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Publication numberUS2560808 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 17, 1951
Filing dateNov 26, 1948
Priority dateNov 26, 1948
Publication numberUS 2560808 A, US 2560808A, US-A-2560808, US2560808 A, US2560808A
InventorsMaccallum James C
Original AssigneeMaccallum James C
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Germicidal hair drier or the like
US 2560808 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y 1951 J. c. MACCALLUM GERMICIDAL HAIR DRIER, OR THE LIKE Fild Nov. 26, 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet l Jam: .MnccSLLu/v, 551%; 111/ HTTOPAI V J y 17, 1951 J. c. MACCALLUM 2,560,808

GERMICIDAL HAIR DRIER, OR THE LIKE Filed Nov. 26. 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented July 17, 1951 UNITED STATES ATENT OFFICE GERMICIDAL HAIR DRIER OR THE LIKE James C. Maccallum, St. Louis, Mo. I Application November 26, 1948, Serial No. 61,989

cluster, and preferably a basket-shaped cluster,.

that will deliver germicidal rays in all directions, so that a portion of the body or the like immersed into the middle of the generally basket-shaped cluster of containers will be completely sterilized. Another object is to provide such cluster in a reflector that cooperates with the lamps to provide a mutlitude of germicidal rays directed to all parts of the interior of the reflector, directly and by reflection.

A further object is to provide a container having three dimensions, and means to direct germicidal rays to at least five sides of an article within the container.

A particular object of the invention is to provide a bowl-like container, preferably hemispherical, adapted to fit over the human head, which has within it an arrangement of germicidal lamps disposed so that they will give germicidal rays in all directions, so that they will sterilize the scalp of the head inserted into the container. Especially is it an object to make the interior surface of the container of such character that it will reflect the germicidal rays in a multitude of directions within the container, so that all parts of the hair and scalp of oneusing the apparatus will be subjected to a bath of the germicidal radiant energy.

A further object of the invention is to provide a hair drier that is automatically sterilized with each use, so that it cannot transmit active germs, spores or fungi from one user to another. Particularly it is an object to provide a device in which the germicidal lamps are arranged to sterilize entirely the interior of the container by germicidal radiant energy so that germs are not transmitted by the container itself from one person to another. A further object of the invention is to provide such a container that is adapted to fit over the human head in connection with a hair dried means, so that, while the hair drying operation is taking place, the germicidal action upon the scalp of the person may also take place.

A further object of the invention is to provide for the controlled application of germicidal radiant energy, not only for effective killing of disease producing germs, spores and fungus upon the area being treated, but also the attenuation of the same, so that the intrinsic potential of said organisms is obliterated. It is an object to attain the foregoing for its application to surgery, surgical implements, the hands of the surgeon, and the like, and any instrumental medium by exposure to which a susceptible animal could be infected.

A further object of the invention is to provide agermicidal radiant power means as aforesaid an arrangement of ultraviolet radiant energy.

means that gives the maximum delivery of germicidal rays. A specific object is to provide an arrangement of radiant energy devices within a more or less heisphero-idally shaped reflector, the radiant energy devices being so arranged as to deliver radiant energy throughout the interior of the reflector including the interior walls of the reflector itself, and the reflector being shaped and disposed to reflect the maximum of germicidal radiant energy in a maximum of different directions, so that reentrants and like surfaces on objects inserted within the reflector are assured of being within the path of some rays.

Other objects will appear from the description to follow.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a generally diametrical section through a hair drying device that embodies the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a wiring diagram of the same;

Figs. 3-5 are schematic showings of variant shapes for the ultraviolet ray tubing;

Fig. 6 is a somewhat abbreviated section through a typical control device for the present apparatus;

Fig. '7 is a front elevation of the control device,

Fig. 11 is a diagrammatic section of another variant form of reflector; and

Fig. 12 is a bottom view of the reflector of Fig. 11.

The device of Fig. l is intended to typify the installation of the present invention. As the invention has especial value in connection with hair driers, the preferred construction illustrated is a hair drier. Other uses and installations will appear evident from the description to follow. The illustrated hair drier includes an outer casing ll] that is more or less bowl shaped, and it includes an inner object receiving container ll that is generally hemispherical and is illustrated as being of a shape to receive the head of a person whose hair is to be dried therein. The interior surface of the casing or lining H is reflective, being of the type to reflect rays in a multiude of direction. It may be smooth in contour, as illustrated in Fig. l, or it may have longitudinal flutings, as shown at l2 in Figs. 9 and 10, or concentric flutings, as shown in Figs. 11 and 12, at l2a. In Figs. 8-12, the flutings are shown somewhat exaggerated in size, for clarity of illustration.

