may be provided to insure a better bearing support for the parts. Thus the basket may rotate freely to move the center of mass laterally into alignment with the center of the basket and so seek a static balance as determined by uneven distribution of the clothes therein.
In order to provide for centrifuging the clothes, the yoke shaped frame |02 is mounted for rotation about the substantially vertical axis of a central post ||4 suitably secured to or integral with the yoke frame |02 midway between and at right angles to the bearings which carry the limer gimbal ring. The post projects upwardly through the top wall of the casing H5, which is provided with an enlarged boss ||6 to give an adequate radial bearing support for the post ||4. Suitable thrust roller or ball bearings ||1 and the lower raceway the boss I6 while the place by a washer and substantially a circular upper raceway is held in nut ||3 threaded on the end of the post. 'I'hus the entire weight of the clothes basket and the supporting frames is borne by the thrust bearings 1 and the frame |02 may be rotated about that vertical-axis to extract the fluid in the clothes.
The container for the water or other cleaning iluid may be shaped to provide a partial spherical Wall 20 located beneath and fairly close to the basket |00 but giving enough clearance so that the gimbal ring |0| may revolve freely. A vertical tubular wall |2| below the basket forms a sump |22 connected with the washing space and which provides a fluid supply for the pump. 'I'he clean- `ing uid, such as soap and water, may be admitted through a valved pipe |23 suitably located and connected to a supply, such as the house water main.
The basket and its supporting frame may be rotated rapidly about a vertical axis by means of a pelton wheel |25 secured to the gimbal yoke frame |02 and surrounding the post ||4. This wheel may be arranged equatorially of the basket or otherwise as desired. The blades |26 of the pelton wheel are struck by a fluid jet from the nozzle |21 of a pipe |28 controlled by a valve #29. The uid under pressure is suitably derivedl outside of and near the sump |22 and which is connected through the pipe line |3| with the nozzle pipe |28. The centrifugal pump |30 may be of desired construction, and it is driven by a suitable variable or constant speed electric motor |32 having its shaft axially connected to the shaft of the centrifugal propeller. 'I'he uid is derived I4-om the settling tank |22 through a passage |33 |30 located connecting with the central portion of the pump. The pelton wheel |25 and its vanes. as well as the other pelton wheels described, will be of suitable size and shape, and the velocity and the volume of the Jet of propelling duid will be proportioned in accordance with the desired end.
VThis type of drive is one in which the pelton wheel will accelerate smoothly to the required rotative speed and thus will not impose any severe strain on the machine parts or the clothes The basket may be revolved around the basket with reference to the axles |09.
If desired, a pair of stop pins |31 may be adjustably threaded through threaded nuts secured to opposite sides of one of the yoke arms |02 and so positioned that the equatorial gimbal ring |0| may swing only through a suitable limited angle. such as 10 or 20 degrees, and thus insure that the |09 will remain substantially horizontal during the slow speed clothes tumbling ployed for this purpose. Also, the stopsr may be located on a yoke arm arranged at to the two arms |02 so as to pins |09 on the gimbal ring. In the construction illustrated, the stops are arranged at such angles and suiiciently far from the gimbal pins so as to engage the ring |0| at a considerable distance from the pivots. This construction permits locating the container wall |20 close to the basket, and if desired that wall may serve as the stop limit.
The normal out of balance condition will usually require only a limited rotation of the ring |0|, so that the stops |31 will not materially hinderk the automatic compensation for running balance, which rotation o! ter of mass laterally into augment with the vertical axis of rotation.
