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Publication numberUS2561816 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 24, 1951
Filing dateDec 9, 1948
Priority dateDec 9, 1948
Publication numberUS 2561816 A, US 2561816A, US-A-2561816, US2561816 A, US2561816A
InventorsHolzinger Rudolph J, Pabst Arthur C
Original AssigneeSocony Vacuum Oil Co Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Polish
US 2561816 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Patented July 24 1951 Arthur 0. Pabst, Douglaston, and Rudolph J.

Holzinger, New York, N. Y., assignors to Socony-Vacuum Oil Company, Incorporated, a

corporation of New York Application December 9, 1948, Serial N0. 64,441 T? 6 Claims. (01. 10 -10) No Drawing.

The present invention relates to wax polishes and, more particularly, to those polishes known as paste and liquid wax polishes including emul- .sions.

, Presently available wax polishes of either the .paste or liquid type, including aqueous emulsions, are prepared employing a petroleum fraction known as mineral spirits or Stoddard solvent, with a, boiling range corresponding substantially to the following: T T

50% minimum at 350 F. 90% minimum at 375 F.

That is to say, at least 50 per cent of the petroleum fraction is distilled when the temperature of the vapors reaches 350 degrees Fahrenheit and at least 90 per cent of the petroleum fraction is distilled when the temperature of the distillation reaches 375 degrees Fahrenheit. The

solvent must also meet the requirements that the final boiling point is not greater than 410 degrees Fahrenheit and that the flash point as determined in the Tagliabue closed cup is at least 100 degrees Fahrenheit. i

When a solvent having a higher flash point is used the polish so produced requires excessive periods of drying before bufiing of the polish coated surface can be attempted. The delay so caused is the result of the lower volatility and consequent lower rate of evaporation ofthe solvent. On the other hand, solvents of'materially lower boiling range, while offering certain advantages such as less offensive odoranda finished preparation of increased body, have not ;been found satisfactory because of the considerably lower flash point which introduces undesirable hazards into the manufacturing processes and into the use of the finishedproduct.

We have discovered that the deficiencies of the presently commerciall available wax polishes can be overcome in a simple but efiicacious manner. The wax polishes of the present invention have a sufiiciently bland odor that a deodorant or maskant orperfume is not essential to disguise the odor of the product. This seems to be a minor consideration but those who supply these products to the consumer know that a prodnot having an odor to which the consumer objects isnot readily'salable. T T

The novel product of the present invention has increased body when compared with conventional prior art products of equal wax content. On the other hand, a product of the same consistency or body as that of the conventional commercially procurable polishes can be obtained at a lower concentration. of the active, and generally, more expensivev ingredients. advantageous from a standpoint of economy, the

While the latter is paste polishes of greater consistency permit a more sparing, and evenly distributed application withthe, result thata more uniform and more durable coating of greater area can be obtained.

Similar advantages are gained with liquid polishes together. with decreased loss of material through absorption .by the cloth pad or applicator ordinaril employed. in the application of the wax ,to the surface to be polished.

Aside from the foregoing advantages resulting from thenovel combination of the present invention, the manufacture of wax polishes within the scope of the present invention is simplified and improved.

T The wax-polishes nowoffered to the trade commonly. are produced in accordance with the following procedure. T The waxes are dissolved in the solventby meansof heat and agitation at .about'150 to aboutZOO degrees Fahrenheit. The

solution is then cooledto the point of incipient .crystallizatioin The mush so obtained is homo- Tgenized, for. example by grinding in a colloidal mill, in order to prevent the formation of granularcrystalline agglomerates and to promote the formation of a gel structure.

' The formation of a gel structure ensures the production of a stable homogeneous polishing preparation. T Since the solution of waxes must be cooled to incipient crystallization, the higher the temperature at which the solution of waxes sets the less forced cooling isrequired and the lower the expenseoi (the cooling, ,ystep'. Furthermore; the reduced polishes.

3 amount of cooling necessary to reach the setting temperature shortens the time during which the batch is held in the cooling vessel prior to grinding and filling the containers This permits greater production with equipment of given ca-' pacity or comparable production with equipment 1 of lower capacity. In other Words the capital cost perunit of product produced is lowered.