For use as a hair drier, means is provided for the forcing of air through the apparatus. It is preferable to use the re-circulation type of drier, and such is here illustrated. The reflector or container ll and the casing l3 are desirably closed together at their outer ends. Near the top of the reflector H, there is a plurality of openings l3, and there are additional courses of openings l4, l5 and I6 through the liner toward the open end thereof. It will be understood that the disposition of the openings is merely representative here.

The casing II] is considerably deeper than the reflector l l, and in the intervening space a blower I8 is mounted. It is electrically operated and has a blade assembly l9 that draws air through the upper openings I3. The air delivered from the blower I8 is forced back around through the openings l4, l5 and 16. Also, the head of the user does not completely fill the open end of the reflector Ii, so that additional air may be drawn in there. On the interior of the casing, just opposite the holes l3, a heating element 20 is diagrammatically illustrated. This heating element heats the air as it is drawn through the openings I3 in the manner known in this art.

It will be understood that there are other types of hair .driers known to the trade, and that the present one is illustrative rather than limiting.

Inside the reflector II, there is located a plurality of germicidal lamp tubes. These tubes constitute the germicidal radiant energy producing means. In the preferred construction, these tubes comprise a plurality of individual tubes 24, arranged in substantially circular shape so as to lie adjacent the interior of the liner ll. They are held to the liner by suitable means, such as clips, diagrammatically illustrated at 21.

The purpose of the illustrated arrangement of the tubes is to insure that there will be tube portions emitting a multitude of light rays in every direction to every part of the space enclosed within the reflector II, and to every part ofthe interior of the reflector itself. The circular arrangement of the tubes is preferred for this. For a hair drier as illustrated, where the reflector l l is about a foot in diameter, the spacing of the tubes, as illustrated, is typical. However, Fig. 3 illustrates diagrammatically an arrangement of a plurality of tubes 28 that are arranged vertically within the liner. Fig. 4 shows a plurality of tubes 29 that are arranged spirally against the inner surface of the liner or adjacent thereto; and Fig. 5 illustrates a plurality of tubes 39 of U-shape near the outer end of the reflector II, with an additional set of substantially U- shaped tubes 3| disposed around the upper part of the reflector II. In every instance, there are enough radiant energy producing tube portions and enough locations to provide a multiplicity of rays of li ht to every point in the interior of the liner. And, in every illustrated case, the ray emitting tube portions are assembled into a cluster of the desirable shape that may be termed a basket shape.

There is a timer control 32 for the operation of the apparatus. This may be one of the timer controls available on the market, and it is necessary only to illustrate the same diagraimnatically. Fig. 7 shows a front view partly broken away of one selected type of a timer, it having a casing C and a central shaft 33. The central shaft 33 is connected to a clockworks mechanism having a windup spring and an escapement mechanism that are not shown. When the shaft 33 is manually turned clockwise from a certain starting position, it winds up the spring which will return the shaft to its starting position at a given rate so as to consume a given amount of time. A disc 34 having a knob 35 is rotatably mounted on the shaft 33. This disc 34 is normally urged in a counterclockwise direction, as indicated in Fig. 7, by a spring means, not shown, the extent of such counterclockwise movement being determined by the impingement of a shoulder projection 36 on the disc 34 against a stop pin 31 secured to the casing C. This is the starting position. The knob 35 may be turned clockwise until an additional stop projection 38 engages the pin 31.

There is an arm 40 secured to the shaft back of the disc 34, which arm is attached to the shaft 33 to rotate with it. At its outer end, the arm 43 carries a leaf spring 4|, at the outer end of which a wedge-shaped head 42 is supported for somewhat resilient movement parallel to the shaft 33. The head 42 is generally of diamond shape in cross section, as illustrated in Fig. 6,

but, for a purpose to appear, its outer surface.

is preferably convex, as shown in Fig. 8. Also, as is shown in Fig. 6, the disc 34 has a leaf spring hooking element 43 that normally springs outwardly to the position indicated in Fig. 6. This spring is shaped to have a hook 44 on its outer end that can engage the head 42 during the clockwise movement of the disc 34. Beyond the hook, the end of the leaf spring 43 is turned outwardly, generally parallel to the disc 34.