In order that a iiuid |35 for any position oi pose to introduce the fluid through the gimbal ring itself, and thus have this jet always correctly positioned when the gimbal ring turns to end of the left hand arm of the gimbal yoke frame |02. This trunnion |30 has a central opening |39 connecting with a passage |40 within the yoke arm |02. The horizontal passage |39 connects through a short branch with an annular groove |42 on the outside of the trunnion |39, and this groove serves to supply iluid to the nozzle hole |43 in the gimbal ring |0| which points always towards the buckets |35 irrespective of any swinging movement of the ring about the trunnion. The passage |40 in the gimbal yoke |0| connects at its upper end with a vertical passage |44 within the bearing post I4 and which in turn receives iluid from a supply pipe |45 through a joint (not shown) which permits rotation of` the post 4. The supply pipe may branch off the main pipe |3| and thus receive uid under pressure from the pump. A valve |46 in the supply pipe |45 controls the iiow of iluid provide stops adjacent to the 's accesos the basket.A may be revolved at a desired rate for tumbling and washing the clothes, or it may be rebasket at the beginning or the high speed cem The sump |22 has two exit pipes l|41 and |48 suitably controlled byvalves and-connecting with an outside drain pipe. All 'or the uid maybe drained from the machine throughpipe. |48; but the pipe |41 is located above the intake |33 to the centrifugal pump'so that fluid is always provided forv the pump operation during the centrifugal extraction. The various valves and pump driving mechanism may be suitably controlled by a timing control device, so that the various stages of washing, rinsing and centrifuging the clothes may be successively accomplished without attention on the part of the operator. The valves |28 and `|46 or other adjustment devices may be so adjusted preliminarily as to control the volume of the jets which revolve the basket in the two directions. A comparatively slow speed such as 30 R. P. M. 'willserve the purpose of tumbling the clothes through the cleansinguid, and a speed of 300 R.. P. M. will extract the fluid from the'clothes. f
In Figs. '1 and 8 I have shown another modification of this invention wherein the clothes basket ismounted for a universal lateral movement of the center of mass, so that it may seek automatic compensatiton foran out of balance condition of the clothes in the basket. I further provide for spraying or introducing fluid into the clothes during washing or rinsing thereof or while centrifugally removing fluid therefrom. This construction comprises a spherical clothes basket |50 made of metal having perforations suitably arranged for the admission of fluid from the surrounding container, and which may have a vertical diametrical partition |5| therein as well as the doors |52 communicablewith a door in the casing for the necessary access to the interior thereof. If desired, ribs |53 may be suitably arranged for dragging the clothes through the wash water and causing the tumbling and washing action. This basket is supported by trunnicns |54 diametrically arranged in a substantially horizontal position and which are carried by suitable bearings, such as ball bearings mounted in raceways |55. These raceways are resiliently supported, as will be explained, in the two depending arms |56 of a yoke frame which may be mounted substantially the same as the yoke frame shown in Fig. 5. That is, the yoke frame is secured integrally to a vertical anged post |58 which is mounted in a radial'bearing sleeve |59. The post and the basket are supported on a suitable thrust bearing |60, shown for simplicity of illustration as balls between the two raceway plates. A nut |5| threaded on the top end of the post holds the parts in position. The yoke arms |56 and the basket supported thereby may be revolved by means of a suitable variable or constant speed :duid pressure or electric motor` In the form illustrated. an electric motor |52 is mounted on the top of the casing |53. The motor |52 is connected by a yV-belt drive to a pulley |64 keyed to the post |58, so that vthe basket may be rotated about the vertical axis of the post at a required speed for the centrifugal extraction of fluid from .the clothes. A flange |55 on the bottom of the post |50 prevents upward movement of the assembled parts.
Compensation for an out of balance condition due to uneven distribution ofl the clothes inthe trii'uge action is obtained by so mounting the bearings for the horizontal trunnions |54 that they move up or down under a resilient restraint as the center of mass seeks to move laterally and align itself vertically with the axis of rotation. To this end, each of the yoke arms |56, which may be made of tubing or other suitable construction, has its lower end constructed like a piece of cylindrical tubing |10 but which is so .bent that the center line of the tubing is an arc of a sphere centered at the center of the basket |50. The Walls of the tubular portion |10 are closed at the bottom |1| and the top |12. Two elliptical openings |13 having their longer dimensions vertical are formed medially at opposite sides of this arcuate tubular part |10, and they are so arranged that the trunnion |54 of the basket may project therethrough and be permitted a necessary vertical movement. The trunnions rotate on the radial and end thrust bearings |55, the inner raceway of which is held in place by a shoulder on the trunnion and a nut |15 threaded thereon.