The higher gelling or setting temperature of the Wax polishes within the scope of the invention provides additional advantages. During transit the wax polishes are often subjected to temperatures above the setting? or gelling temperature of polishes presently available to the trade. At the time of application atmospheric temperatures in many localities are above the softening temperatures of polishes now offered to the trade. When the application of wax polishes is attempted at temperatures above the softening' point of the wax polish. application becomes diilicult or impossible. At temperatures above the gelling temperature, the original gel struc:

ture of liquid waxes becomes thin and the particles of wax settle-out rapidly creating a non,-

homogeneous or heterogeneous product. In morebriefly discussed hereinbefore andothers' known to those skilled in the art can be eliminated or at least markedly reduced by employing a novel solvent for the solid ingredients of the wax polishes. -This solvent meets the specification with respect to boiling range set forth hereinbefore and has a rate of evaporation comparable to that of conventional solvents for the preparation of wax polishes. Paste waxes produced in accordance with the following description have a higher milling temperature, a higher melting point, a higher pour point and are harder than prior. art wax paste polishes.

Liquid wax polishes produced inaccordance with the followingdescription are. homogeneous afterstanding for two weeks at temperatures of about 80 to about 85 degrees Fahrenheit. The polishes are of far greater consistency as indicated by the viscosity at '77 degreesFahrenheit.

Itis an object of the present-invention to pro- I -vide a paste type wax polish having a higher milling temperature, a higher melting point and a more pleasant odor than; conventional paste type wax polishes now available to the trade. It is another object of the present invention to provide wax polishes thatv withstand higher temperatures without softening and permitting higher temperatures during application than conventional wax polishes. It is a further object of. the

present invention to provide liquid type warm polishes. stable for longer periods of time at higher temperatures than conventional wax Other objects and advantages will become apparent from the following description.

As has been pointed out, a solvent suitable for use in the preparation of wax polishes of both the paste and liquid type must meet certain specifications with respect to boiling range. In addition, the flash point of the solvent must be sufiiciently high to reduce the fire hazard and the rate of evaporation must be sufficiently high to permit satisfactory application of the polish.

The novel solvent employed in the described pastes satisfies all of these requirements and, in addition, has a higher setting temperature than presently used solvents. In order to provide a basis for comparison, the characteristics of solvents typical of those presently employed to a considerable extent and of the novel solvent are given in Table I.

Table I Mineral Spirits g ig Gravity, API I. 47. 6 48. 3 55. 5 Initial Boiling Pt., 312 308 317 10%, F- 325 318 348 341 330 360 364 350 368 389 384 386 Flash Point:

ag, closed cup, F 103 105 117 Aniline Pt., F 129. 0 128. 0 182. 5 Kinematic Viscosity at 100 I., CSKS 1.04 1.39 Parafiinicity Index 62. 7 160 The novel solvent comprises a mixture of hydrocarbons which exhibits what maybe termed superparafiinicity. The novel solvent is most readily obtained by fractionation of the alkylate produced by condensing olefins with isoparaliins in the presence of- .an acid catalyst such as hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid and the like. The alkylate so obtained is then subjected to'f-ractional distillation and a fraction having the characteristics set forth below recovered. Such a fraction of alkylate consists primarily ofisoparafiins having 9 to 11, averaging l0, carbon atoms per molecule, The novel solvent has the following characteristics:

Table II Gravity, A. P. I. 53.0 to 58.0

lowing equations:

.Initial boiling pt., F., 290 to 3210 F., 355 tov 3'75 Final boiling pt., F., 385 to 4.10

Aniline point, F., 178.5 to 186.0

Fl -sh poi -i Tag. closed cup, to 136 Paraffinicity' index, minimum Odor, bland (like U. S. P. White mineral oil) The, paraffinicity index (P. 1.), as is known, is correlated to the thermo-viscosity or viscosity in centistokes and the A. P. I. gravity by the 01,-

Pv I Saybo1t thermoeviscosity so 10(46-A. P. I. gravity) By using the conversion method'developed by L. Brown (Thermo-viscosity of Light Distillates, A. S.,T. M. Bulletin, December 1940, page 23) the more common value in centistokes can be substituted for thermo-viscosity in the foregoing equation:

- Saybolt thermo-viscosity 60 F;- =(Centistokes 100 FLXZSZ) +139 which when substituted in the original equation provides-the following equation: I i

l CSliS centistokes.

To illustrate the superiority of the novel wax polishes over presently used wax polishes the following comparative tabulation is provided.

The solvents employed in preparing the wax polishes for comparative study had the physical characteristics set forth in Table IV.