A camming element 45 is supported on the frame in a position to be engaged by the head 42 and the outer extension beyond the hook 44 on the spring 43. The cam 45 has an electrical contact track 45 on its back surface. There is a switch 48 located behind the end of the camming element. It has an insulative button engageable by the back surface of the head 42, as will appear, whereby the switch is closed. The outer blade of the switch 48 may be adjusted (Fig. 8) by an adjusting screw 49 to have a selected initial position with respect to the inner blade.

With the convex shape of the outer surface of Also, the length of the cam 46 and the as d 5. amount of winding of the clockworks are a matter of choice. The illustrations are not intended to limit the arcuate length of the cam 46.

An illustrative wiring connection is shown in Fig. 2. Two power lines 50 and 5| represent the source of power, normally H volts. A line 52 leads from one of the power lines 50 to the motor I8 of the fan. The other side of this motor is connected by a line 53 that leads to a flexible connection 54 that is electrically connected to the head '32 of the arm 48. The track 46 is connected by a line 55 that leads back to the other line 5|. It will also be observed that the heater is connected between the lines 52 and 53 to be in parallel with the fan l8.

Additionally, the line 5! is connected through the switch 48, and from this switch through a ballast 49 to one side. of thevarious lamps 24. The

other power line 50 is connected to the other side of the lamps.

Operation At the outset, it is desired to obtain an operation wherein the control knob may be rotated so as to insure the lapse of a given time during which the drying may be performed, and to provide also a shorter interval for the operation of the lamps, and to insure that at all times the lamps cannot be reactivated or reenergized until a substantial interval of time has elapsed.

Thus, to start the apparatus after the con tainer or reflector H has been disposed over a head, the knob 35 is turned from its starting position and moved as far clockwise as it is permitted to go, this being determined by the engagement of the shoulder projection 38 with the stop pin 31 on the disc. Thereupon the handle may be released and it will return to its starting position under the influence of the torsion spring (not shown).

'In the starting position, the hook 44 of the leaf spring 43 engages the head 42 so that the rotating movement of the disc 34 draws the diamond shaped head against the sloping initial edge of the cam 45, displacing the head 42 on its spring 54 toward the disc as it rides down the initial sloping edge of the cam and the front face thereof. The spring 43 permits the hook 44 to yield for this purpose. When the knob has been turned to its extreme position, the outwardly turned extreme end of the hook 44 does not pass beyond the limit of the cam, but it displaces the head 42 beyond the edge of the cam so that the same springs back to the position indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 6-. From this position, counterclockwise movement of the arm 48 under the influence of the return clockwork mechanism will cause the head 42 to ride up on the return slope of the cam 45. When it reaches the track 46, it will make contact for the heater 2!) and the fan [8, which then starts. Also, it will engage the insulating button on the lower blade of the switch 4'! and close this switch. This energizes the lamp circuit and causes the lamps 24 to become illuminated. The lamps will remain illuminated for only a limited period of time determined by the outer surface of the head 42. Thus, when the head 42 returns back from under the button of the switch 41, that switch 41 will open, but the fan and heater circuit will continue until the return clock has moved the head 48 back to the starting end of the cam 45, whereupon it springs back so that it is again behind the hook 44. As shown in Fig. 8, the period of energization of the ray emitting tubes may be regulated by adjusting the screw 49.

' Switch 41.

It will be seen that this arrangement limits the length of time that the switch 41 may be closed and also prevents any reclosing of that switch until the time has elapsed to return the head 42 completely across the cam 45 and back to its starting position. In a hair drier, the total drying time may be about thirty minutes, and

the ultraviolet period about two minutes. (It will be understood that both of these intervals are subject to variation. The period of the germicidal radiant energy treatment varies with the distance of the tubes from the scalp, the intensity of the energy of the tubes, and the number and spacing of the tubes within the reflector l I.) It is impossible to return the knob 35 from its initial position to its operating position after a cycle has been instituted, and thereby reclose the switch 41. Thus a lapse of time of predetermined length is required between cycling of the The fact that the spring 44 does not move off the front face of the cam 45 is employed to prevent the hook from being reengaged under or back of the head 42 to return it from a point in the midst of its operating cycle back to a position wherein it may close the switch 48.