The outer raceway of each ball bearing is resiliently supported between two coiled compression springs |16 and |11. The upper spring engages the top wall |12 of the recess within the arcuate tubular portion |10, and the lower end of the spring rests against the inner end of a shoe formed of a piece of tubing |18 closed at its lower end and shaped to fit slidably within the arcuate recess of the outer tubing |10. The lower side of that slidable shoe interts with and so positions the outer raceway of the ball bearing |55. Similarly, at the lower portion of the arcuate tubing |10, the compression spring |11 engages the bottom |1| of the tubing, which may be a screw cap, and the upper end of that compression spring likewise fits within the recess and engages the upper end of a tubular slide shoe |19, similar to the part |18, which slides Within the outer tubing |10. The shoe engages the under side of the outer raceway of the ball bearings.
Hence, the spherical basket |50 is so mounted that the trunnions may move vertically by revolving under resilient restraint about the center of the sphere. That is, when one trunnion moves downwardly, the other trunnion moves upwardly to an equal extent as permitted by the slide shoes |18 and |19 which can move only in an arcuate path defined by an imaginary sphere centering at the basket center.
The two lower springs |11 are made sufiiciently strong to carry the normal weight of the loaded basket; but the basket cannot move downwardly except to a very limited extent as permitted by the looseness or play of the slide shoes |18 and |19 in the arcuate tubing |10. That is, if the weight is such that both trunnions |54 attempt to move downwardly to an equal extent at the same time, the lower slide shoes |19 will bind against the outer portions of the interior face of the tube |10 and the upper slide shoes |18 will likewise bind against the inner portions of their slide recesses. On the other hand, the shoes may move freely just so long as the trunnions are aligned diametrically with the center of the imaginary sphere defined by the arcuate center lines of the recesses. Hence, if the clothes in the basket are unevenly distributed so that the center of mass is not vertically aligned with the center of the sphere, the basket will rotate freely about its horizontal axis and compensate in part for the out ofV balance. If the center of mass then remains at one side of a vertical plane through the basket center, then when the basket is rotated at high speed for the centrifuging operation, that .center of mass will move laterallyinto vertical il alignment with its axis of rotation to that extent permitted by the spring mounts, in which case one trunnion will move down and the other trunnion moves up to an equal extent. 'I'he length of the springs and the arcuate recess, as well as the elliptical openings |'|3 are made of suilicient size so that the normal out of balance condition may be adequately compensated. This construction, like the others, provides for a universal lateral movement, i. e. relative to the directions of the compass, so that the center of mass may align itself with the axis of high speed rotation.
The basket is rotated for the washing or cleansing operation by a flexible power drive which will operate satisfactorily for any position of the basket. This preferably comprises a pelton wheel construction of the type above described. The pelton wheel may be suitably located, such :for example as equatorially and vertically of the sphere, as illustrated in Fig. 7. This wheel comprises the pelton blades |80 integrally secured to a band |8| that is in turn aiiixed to the outer surface of the perforated spherical basket. Fluid under pressure is supplied from a nozzle |82 which is so directed that the fluid will normally strike a dividing edge between the concave bucket portions of the blade made in accordance with standard construction. Fluid under pressure is suitably supplied to the nozzle |82 through a pipe |83 connected with a source of pressure, such as a pump of the type above described with reference to the constructions of Figs; 1 and 5 and suitably operated either by a separate motor or by a shaft extending downwardly from the motor |62. This pipe |83 threads into an elbow opening in a stationary cap |84 of suitable water tight construction which closes the upper end of a central recess |85 in the post |58. A pipe extension |86 connects with the cap and is pipe |88 is arranged extends downwardly U-shaped ring |90 having spaced parallel flanges engaging a follower ball |92 depending from the lower end of an arm |93 which projects laterally from and is secured to the nozzle |82. The nozzle |82 projects from and opens into a hollow cylindrical valve like sleeve |94 (Fig. 8) provided with closed ends. The sleeve |94 is rotatably mounted within a cylindrical casing |95 that is formed as an extension of the pipe |88. A suitable hole |96 in the inner sleeve |94 and which is larger than the opening at the bottom of the pipe permits the nozzle to raise and lower slightly and yet supply the full ow particular construction is required to permit the spherical basket to tilt upwardly or downwardly at either side and thus require raising the nozzle somewhat as well as swinging it' laterally so that it will follow in an approximately correct of uid thereto. This i 14 position for throwing the iluid against the pelton blades.
