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Publication numberUS2559879 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 10, 1951
Filing dateJan 31, 1945
Priority dateJan 31, 1945
Publication numberUS 2559879 A, US 2559879A, US-A-2559879, US2559879 A, US2559879A
InventorsKalin John B
Original AssigneeJohns Manville
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of making asphalt covering units
US 2559879 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y 10 1951 I IBM/1m 2,559,879

METHOD OF MAKING ASPHALT COVERING UNITS Filed Jan. 31, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 4 woe/vs Y IN VEN TOR.

July 10, 1951 V J. B. KALIN 2,559,879



Ja/M/ 3. A444 //v@ A TTJ/PNE) Patented July 10, 1951 METHOD OF MAKING ASPHALT COVERING UNITS John B. Kalin, South Gate, Calif., assignor to Johns-Manville Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application January 31, 1945, Serial No. 575,513

7 Claims.

The instant invention relates to covering units such as individual or strip shingles of the type severed from a continuous felted sheet or web impregnated and coated with a material such as asphalt, and surfaced with a granular material such as crushed slate, conventionally referred to as "asphalt shingles. The invention is particularly concerned with, and has for its primary object, the production of improved shingles of the thick butt type in which the portion of the shingle which is to be exposed to the weather is of substantially greater thickness than the upper portion which is overlaid by the higher shingle course.

Heretofore it has been conventional to prepare thick butt shingles by first applying a layer of asphalt and a surfacing of grit to cover the entire area of a continuous web from which the shingles are cut and then applying lanes of coating and comminuted mineral surfacing material to overlie those areas of the web which are to constitute the butt or exposure portions of the shingles. Such shingles have been preferred over other types due to the increased weight and durability of the butt portion and the more pleasing appearance presented. However, although they have enjoyed wide commercial usage, serious difficulties have been encountered in their manufacture due to the double coating and surfacing operations necessary. Furthermore, the abrupt termination of the overlay coating and surfacing forms a distinct line of demarkation which provides, in effect, a hinge connection between the exposure and headlap areas, reducing the resistance of the shingles to lifting under the action of high winds and the like. The abrupt line of demarkation furthermore accentuates the twolevel characteristic of the shingle which has no counterpart in other types.

An important object of the instant invention is the provision of an improved shingle of the as phalt type which will have a thick butt appearance but in which no sharp line of demarkation will occur between the butt and the headlap areas, the thicker butt portion tapering into the headlap portion.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved method of manufacturing a shingle of the above type in which the coating is applied in a single operation with consequent economy and facility of production.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved method involving relatively simple operations which produce a superior product to the procedures heretofore employed.

My invention will be more fully understood and further objects and advantages thereof will become apparent when reference is made to the more detailed description thereof which is to follow and to the accompanying drawings in which:

Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a strip shingle constructed in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 2 is a sectional view on an enlarged scale taken on the line 22 of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic elevational view of an apparatus in accordance with the invention and for carrying out the method thereof;

Fig. 4 is a top plan view of the apparatus of Fig. 3 with the upper roll removed for clearness of illustration;

Fig. 5 is a top plan view on an enlarged scale of a front scraper element of the apparatus of Figs. 3 and 4;

Fig. 6 is an end elevational view of the element of Fig. 5;

Fig. 7 is a top plan view of a back scraper element of the apparatus of Figs. 3 and 4;

Fig. 8 is an end elevational view of the element of Fig. 7;

Fig. 9 is a sectional view on an enlarged scale taken on the line 99 of Fig. 3 illustrating the apparatus of Figs. 3 and 4 in operation;

Fig. 10 is a plan view of a coated and surfaced web depicting the manner in which roofing elements are cut therefrom;

Fig. 11 is an end view of the web of Fig. 10;

Fig. 12 is a view similar to Fig. 3 illustrating a modified apparatus and method of the instant invention;

Fig. 13 is a side elevational view on an enlarged scale showing an element of the apparatus of Fig. 12;

Fig. 14 is an end elevational view of the device of Fig. 13, and

Fig. 15 is a sectional view on an enlarged scale taken on the line l5l5 of Fig. 12 illustrating the operation of the modified form of apparatus.