It will be evident that the closing of the switch 48 need not be at the beginning of the drying cycle, as the switch may be located elsewhere along the back of the track 45, and, in any. such location, the control mechanism will insure a lapse of time between successive energizations of the radiant energy means. It is considered preferable to have the radiant energy operation at the start of the drying cycle.

In the present illustration, ultraviolet lamps are employed as the germicidal radiant energy producing means. It will be understood that other radiant energy may be employed, provided that it is germicidal, and provided that it is controlled as to density and duration so as to prevent damage to the object being disinfected.

The ultraviolet lamps, producing a substantial amount of rays having wave lengths within the germicidal range, are best suited for the present I I purpose.

When a persons head is within the apparatus and thereby contained within the reflector II, and the lamps 24 are energized, the germicidal rays will move (directly or by reflection) toward every portion of the scalp and the hair, from many directions. In other words, the tubes must be close enough together and numerous enough to direct rays (i. e., germicidal radiant energy) toward every part of the scalp from a number of directions, so that there will be a multitude of rays approaching every area in a multitude.

of directions. Hence, regardless of the disposition of the individual hairs at such an area, there will be rays that will reach the scalp. Also, there will be rays directed to every part of each hair,

and there will be such a number of rays thatthere will be reflections from each hair and from the scalp itself that will increase the application of the rays and the directions in which they travel to insure that all areas of the hair and scalp are touched by rays. Similarly, the tubes are so arranged that every part of the interior of the container II will be touched by rays, including those parts that would be shielded, such as by the clips 21, were only one tube present. By this means, the liner H is itself disinfected. And the reflective character of the container H produces rays in a multitude of directions from each radiant energy source, so as in effect to produce three-dimensional sterilization.

7. Beauty shop hair driers have long been known as being responsible for the transmitting of spreading of disease producing germs, spores and fungus. A hair drier of the present type will kill such disease producing germs, spores and fungus, and will produce such attenuation that it will not only disinfect the scalp of each user in a manner and to a degree heretofore impossible, but also will definitely prevent the transmission and spread of diseases caused by succeeding uses of the equipment, resulting from infectious matter harbored in the hair drier itself, In other words, the hair drier is completely disinfected at the time of each use and remains so, and is again disinfected upon a subsequent use; and this is true of all areas within the reflector or container H. and of all areas of the scalp immersed into the container, because of the large number of direct rays from the lamps themselves traveling in a multitude of directions, and a large number of reflected rays that are reflected off of the generally hemispheroidal reflector.

In order to obtain germicidal characteristics, the lamps must transmit ultraviolet energy within the approximate region of 2537 angstrom units. It is a specific requirement of this invention that the frequency be in the germicidal band of the ultraviolet, which is approximately within the spectral range of about 2537 to 2575 units, this being the spectral region of maximum germicidal effectiveness. This contrasts with the conventional therapeutic lamps, the major part of the radiant energy of which is Within the long Wave lengths of the infra-reds, and which are designed largely for the production of heat in the interior of the hair drier, and which have no substantial germicidal effect. The present germicidal lamps actually do kill germs by direct contact with them. Also, they attenuate the germs, thereby preventing the spread of disease by retention of such germs within the hair drier, and their carry-over from one user to the next The germicidal lamps preferably should be operated for a period of one-half to three minutes, depending upon the intensity of the germicidal light or energy produced on the object being treated. It has been found that, in an assembly of the type illustrated here, approximately two minutes is satisfactory. Too short a period of exposure is apt not to complete the destruction of the germs and too long a period is apt to produce irritation of the scalp. As illustration, the tubes in the present device will average about two inches from the scalp and may be operated at 110 volts, with approximate amperage .03 to .34, producing an ultraviolet watt output of between .5 and .06, with a maximum of .008 watts per foot at feet. Such conditions of operation are found to obviate all fear of transmission of contagious diseases and infectious skin diseases from one patron to another when the tubes are incorporated in a standard hair drier as illustrated, and operated from one and one-half to two minutes.