A further feature oi' this invention involves introducing iluid into the interior of a double axis basket during either the washing or the centrifuge operation, and whether or not compensation is made for an out of balance condition. If clothes are being cleaned with gasoline or benzine, it may be desirable to recirculate the iluid or to introduce new iiuid through the basket during that operation. Also, an aqueous soap solution or other cleansing fluid may be introduced into the basket for laundering operations. It is particularly useful to introduce clear water under a desired pressure for a pelting rinsing operation, after the washing fluid has been w'ithdrawn from the casing |63.
For these various purposes, I have provided an opening 200 through each of the trunnions |54 which communicates with the interior of the spherical basket, and this opening serves for the introduction of the desired iiuid for any position of the basket and whether it is rotating about the trunnions or is being rotated about the vertical axis. A pipe 20| communicates with that opening and is suitably connected to the trunnion. This pipe is somewhat L shaped and its upper portion 202 is arcuate shaped and slidably fits within an arcuate shaped end 203 of a pipe 204 that is suitably carried by each of the yoke arms |58. The parts 202 and 203 have a slidable interiltting arrangement which permits the sphere to tilt as required for an out of balance compensation. It will be appreciated that the pipe 20| may be a exible rubber tube suitably connected to the pipe 204 so as to permit the required tilting of the sphere. The upper end of each pipe 204 communicates with a lateral opening 205 through the lower flanged portion of the post |58, and that opening communicates with the space Within the hollow post. This space surrounds and does not communicate with the pipe |86 that supplies the iluid under pressure to the pelton wheel. The cap |84 has an annular passage 201 therein communicating with a supply pipe 208 through which the desired fluid is introduced. The cap is held in a stationary position by the pipes |83 and 208. By this means, I may supply the desired uid, such as clear rinsing water, while the basket is being revolved about either of its axes. The inner end of the pipe 200 may have a suitable spray nozzle or be otherwise shaped as desired, and by this means water may be thrown against the clothes and serve by a pelting action to drive the washing water out of the clothes. If a cleansing medium is forced into the basket, such as a soapy water solution or benzine, then that same pelting action will aid in cleansing the clothes. It will also be understood that the nozzle channel 200 may be extended to'a position near the center of the sphere if desired, so that the iiuid may be introduced into the central portion of the basket, whereby centrifugal force will tend to throw it outwardly through the clothes and further aid in cleansing them. c
It will also be understood that the various constructional details of the other modications above described, such as shown in Fig. 5, may be employed in connection with the apparatus of Figs. 7 and 8.- Also, the constructions of Figs. l and 5 may be so modiiied as to provide for the spray rinse of the clothes within the basket, or for circulating any desired uid directly into the gusanos interiors of the clothes baskets, either while the basket is stationary or rotating about either axis. This fluid may come from a fresh source or from the settling basin or sump at the bottom of the apparatus. Thus, I may pelt the clothes with a high speed jet or spray of desired fluid. Such a construction involves largely a duplication of the conduits arranged to introduce the pelton jet to the gimbal ring of Fig. and so need not be here illustrated. The structure of Fig. 1 may be made substantially like that shown in Fig. 7 for introducing the extra fluid. y
The basket in any of these modifications may be oscillated intermittently` through a part turn or several turns in one direction and then in the opposite direction by so arranging jet nozzles that the propelled fluid strikes rst one side of 16 A suitable stop and governor device as applied to the construction of Fig. 5 is illustrated in Fig. 10. This comprises a governor weight 220 mounted on the end of the long arm of a lever 22| of 'if the rst class which is suitably pivoted on a pin 222 carried by a bifurcated post 223 that is suitably mounted on one of the yoke arms |02. The