Referring now to the drawings and, more particularly, to Figs. 1 and 2, there is shown a covering unit It), depicted for purposes of illustration as a strip shingle having a plurality of shingle simulating exposure tabs [2 defined by slots 14, and a headlap area 16 to be overlapped by a shingle of the next higher course when the shingle is laid. It will be understood, however, that the invention may equally well be embodied in an individual shingle, a shingle with hexagonal tabs, or any other conventional shingle shape.

The shingle comprises a base l8 which, in accordance with conventional practice, may be an asbestos felt, rag felt, or the like, impregnated with any of the known waterproofing materials for this purposesuch, for example, as a relatively low melt point asphalt, say one having a melt point of the order of 140 F. The upper surface of the base carries a coating 20 of a relatively high melt point asphalt, or other waterproofing material conventionally used for coating purposes in the roofing arts. Coating layer 20 is of but lesser thickness ,over the major part of that area of the shingle referred to conventionally as the headlap area. Adjacent the line-of juncture of the headlap and butt areas "the coating tapers, as indicated at 22, whereby. abrupt change from the relatively thick coating of the butt area to the thin coating of the headlap areais' eliminated, and the shingle assumes. the visual apupper surface of th shingles. will be later more clearly understood. This may be made any suitable value, for example A3. The construction illustrated is tobe utilizedwith a web from which three lanes of strip shingles may-be severed, the shingles extending lengthwise of "the web (see Figs. 10 and 11). It will be understood that themachine may equally welljbe'arranged for the production of a fewer ori'greater number of shingle lanes. r

Substantially I triangular shaped dividers S4 constituting relatively thinplates are secured preferably by welding to the upper flange of the angle member. -The forward ends 560i the angle members are curved to conform to the 5 curvature offroll 32 and, when the scraper blade 3 .is in operative position, 'are'in substantial conpearance' of having a-substantially uniform taper from butt to head. Embedded in the coating 20 is a surfacing layer of a granular, material 24 such as scrap, crushed slate, mastic sandor other comminuted mineral conventionally used for this purpose: The granular layer may be uniform throughout or may vary as to sizeand/or color in the headlap and butt areas, as desired.

In a preferred form of the shingle, theunder surface of the felt base is coated with a layer 26 of material similar to that employed for layer Ill. Coating layer 26 is preferably relatively thick under the butt area and relatively thin under the headlap area whereby the butt thickness is further enhanced. A thin layer of mica particles, talc particles or other conventional anti-stick material is referably embedded in layer'26.

Referring now particularly to Figs. 3-9 inclusive, the manufacture of the shingle in accordance with the method and by means of the apparatus of the instant invention will be described. The apparatus includes a coating tank 23 which contains, at a suitable level as indicated, a supply of a relatively high melt point asphalt, say an asphalt having agmelt point of the order of 220 F., or other conventional coating material maintained in a suitable highly fluent con-' dition by any of the usual means for this purpose such, for example-as a steam coil 30 connected to a'sou'rce'of steam supply. Carried by,

the frame structure, and imposition to dip into Scraper 36 preferably comprises the conven or driven at a much slower speed than roll .32.

A dip roll 38 is mounted in suitable hearin s on I arms 31 for freerotation within the tank. The

arms are pivoted at 39 to. the tank walls for convenient raising or lowering of the dip roll to facilitate threading the web through the machine.