In addition to the sterilization of the surfaces with which the ultraviolet energy comes into contact directly or indirectly, the tubes are so arranged in the present hair drier that they sterilize the air circulating in contact with the hair and the scalp. This includes any fresh air drawn through the available open end of the hair drier, and also includes the re-circulating all;

With the arrangement illustrated, only the scalp and the head from the eyebrows to the nape of the neck and above the ears are exposed to the rays. This eliminates disagreeable erythema effects. Hence ninety-nine percent killing eifect of the germs can be obtained without producing any ill effect on the skin.

The tubes to obtain thedesired result are .pre-

ferred to be of special ultraviolet transmitting glass.

In addition to the use of this apparatus as a hair drier, it also typifies a germicidal apparatus that may be used in other connections. For ex-v ample, a particularly valuable application of this invention is to head surgery, as the apparatus within the container represented by the liner II;

and, with only a slight movement, if any, of his hands therein, they may be completely sterilized because of the penetration of the rays to every reentrant in the structure of his hands, this being produced by having rays direct or reflected extending in so many directions that some rays are sure to be projected to every part of the hands.

Thus, in a broader aspect, the invention con-. sists of a germicidal radiant energy producing means that produces such radiant energy in a multitude of directions to a given area, that may be three-dimensional, to disinfect the area com-.

pletely, without the use of liquids or other preparations that must be applied to the area, and the efficiency of which is less than that of the radiant energy produced as herein described. The radiant energy is directed to each spot within the area being treated, to insure a plurality of rays to each spot, and to insure to a maximum degree the elimination of shadow effect. With the present invention, this may be. accomplished by a single treatment.

In tests made of the eflicacy of germicidal ra-i diant energy, cultures were taken before and after the application of such germicidal radiant energy to the skin and scalps of fifty patients Such cultures were planted on petri dishes and incubated. All cultures grew organisms before the areas were irradiated with the dosages of. ultraviolet energy as outlined hereinbefore. Immediately after irradiation, the skin and scalps were again cultured, and it was found that the germicidal radiant power or energy had killed or attenuated all of the bacteria, and no bacterial growth was shown on the petri dishes. The

germicidal radiant energy had killed or attenu-,

It is also productive of.

9 ferent in character from the present lamps, and the results are wholly different. As already noted, they are not germicidal except as a possible casual incident in very small degree. Also, it is recognized that ultraviolet within the range of 1800 to 3100 angstrom units ha been employed for therapeutic purposes. However, such applications have been, for all practical purposes, single tubes in portable supports so that energ could be applied in only such directions, and over only such area ascan be obtained from one source. They were not usable or practicable for obtaining sterile areas of substantial extent, and particularly three-dimensional areas, for operative or other purposes. Such devices could not be used as hair driers, and could not be used as a practical matter for sterilizing operative areas or hands of the surgeon or the instruments. Likewise, germicidal lamps have been used in connection with compartments, such as rooms or refrigerators and the like. These lamps have been directed in a predetermined direction, and they depend for their effect upon the circulation of the air within the compartment, rather than by any direct impingement of the rays upon an object within the compartment. Even if objects do come within the range of the beams, there is only a fragmentary sterilization, if any, because normally the time of exposure i too small, and always the area of exposure is extremely limited. In other words, they are wholly inadequate from the standpoint of obtaining complete sterilization within a given area, for any purpose at all.

What is claimed iS:

1. In a germicidal hair-drying apparatus, a support, germicidal radiant energ producing means disposed in a basket shape having sides and one end with the other end open, to provide a multitude of beams of such energy extending in all directions within the interior of the basket arrangement, said energy producing means being of the type to produce ultraviolet radiant energy of germicidal character, within the range of about 2535-2575 angstrom units, the support comprising a generally hemispherical container having an opening therein, the container being of a size to fit over a human head and having an interior surface of approximately the size of the basket shaped radiant energy producing means, and being reflective of such germicidal rays, and shaped to reflect beams of such energy in a multitude of directions within the container, and hair-drying means to dry hair on a head inserted into the container.

2. In a germicidal apparatus, a support, germicidal radiant energy producin mean disposed in a generally hemispherical shape having sides and one end with the other end open, to provide a multitude of beams of such energy extending in all directions within the interior of the hemispherical arrangement, said energy producing means being of the type to produce ultraviolet radiant energy of germicidal character, Within the range of about 2535-2575 angstrom units, the support comprising a container having an opening therein, the radiant energy producing means being attached to the container and held thereby, the container having an interior surface reflective of such germicidal radiant energy, the container being generally hemispherical in shape, and of a size to fit freely over a human head.