a double pelton wheel vane and then on the other side, and for this purpose the vanes may be provided with the standard pelton buckets on both sides thereof. A suitable three-way valve may be manually or automatically controlled to send the fluid first to one nozzle and then to the other for the oscillating motion. For example, the construction shown somewhat diagrammatically in Fig. 9 may be employed, in which the basket l0 of Fig. 1 may have the blades 45 replaced by double sided blades 2|0 which have the standard pelton buckets on both sides thereof. Two nozzles 2|| and 2|2 face in opposite` directions and downwardly toward the blades. The* nozzle 2|| communicates with a pipe 2M opening to a passage 2I5 of a suitable three-way valve 2|6 provided with a handle 2 1 to align the openings. Similarly, the other nozzle 2 I2 communicates through its pipe extension with an opening 2|8 in the valve casing when the valve handle is suitably operated. Fluid under pressure enters the valve through the pipe 2 |9. The handle 2|1 may be operated by suitable timing mechanism or by automatic constructions arranged to permit the basket to oscillate through a part turn or several turns before the valve is thrown to reverse the direction of rotation. Thus the clothes may be tumbled for the washing action by rotative oscillation of the basket about the horizontal axis, and this will aid in preventing the clothes from twisting together. It will, therefore, be appreciated that the term rotary and other like expressions as used herein are intended to cover either a continuous motion or an intermittent oscillating rotative motion of the basket about that axis which serves for the washing operation'.`
As a further feature of this invention, I may add a stop or a locking device which serves automatically to hold the basket in a self-attained static balance at the beginning of the centrifuge high speed rotation. That is, after the clothes have been initially washed by the tumbling operation above described and the wash water has been removed, the basket will automatically seek a static balance insofar as permitted by the particular construction involved. In the construction of Fig. l, the basket may merely rotate about its horizontal axis, while in the construction of Fig. 5, both the basket and the gimbal ring IUI may move to such a position as to obtain a peri'ect static balance. The construction of Fig. 'i' also permits Aa limited movement towards a static balance. Since the removal of water during high speed rotation about the vertical axis may change the location of the center of mass, the basket may move to a new position under the forces involved. To avoid such movement during centrifuging, I propose to lock the basket in its assumed Static position before the basket is rotated at high speed.
lever is preferably arranged radially of the spherical basket IUU. A stop 225 shaped at its lower side to engage the outer surface of the basket or some other constructional part is mounted on the lower end of a slide rod 226 slidably passing through a suitably located hole in a laterally extending lug 221 on the yoke arm |02. This rod is pivotally connected at its upper end with the short end of the lever 22|. The weight 220 is so located, as illustrated, that when the yoke arm |02 is revolved at an increasing speed, the weight 22|) moves outwardly under centrifugal force and thus pushes down on the rubber lock 225 and clamps it against the adjacent portion of the basket which has moved into position when the static balance was attained. The lock 225 and its supporting lug 221 are so located and arranged that the basket may rotate and move automatically to obtain a static balance without the pelton blades interfering with the lock. The lug 221 may be made long enough to keep the lock out of the path of the blades for any normal adjusted position thereof. Various other constructional features may be employed for the purpose. Centrifugal force holds the weight in a clamping position during the high speed centrifuge operation, and thus the basket cannot move to any new position until the centrifugal force has decreased enough to permit the Weight 220 to fall and release the lock 225 from engagement with the basket. This feature may be similarly applied to the other constructions of Figs. 1 and '7 so as to permit the basket to attain a static balance and then be held from rotation about the horizontal axis during centrifuging.