Located between dip roll 38 and coating roll "is a scraper member, indicated generally at '40 member 42 welded or otherwise secured to a carrying rod 44 adjustably supported from .frame members 45 as .byarms 48. The forward Iedge 'tact with'the roll, as; shown 3;. The upper edges 58jo'f' the dividers'liein a, plane substantially tangent .to roll 32 and, intersecting the corner of the angle member. l

A back scraper 60 is employed to controlthe thickness of the coating on the under {ace of the web. Back scraper 60 comprises an angle. bar 62 supported by rod B4'to which-fit -issecured' by welding or the like, the'rod 64, in turn being'carried by lever 65, pivotedat 68 toth'e frame structure whereby scraper may be moved upwardly and downwardly by handle member {10. The scraper may besecured in any adjusted position by means of plate 'I Z'carrying an'arcuate slot 14 through which a thumb screw 16 is inserted and threaded into the handle member. Angle member 62 '(see' particularly land- 8) is machined to provide at itsapex projecting sections 63 and recessed sections" 65. The depth of the recessed sections ispreferably somewhat less than in the case of scrapermemberlmsay and the projecting and recessed sections are complejis, projecting'secti'ons 63 in bar 52 are opposite recessed sections 152; in bar 42.;-

Located beyond thej'cojaating rolls and scrapers is a hopper-fl showndiagrammatically only, for

a supply of a suitable comminutedmineral material to be employedto surfacethe'web, A second hopper Wis locatedbetweenfembedding rolls 82 and 84 to deposit talc .-:mic'a"orothersuitable antistick materialj 'onfthe reverse side of the web.

'TIn the operation of the appartus described above and in the methodfofthe instant invention, I an impregnated web W-of felt or'the like, as conventionally used in asphaltiroofing is led from ajsuitable supply thereoflor from the saturating equipment beneath dip-roll 38 and between roll 32 'and'scraper 33'. "The web. is preferably of a tional upper coating roll, either held stationary width-to accommodate '1 ayplurality of lanes of shingles withtheirtrans'verse dimensions, i. e..

. their dimension from butt edge toupper edge, extending"transverselypf the web. In the embodiment shown the web is, 'say,36"' in width for other finishingoperations-.1 The web may. be (see Figs. v3, 4, 5. and 6), comprising an angle f drawn through the apparatuslby' embedding rolls 82 and 84 or by'other suitable .drawing'rolls (not 'j'shownh s craper 40 web betweerizdip roll 38-. and coating roll '32 is? drawn sharpl across-the" cement the scraper I and*'travels therefrom t the 88-1 ibetween the adjustedits support to have i sections 53 ofxits scraping-edge and'theforward edges 56of dividers 54 resting against the roll.

rolls with its underside in sliding contact with the upper edges of dividers 54. Scraper 36 is adjusted to define a gap or bight between it and the web of a maximum width to provide the desired maximum thickness of coating on the upper surface of the web. Scraper 60 is raised to such an extent that the web is drawn sharply across the apex of the angle member in its travel from coating roll 32 to imbedding roll 82.

Coating material of a suitable type, such as a high melt point asphalt of the character previously referred to, is maintained in a molten or fluent condition within tank 28 at a suflicient depth to entirely submerge dip roll 38 and to partially submerge coating roll 32. As web W leaves the coating tank in its travel between dip roll 33 and coating roll 32 it carries with it relatively thick layers of the coating material on its opposite surfaces. Due ot the drawing of the web over the corner of scraper member 40 the coating is substantially removed from the lower surface of the web, leaving a. relatively thin layer. Coating roll 32, which is rotated to have a peripheral speed substantially equal to the rate of travel of the web, picks up a layer of coating as it moves through the coating tank and, upon continued rotation, carries this layer into contact with the scraping edge of scraper 40. Projecting sections 50 remove substantially all or the greater portion of the coating from the circumferential areas of the roll and the recessed sections level it off to a uniform given thickness in the remaining circumferential areas, with the result that the coating roll, as it approaches contact with the web. carries circumferential relatively thick and very thin coating lanes. The coating lanes are maintained against substantial distortion as they approach the underside of the web by dividers 54.

Referring now particulary to Fig. 9, as the web the bight between roll 32 and scraper 36 it sags or is pressed into the recesses defined by the thin lanes of coating, the coating flowing to a sum-- cient extent to eliminate sharp lines of demarkation between the recessed and elevated coating lanes, to assume substantially the configuration shown in Fig. 9. In other words the web is laterally distorted into relatively depressed and elevated areas or lanes. The coating layer on the upper surface of the web is leveled oil by scraper roll 36 whereby, relatively to the surface of the web, it is of substantially greater depth over those areas opposite the thin coating lanes and of lesser depth opposite the thick lanes on roll 32, the areas of greater depth tapering into the areas of lesser depth.