3. In a germicidal apparatus, a support, germicidal radiant energy producing means disposed in a generally hemispherical shape having sides and on end with the other end open, to provide a multitude of beams of such energy extending in all directions within the interior of the hemispherical arrangement, said energy producing means being of the type to produce ultraviolet radiant energy of germicidal character, within the spectral range of about 2535-2575 angstroin units, the support comprising a container having an opening therein, the container having an interior surface reflective of such germicidal radiant energy, the container being generally hemispherical in shape, and of a size to fit freely over a human head, and with its inner surface serrated, and the radiant energy producin means being disposed on the interior of the container.

4. In a germicidal apparatus, a support, germicidal radiant energy producing means disposed in a basket shape having sides and one end with the other end open, to provide a multitude of beam of such energy extending in all directions within the interior of the basket arrangement, said energy producing means being of the type to produce ultraviolet radiant energy of germicidal character, within the spectral range of about 2535-2575 angstrom units, the support comprising a container having an opening therein, the container having an interior surface reflective of such germicidal radiant energy, the container being generally hemispheroidal in shape, and of a size to fit freely over a human head, and means to circulate air through the interior of the container.

5. In a germicidal drier, a containerhaving one side open, means to cause air, to flow through the container, means to heat the air, germicidal radiant energy producing means within the container adjacent the interior surface thereof, the energy producing means having a plurality of energy producing portions distributed over the said interior surface to direct a multitude of rays to all portions of the interior of the container, the energy producing means being of the type capable of producing rays within the germicidal range,

and means to control the period of operation of the energy producing means, said control means including mechanism to energize the energy producing means, and to maintain the same energized for a predetermined period and then to deenergize it, and includin means in the control means to maintain the same deenergized and prevent reenergization thereof for a substantial period after deenergization.

6. In a germicidal drier, a container having one side open, means to cause air to flow through the container, means to heat the air, germicidal radiant energy producing means within the container adjacent the interior surface thereof, the energ producing means having a plurality of energy producing portions distributed over the said interior surface to direct a multitude of rays to all portions of th interior of the container, the energy producing means being of the type capable of producing rays within the germicidal range, and mechanism to operate the air flow producing means and the energy producing means, said mechanism including cycling means to start the air flow and the energy producing means, means to stop the energy producing means after a predetermined period, and means to continue operation of the air flow means for a substantial additional period after the energy producing means has stopped, in a continuous cycle. 7 v

7. In a germicidal drier, a container having one side open, means to cause air to flow through the container, means to heat the air, germicidal radi- 11 ant energy producing means within the container adjacent the interior surface thereof, the energy producing means having a plurality of energy producing portions distributed over the said interior surface to direct a multiude of rays of the energy producing means during the additional period.

8. In a hair drier, a container adapted to fit over thehead, germicidal radiant energy producing means Within the container and having a plurality of tubular, ray emitting portions, disposed over the interior surface of the container to discharge rays in a multitude of directions within the container to sterilize a head inserted into the container and to sterilize the container itself and the air within the container, means to cause air to flow through the container, con trol means having means to operate the air flow means for a predetermined period to dry the hair on the head within the container, and the control means also having means to energize the germicidal energy producing means for a short period only at one part of the drying period and then to deenergize the same and maintain it deenergized for the remainder of the drying period. 9. In a hair drier, a container adapted to fit over the head, germicidal radiant energy producing means within the container and having a pluralit of tubular, ray emitting portions, disposed over the interior surface of the container to discharge rays in a multitude of directions within the container to sterilize a head inserted into the container and to sterilize the container itself, means to cause air to flow through the container, control mechanism having means to operate the air flow means for a predetermined period to dry the hair on the head within the container,

and having means to energize the energy producing means for a short period only at one of the drying periods and then to deenergize the same for the remainder of the drying period, and means to prevent reenergization of the radiant energ producing means until the drying period has proceeded through the complete cycle.