The operations of these various devices will be apparent in the above disclosure. The construction of Figs. l and 2 is such that the clothes basket is supported like a pendulum on a universal ball and socket joint. Gravity holds the basket with .its center of mass substantially aligned vertically with the pivot point of the ball and socket joint during the operation of tumbling the clothes about the horizontal axis. However, when the basket is'to be rotated about the substantially vertical axis by means of the pelton blades 54, there may be an out of balance condition because of uneven distribution of the clothes in the basket. Consequently, as the centrifuge rotation accelerates, the center of the basket moves automatically in response to the laws of motion until the rapidlyrevolving center of mass of the basket and clothes, under the influence of gravity and centrifugal force, attains a vertical alignment with the center point of the supporting ball and socket joint, and the geometric center of the rotating basket moves in a circular path about its point of suspension. As the fluid in the clothes is thrown outwardly therefrom, the center of mass may change its position and the basket automatically seeks a new running balance. But the lock 225, if used, will prevent ihe basket from rolling on its horizontal axis.
In the construction of Figs. 5 and 6, the basket can attain a static balance at any time by merely turning about its two pivotal supports. Thus, when it is started in rotation for the centrifuging step, that center of mass is in a vertical alignment with the axis of rotation of the suspension pivot H4. The lock 225, if used, will hold it in that assumed position during centrifuging. If the lock 225 is not used, then the basket remains free to move under the various forces involved. In the construction of Fig. 7, the supporing frame for the basket is rotated about the fixed axis of the suspension bearings, but any static out of balance condition tends to be compensated at the beginning of rotation as permitted by the springs carrying the freely rotatable basket and the stop 'I'he operations of the motors and the control valves will be readily apparent and need not be further described, It may, however, be pointed out that the pelton wheel and the electric motor above described give a flexible drive and a smooth acceleration and deceleration of the baske'; motion, and that they remain always in operative relationship with the basketl so that the basket may be rotated in two directions at the same time, if desired, and each motion is independently controlled. Many other advantages will be readily apparent.
It will now be appreciated that various modifications may be made in these constructions within the scope of this invention. For example, the pendulum ball and socket support for the basket shown in Fig. 1 may be reversed so that the basket is mounted on a ball and socket joint located therebeneath. Suitable springs may be connected between the inverted slide block and the casing to hold the basket in an uppermost position during washing. The centrifugal and pendulum action serving to compensate for an out of balance condition would act substantially the same as above described. Similarly, the structure of Fig. 5 may be reversed to have the yokes and their bearing support arranged below the basket. Also, the uid pressure drives may be employed to rotate either continuously or oscillatively a clothes basket which is mounted for rotation about two axes but where no compensation can be made for an out of balance condition. Such an arrangement will make a double axis basket machine capable of automatic control for the two rotative motions and the introduction and removal of the desired uids. Other modifications and various substitutions of parts for those herein described will be readily suggested to one skilled in the art. Hence, the above disclosure is to be interpreted as describing the principles underlying my invention and my preferred embodiments thereof and not as imposing limitations on the appended claims.
1. Laundry apparatus comprising a container for cleansing fluid, a. clothes basket therein, bearings supporting the basket for rotation about two axes which are substantially horizontal and vertical, means for supplying fluid under pressure, two sets of pelton wheel vanes connected to the basket and associated .iet devices for delivering said fluid under pressure to the vanes and rotating the basket about either of said axes, and control means for causing said fluid under pressure to operate said mechanisms selectively for rotating the basket about either of said axes.
2. Laundry apparatus comprising a container for cleansing fluid, means for introducing the uid thereto, a clothes basket therein, bearing supports which provide for rotation of the basket about a substantially horizontal axis, means supporting the basket for rotation about a substantially vertical axis, a power operated pump for supplying under pressure fluid derived from the bottom of said container, independent hydraulic devices connected to the container for selectively rotating it about either of the axes, valve mechanism for supplying said fluid under pressure selectively to either of said devices, and valve mechanism for withdrawing fluid to a level below the basket which leaves fluid in the container for circulation by said pump, whereby clothes may be first cleansed while rotated in the iluid about a substantially horizontal axis and thereafter centrifuged by rotation above the fluid level about a substantially vertical axis.