As the web leaves the bight between roll 32 and scraper 36 the coating on the roll is transferred to the under surface of the web. The web then passes over scraper 60 which divides the under coating into relatively thick and thin lanes. As will be understood, due to the fact that the projecting and recessed sections on scraper 60 are complementary to those on scraper 40, the thick lanes of coating on the rear of the web will be opposite the areas of thicker coating on the upper surface of the web. The web then passes beneath hopper 18 where surfacing material of suitable type is showered onto the coating. The hopper, if desired, may be of a divided type to supply granules of one type or color to the coating lanes which are to constitute the butts of the shingles, and of another type to the headlap lanes. The web passes around embedding roll 82 where the granules are partially embedded in the asphalt coating. It then travels beneath hopper 80 where talc, mica or other anti-stick material is applied to the under coating, and finally around roll 84 where this material is partially embedded. The web is divided into covering elements in such manner that the exposure areas are cut from the thicker lanes and the headlap areas from the thinner lanes (see Figs.'9 and 10), any suitable equipment being employed for this purpose.

As will be appreciated, the web is somewhat distorted during its travel between roll 32 and scraper 36, this being shown in exaggerated form in Fig. 9. However, it will be straightened out to a sufllcient extent as it passes through the various conventional elements of the roofing machine so that the shingles severed therefrom will .have a cross-section substantially as shown in Fig. 2.

Referring now to Figs. 12 to 15 inclusive, a modified form of the apparatus is disclosed. This includes conventional operating parts such as tank 28,- and dip roll 38 as shown in Fig. 3. A lower coating roll, indicated in this embodiment at 86, is held against rotation and carries a saddle type scraper member 88 (see particularly Figs. 13 and 14), having projecting sections 30 and recessed sections 92, corresponding respectively to the areas of the web to constitute the headlap and butt areas of the shingles. Between dip roll 38 and coating roll 96 is a scraper 94, preferably a stationary roll. Upper coating roll 96 serves as a scraper and may be driven at a relatively slow speed or may be stationary, similarly as roll 36 in the previous embodiment.

When the machine is in operation web W is supplied with layers of the coating on both faces as it issues from the coating bath in tank 28, the coating layer on the under face being scraped to a minimum thickness as the web passes around scraper 94. As the web passes between rolls or members 86 and 96, the web sinks or is depressed into the recessed sections of member 88. At the same time the coating on the upper surface of the web is leveled off by member 96 (see Fig. 15) whereby the web is provided on its upper face with thick and thin coating lanes tapering into one another at their juncture. The latter is due to the fact that the web is drawn across the shoulders between the recessed and projecting sections of member 88 and does not strictly conformwith the profile'of member 88. The web then passes to the surfacing and other stations as before. I

The apparatus and method described above, particularly in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, provides for the economical production of shingles of the thick butt type. Multiple coating operations are eliminated and problems of control greatly simplified. At the same time a shingle or other covering unit is produced which meets commercial requirements, both in respect to appearance and durability. The greater coating thicknesses required to build up the butt thickness are properly disposed and no sharp line of demarkation can be observed between the thinner and thicker portions.

Having thus described my invention in rather full detail it will be understood that these details need not be strictly adhered to but that various changes and modifications will suggest themselves to one skilled in the art all falling within the scope of the invention as defined by the subjoined claims.

What I claim is:

1. A method of making covering units such as shingles comprising applying a layer of an asphaltic coating material to a surface of a web,

v laterally distorting'said web into relatively depressed andelevated areas and leveling the coating on said distorted web whereby said coating will be of lesser thickness on the elevated area and a greater thickness on the depresed area of said web, and severing covering units from said web.