10. In a hair drier, a container adapted to fit over the head, germicidal radiant energy producing means Within the container and having a plurality of tubular, ray emitting portions, disposed over the interior surface of the container to discharge rays in a multitude of directions within the container to sterilize a head inserted into the container and to sterilize the container itself, means to cause air to flow through the container, control mechanism having means to operate the air flow means for a predetermined period to dry the hair on the head within the container, and having means to energize the radiant energy means for a short period only at one part of the drying period and then to deenergize the same for the remainder of the drying period, said ray emitting portions being circular in shape with each. such portion extending around the interior surface of the container, and the several porl 2 tions being in spaced relation from the open end of the container toward the closed end.

11. In a hair drier, a container adapted to. fit over the head, germicidal radiant energy producing means Within the container and having a pluralit of tubular, ray emitting portions, disposed over the interior surface of the container to discharge rays in a multitude of directions within the container to sterilize a head inserted into the container and to sterilize the container itself, means to cause air to flow through the container, control mechanism having means to operate the airflow means for a predetermined period to dry the hair on the head within the container, and having means to energize the radiant energy means for a short period only at one part of the drying period and then to deenergize the same for the remainder of the drying period, said my emitting portions including a plurality of tubes disposed along the interior surface of the container from the open end to the apex, the several tubes being angularly spaced around said SUI- face.

l2. In a hair drier, a container adapted to fit over the head, germicidal radiant energy producing means Within the container and having a plurality of tubular, ray emitting portions, disposed over the interior surface of the container to discharge rays in a multitude of directions within the container to sterilize a head inserted into the container and to sterilize the container itself. means to cause air to flow through the container, control mechanism having means to operate the air flow means for a predetermined period to dry the hair on a head within the container, and having means to energize the radiant energy means for a short period only at one part of the dryin period and then to deenergize the same for the remainder of the drying period, said ray emitting portions including a plurality of tubes in helical shape extending from the open end of the container to adjacent the apex thereof.

13. In a hair drier, generally hemispherical enclosing means closed at one end and at the sides to fit over the head of a person, means to dry the hair in said enclosure, and germicidal radiant energy producing means to direct germicidal radiant energy of the 2500 angstrom units germicidal range to all parts of the head within said enclosing means, said radiant energy means comprising germicidal radiant energy tubing disposed within the enclosing means and extending to substantially all parts of the end and sides of the interior surface of the enclosing means to subject the interior of the enclosing means to germicidal radiant energy.

14. In a hair drier, a generally hemispherical container to fit over the scalp of a human head, hair-drying means and ultra-violet radiant energy means of the type to produce germicidal ultra-violet rays in quantity to render inactive germs, spores and fungus of the scalp, the ultraviolet ray means being mounted on the container so as to provide such ray means over the scalp within the container, means to operate. the hair-drying means to dry the hair, means to operate the ultra violet ray means during the interval of operation of the hair-drying means, and means to limit the effectiveness of the uitraviolet energy means to prevent injury to the Scalp thereby, said last-named means having means to provide ultra-violet energy of a predetrmined intensity during operation of the hair-drying means for atime long enough to render the germs, spores and fungus inactive but to prevent production of 13 said energy at an intensity and for a time that will injure the scalp.

15. In a hair drier, a generally hemispherical container adapted to fit over the scalp of a human head, electrically operable hair drying means mounted on the container to dry hair of a scalp over which the container is fitted; electrically operable ultra-violet radiant energy means of the type to produce germicidal ultra-violet rays to' render inactive germs, spores, and fungus, the energy means comprising an envelope and energy producing electrical devices to generate the rays within the envelope for radiation therethrough, supporting means to hold the envelope of the radiant energy means in the container so as to radiate the germicidal energy over the interior of the container; switch means operable to effect energization of the hair drying means; switch means operable to effect energization of the radiant energy means; and means to operate the secondnamed switch means in predetermined relationship to operation of the first-named switch means, so as to prevent operation of the radiant energy means and yet to permit operation of the hair drying means.

JAMES C. MACCALLUM.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in th file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS OTHER REFERENCES Applications of Germicidal Erythemal and Infrared Energy by Luckiesh, Van Norstrand Co. 1110., N. Y., 1946.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification34/562, 392/414, 392/422, 34/100, 34/60, 392/380, 422/24, 607/91, D28/17
International ClassificationA45D20/00, A45D20/22
Cooperative ClassificationA45D20/22
European ClassificationA45D20/22