3. Laundry apparatus comprising a container for cleansing fluid, a clothes basket therein, means supporting the basket for rotation about a substantially vertical axis and for universal lateral movement of the center of mass of the loaded basket towards alignment with said axis and the attainment of a running balance for an unequally distributed mass of clothes during rapid rotation thereof, mechanism for rotating the basket rapidly about said axis irrespective of any lateral movement thereof, and means for imparting rotative motion to the basket about a dilerent axis for cleansing the clothes by said fluid.
4. Laundry apparatus comprising a container for cleansing fluid, a clothes basket therein, means supporting the basket for rotation about a substantially vertical axis and for a universal lateral movement of the center of mass of the basket towards alignment with said axis when the basket is rotated rapidly while loaded with an unequally distributed mass of clothes, a pivotal support for rotation of the basket about a dilerent axis, and power mechanisms maintained in operative relationship with the basket for selective rotative movement of the basket about said axes irrespective of the position of the basket when said movement is initiated.
5. Laundry apparatus comprising a fluid con- 'y tainer, a clothes basket therein, a pivotal support for free rotation of the basket about a substantially horizontal axis, a pivotal support for rotation of the basket about a substantially vertical axis, means cooperating with said supports which provides for universal lateral movement towards the vertical axis of the center of mass of the basket when loaded with unequally distributed clothes, means for removing the fluid from the container, means for rotating the basket rapidly about said vertical axis irrespective of said lateral movement, means for imparting slow rotative movement to the basket about the horizontal axis and which leaves the basket free for rotation about the horizontal axis during rapid rotation about the vertical axis and automatically acting means for preventing free rotation of the basket about the horizontal axis during its high speed rotation about the vertical axis.
6. Laundry apparatus comprising a fluid container, a. clothes basket therein, a pivota1 support for rotation of the basket about a substantially vertical axis, a gimbal ring carried by said support, a pivotal support mounted on the ring for free rotation of the basket about a substantially horizontal axis and for universal lateral movement relative to the vertical axis, means for rotating the basket rapidly about said vertical axis, means for imparting slow rotative movement to the basket relative to the horizontal axis and a brake movably mounted on the gimbal ring for engaging the basket which is biased out of con- 19 tact therewith and a pivotally mounted weight carried by the ring and operated by centrifugal force during rapid rotation of the gimbal ring which is connected to hold the brake in engagement with the basket, so that the basket is prevented from rotation about the horizontal axis during its rapid rotation about the vertical axis,
'7. Laundry apparatus comprising a container for cleansing fluid, a clothes basket therein, means which supports the basket for rotative movement about one axis for the cleansing operation, a support for the basket which provides for cleansing uid, a clothes basket therein, a
support which provides for rotative movement of the basket about a substantially horizontal axis for the cleansing operation, a support which provides for rotation of the basket about a substantially vertical axis, means cooperating with said supports which provides for a universal lateral movement of the center of mass of the basket when loaded with unequally distributed clothes towards alignment with said vertical axis, separate independently controlled iluid pressure mechanisms maintained in operative association with the basket for rotative movement of the basket about the horizontal axis and a rapid centrifuge rotation about the vertical axis, means for supplying iiuid under pressure and control means which causes the iluid under pressure to operate said mechanisms selectively for rotating the basket about either axis.
9. Laundry apparatus comprising a container for cleansing iluid, a clothes basket therein,
` means supporting the basket for rotation about a substantially horizontal axis, means supporting the basket for rotation about a substantially vertical axis, means cooperating with said supports which provides for lateral movement towards alignment with the vertical axis of the center of mass of the basket when loaded with unequally distributed clothes, power mechanism for selectively imparting rotative movement to the basket relative to each of its axes, means for introducing iiuid toand removing it from the container for a washing operation, and means for introducing fluid under pressure directly into the interior of the basket for any position of rotation and lateral movement thereof, and which does not interfere with movement of the clothes.