2. A method of making covering units comprising applying a layer of an asphaltic coating material to a, surface of a web, laterally distorting said web into relatively depressed and elevated areas, passing said surface of said web beneath a scraping member whereby the coating will be scraped to a lesser thickness on said elevated area and of greater thickness on the depressed area, and dividing said web into covering units.

3. A method of making covering units such as shingles comprising applying a layer of an asphaltic coating material to a surface of a web,

carrying said web into contact "with a surface having projecting and recessed sections extending laterally of said web with said web depressed into said recessed sections, and simultaneously leveling said coating layer whereby said coating will be of greater thickness on the depressed areas of said web, partially embedding granular material in said coating, and dividing said web 5. A methodof making covering units such as shingles comprising applying a layer of an asphaltic coating material to an upper surface of a web, passing said web over'a. member having projecting and recessed sectionsin contact with the under surface of said web and extendinglaterally thereof. and simultaneously leveling said coating layer, partiallyembedding granular coating on the under surface of the web into lanes of greater and lesser thickness, partially embedding granular material in said layer, and dividing said web into covering units.

7. A method of making covering units'such ,as shingles comprising applying to the upper surface of a web of a width to have severed therefrom lanes of covering units, a layer of an as- -pha1tic coating material, applying an asphaltic j material to a roll in lanes of greater and lesser thickness to define projecting and recessed sections on the surface of said roll, passing said web over said roll with said web depressed into said recessed sections, and simultaneously leveling said coating layer whereby said coating layer will be of greater thickness on the depressed areas of said web. scraping the under surface of said web to divide coating deposited thereon by said rollinto lanes of greater and lesser thickness disposed oppositely to the areas of greater and lesser thickness of said coating layer, partially embedding granular material in said coating layer, and dividing said web into covering units.


REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the tile of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,014,424 Troeger Jan. 9, 1912 1,662,655 Abraham Mar. 13, 1928 1,851,300 Beckman Mar. 29, 1932 2,229,396 Sweedler Jan. 21, 1941 2,400,746. Fassiotto May 21, 1946 Certificate of Correction Patent No. 2,559,879 7 July 10, 1951 JOHN B. KALIN It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows:

Column 4, line 43, for coaating read coating; line 49, for side read face; column 5, line 9, for imbeddlng read embedding; line 19, for 0t read to line 40, before the insert enters;

and-that the said Letters Patent should be read as corrected above, so that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Ofiice.

Signed and sealed this 2nd day of October, A. D. 1951.


Assistant Commissioner of Patents.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1014424 *Sep 3, 1909Jan 9, 1912John W TroegerMethod of and apparatus for forming roofing-shingles.
US1662655 *Jul 3, 1926Mar 13, 1928Ruberoid CoProcess and apparatus for manufacturing prepared roofing strips
US1851300 *May 28, 1930Mar 29, 1932Patent & Licensing CorpStrip shingle and method of making the same
US2229396 *Aug 2, 1938Jan 21, 1941Patent & Licensing CorpThick butt shingle
US2400746 *Dec 8, 1943May 21, 1946Ruberoid CoMethod of making thick butt shingles
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3607529 *Mar 6, 1969Sep 21, 1971Alcan Aluminum CorpMethod for forming tapered composite metal-clad shingles
US4795661 *Sep 3, 1987Jan 3, 1989Gaf CorporationProcess for the manufacture of asphalt shingles
US5382291 *Nov 3, 1993Jan 17, 1995Index S.P.A. Technologie ImpermeabiliApparatus for making decorations on tarred membranes for surface covering in the construction industry
US6125602 *May 20, 1998Oct 3, 2000The Dorothy And Ben Freiborg 1980 TrustAsphalt composition ridge covers with three dimensional effect
US6740356 *Oct 25, 2001May 25, 2004Soprema (Societe Anonyme)Process for the production of a bituminous sealing sheet
U.S. Classification427/187, 427/188, 118/44, 427/276, 118/102, 118/212
International ClassificationB28B3/00, B28B3/12
Cooperative ClassificationD21H25/08, D21H5/0062, D21H17/61
European ClassificationD21H17/61, D21H25/08, D21H5/00C18B