10. Laundry apparatus comprising a container for cleansing fluid, a vertical axis rotatable support carried by the container, opposed yoke arms revolubly carried by the support and having diametrically opposite pivots, a gimbal ring pivoted on said pivots, a closable basket for clothes pivoted on the ring at right anglesto the yoke pivots, means for introducing iiuid to and removing it from the container, means for rotating the basket slowly within the gimbal ring, and means for revolving the yoke arms rapidly about the vertical axis and centrifuging the clothes.
11. Laundry apparatus comprising a. uid container, a clothes basket therein, a pivotal support for rotation of the basket about a substantially vertical axis, a second pivotal support providing for rotation of the basket about a substantially horizontal axis, means cooperating with said second pivotal support which provides for universal lateral movement towards alignment 'with said vertical axis of the center of mass of the basket when it is loaded with an unequally distributed mass of clothes, means for rotating the basket rapidly about the vertical axis irrespective of any lateral movement thereof, and means providing for a slow rotative movement of the basket about the horizontal axis.
l2. Laundry apparatus comprising a container for cleansing iiuid, a clothes basket therein, a support for rotation of the basket about a substantially vertical axis, a support for rotative movement of the basket about a substantially horizontal axis, means cooperating with said supports which provides for a universal lateral movement of the center .of mass of a rapidly rotated unbalanced basket, means for delivering the container iluid under pressure, mechanism operated by said fluid pressure for rotating the basket about the horizontal axis, mechanism for rotat' ing the basket about the vertical axis for any lateral position thereof and means for selectively causing the rotation of the basket by either one of said mechanisms.
13. Laundry apparatus comprising a container for cleansing iiuid, means for introducing fluid thereto and removing it therefrom, a clothes basket, a rst support for rotation of the basket about a substantially vertical axis, means including a second support carried by the first which provides for rotation of the basket about a. substantially horizontal axis and universal lateral movement of the center of mass towards alignment with the vertical axis, mechanism for supplying uid under pressure, fluid pressure operated vanes connected to the basket and associated jet devices for rotating the basket about both axes irrespective of said lateral movement, and means for selectively supplying iiuid under pressure to cause either of said devices to rotate the basket.
14. Laundry apparatus comprising a container for cleansing uid, a clothes basket therein, means for supplying fluid to the container to a level above the bottom of the basket, supports which provide for rotation of the basket about substantially vertical and horizontal axes, said container providing a uid space beneath the basket, means for withdrawing the fluid from said space and supplying it under pressure, a device operated by said fluid under pressure for rotating the basket about the vertical axis, means including avalve controlled outlet for withdrawing fluid to a level below the basket which leaves a fluid supply in said space for operation of said device to rotate the basket about the vertical axis, and means for rotating the basket slowly about the horizontal axis while the valved outlet is closed and the level of the fluid is above the bottom of the basket.
15. Laundry apparatus according to claim 14 comprising means associated with the basket supports which provides for universal lateral movement towards alignment with the vertical axis of the center of mass of a rapidly rotated unbalanced basket having the clothes in an uneven 2l distritmtion, and the iuid pressm'o device is maintained in operative relationship with the basket for any position of lateral movement thereof.
TAYIQR P. CALHOUN.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the me oi' this patent: 10
UNITED STATES PATENTS yNumber Name Date 1,358,168 McCutchen Nov. 9, 1929 1,982,636 Carlson Dec. 4. 1934 2,121,431 Hamm June 21, 1939 2,142,995 Busi Jan. 10, 1939 2,171,499 Busi Aug. 29, 1939 2,174,777 carter e oet 3, 1939 2,356,816 Breckenridge Aug. '29, 1944 2,356,918 Bruckman Aug. 29, 1944