Table IV Table V (paste uaxes) P'I 3 3 Polish -Q .1 A s, (-vis co,sityin centistokes;@. 100 F.. 262) -39 6 1 y f C w #a'Rfind r g g r g i 51118.11 8 8X e B I I h V H V I A. Pal. gravity) g mxglw ii g fi gzgyirM P) 80 80 are 11 8X 6 H0 12.0 12-0 .A comparison of the parafiin city ind ces of the Microcrystanine Wax "1 3.0 M novel solventsand. commercially avalla le s01- Mineral Spirits 14.0 .v ents usually referred to as parafiimc Solv nts N9 establishes that the paraf finicityindex d s 100.0 100.0 m ydxtoca'rbon s9lvent's i in Milling Temperature, F 1102 112 the novel waxpolishes descr bed herein over con- 3.313515 lgfifiggTPhggflli if? 02, 75 11 ,0 1 o e e ingan our olnt 106.3 117.6

vent onal, commercially available presently used 15 L T Cone Penetration: y. I I olv s 112 l m 5 ec. 113 .1123 91 5 gms. sec. 1 mmiqui 325 Table Y Odor Viscosity, Gravit, is 5 trong that of petroleum solvent. API P I Mild, pleasant, that of carnauba wax.

. (The Saybolt melting point was determined Novc1 1 it 160-0 with the Saybolt improved wax melting apgizg figif gg g 5 ag 32 3 paratusin accordance with the method described SolventM"i'romMid-Cont. Crude. 1.04 47.6 70.4 in Tag Manual for Inspectors of Petroleum,"

24th edition, (1937) C. J.Tagliabue Manufac turing Company. *The Modified A; S. T. M. Melting andPour Point conforms essentially to the A. S. T. Mrstandard method of test for melting point of paraiiln wax D87-42 with the following changes:- The stirrer described in paragraph 3(d) of thetest was omitted. The test tube was removedfrom the bath at each degree Fahren heit temperature drop and slightly tilted. lhe reading at which no further movement could be 35 observed due to crystallization'was recorded.) P 22 Novel A study of the comparative values recorded in Solvent Solvent Table V makes it manifest that the paste polishes containing the novel hydrocarbon solvent have Gravity, is. 2.1.... 47.6 55.5 characteristics correlated with temperatures-l0 ggg gf 9 m Pt 40 tom degrees Fahrenheit higher than the corre- 5u 7ZjFIII"" I 241 360 sponding characteristics for paste polishes conco n a; 364 ass 5 i F1158! Boning Pt" 389 386 taming presently used solvents. Flash 1%., Q (Tag. 0. 0.)-

0 5 The pronounced superiority of liquid type wax Aniline Pt., i 0 1 i i Kinematic Viscosity at 100 F. (centistokesyl 1.04 l. r I- conta'lnlng novel hydrocarbon 9 f is Parafllnicity Index 62.7 1 4d evident from a study of the comparative data recorded in Table VI.

Table VI I I II III- I Weight per cent Weight per cent Weight per I v Carnauba #1 Yellow 5.00 5.00 3.63 :8 Parafiin Wax (M. P. 130 F 4. 00 4. 00 2. 91 :16 Mierocrystalline Wax 2.00 Mineral Spirits 89. 00 :1 Novel Solvents 33 o 8 so Milling Temp, F. 86 103. Consistency Semi-Fluid Semi-Fluid. Appearance after storage for 2 weeks at 80 F Some solvent sep- Trace .of solvent aration. separation. Viscosity (Brookfleld Synchro-electrlc vis- 750 0;

cosimeter), Ops. F. Odor Pronouncedpetro- Bland.

leum solvent.

Batches of paste type and liquid type wax polishes were made using identical formulations, raw materials and compounding procedures with the exception that in series A the presently used commerciallyavailable solvent was used whereas in the series. B the novel hydrocarbon solvents were used.

Again the superiority of the novel wax polishes is to be noted. The desirable bland odor alone of polishes II and III makes these polishes a readily merchantable article. However, itis to be noted that this desirable feature is accompanied by comparable consistency at room temperature for a lower concentration of totalsolids than for polishes employing conventional, presently used solvents: When polishes are prepared with equivalent concentration of total solids, the novel product retains its superiority "at'hi'gher temperatures than 77 degrees Fahrenheit Those skilled in the art will also observe that the novel polishes are homogeneous even after *storagefor two weeks at 80 degrees Fahren .{heit Whereas the conventional polisheshad begun to stratify and segregate.

Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the formulations used for the purposes of the comparative tests are. merely illustrative and not limiting. and that various changes can be made without "departing from thespirit of the invention. Thus; thefilm forming ingredients offthe 'p astei type polish are composed of a hard wax and a soft wax. A hard wax is used .to contribute such properties as high luster and goodwearing qualities while the soft component contributes other characteristics as, for instance, flexibility and ease of bufling. An additivemay or in the class of mineral waxes, such as ozokerite,

montan wax or refined or oxidized tank bottom \vax. A synthetic or chemically modified material may be one of a number of types widely. divergent as to chemical structure. For illustrative purposes, several types -might, be mentioned; esters, such as fatty acid esters of pentaerythrito1,'.g1ycol ester. of montanic acid (such-as ethylene glycol ester of oxidized .montanic acid), or hydroxy esters (hydrogenated castor oil) amides Such as stearyl amide, polyhydroxy compounds, "such as polyethylene glycol of a molecular weight above 1 500, preferably in excess of 3000;

A soft wax in the sense employed herein'may be a soft wax or wax-like substance or a combination or blend of such materials either of natural origin or else a synthetic or chemically modified product. A soft wax of natural origin may fall in the class of vegetable waxes as for instance 8. ing preparation. Accordingly, the novelpaste type waxes comprise about; lfito about parts by weightof waxes and about to about 65 parts by weight of a solvent therefor having an initial boiling point of about. 290-to about 310degrees Fahrenheit, a per cent point of about 360'degrees Fahrenheit and a final boiling point of about 390 to about 410 degrees Fahrenheit; 9. flash point '(Tag. C. C.) of about 100to' about 136 degrees, Fahrenheit; and a paraflinicity index of at least 1251 The" novel paste-type wax Milling temperature,

'Japan wax, in the class of animal waxes such as" beeswax or spermaceti, or in the class of mineral waxes, such as paraffin or microcrystalline wax. A soft synthetic or chemically modified material maybe or may not be a material similar in chemical composition to the ones 'des'cr'ibedabove under hard waxes, except for the-difference in-physical characteristics, especially hardness; Thus,

. tric viscosimeter) polishes have a melting point of at le'astabout degrees Fahrenheit and the mild pleasant odor of the predominating wax odor. The novel liquid type wax polishes have the consistencyof a gel or are semi-fluid, the viscosity of the semifiuid embodiments of the present invention being about 125 to about 2500. Theliquid'type wax polishes are distinguished by the homogeneityof the polishafter. storage at temperatures of about '75 to about 85 degrees Fahrenheit. The composition of both types of novel wax polishes will fall within the following ranges:

Polish Type Liquid, Plans by Paste, Parts by weight wag t abouts to about 10. aboutz to aboutlZ. about U'toebout 5..

about 95 to about 145..

about 95 to-about 145..

Novel solvent I about 90 to about 130.

Sa ybolt melting pt,

Modified ASTM melting and pour pt., l

Viscosity (Brookfield synchro-elecabout 125 to about catalyst, said fraction having an initial boiling point of about 290 to about 320 F., a 90% point of about 355 to about 375 R, an aniline point of about 1'78.5 to about 186 F., a flash point ('I. C. C.) of about 110to about 136 F., a paraffinicity index of'at least 125 and the bland odor of -U. S. -P. White mineral oil.

2. A paste polish comprising about 3 weight per cent carnauba wax No. 3, about 8 weight per cent candelilla wax, about 12 weight per cent paraffin wax havinga melting point of about 145 Fl, about 3 Weight per cent of microcrystalline :fied natural product such as cellulose ethyl ether,

or a synthetic resin such as polymethylmethacrylate. Other materials maybe soaps, comprising salts of fatty acids withalkalies, alkaline earths or heavy metals,'e; g. calcium ste'arate.

Other] additives of suitable characteristics may be' employed-to modify the Wax blend or-polish wax and the balance to make weight per cent of a hydrocarbon solvent therefor, said solvent consisting essentially of a fraction of the alkylate produced by condensing olefins Withisoparaflins, said fraction having an initial boiling point of about 290 to about 320 F., a 90% point of about 355 to about 375 F., a final boiling point of about 385 to about 410 an aniline point of about 173.5" to about 186 afiash point (T. C. C.) of about to about 136 F., a paraiiinicity index of at least and a bland odor such as U. S. P. white mineral oil; said fraction consisting primarily-of isoparafiins having 9 to 11, average 10, carbon atoms per molecule.

about so to about 95. i

3. A liquid polish comprising about 3.6 to about weight per cent carnauba No. 1 wax, about 2.9 to about 4 weight per cent paraffin wax having a melting point of about 130 F., about 1.5 to about 2 weight per cent microcrystalline wax and the balance suificient to make 100 weight per cent of a hydrocarbon solvent therefor, said solvent consisting essentially of a fraction of alkylate produced by condensing olefins with isoparaffins, said fraction having an initial boiling point of about 290 to about 320 F., a 90% point of about 355 to about 375 F., a final boiling point of about 385 to about 410 R, an aniline point of about 178.5 to about 186 F., a flash point (T. C. C.) of about 110 to about 136 F., a parafiinicity index of at least 125 F., and a bland odor such as U. S. P. white mineral oil; said fraction consisting primarily of isoparaffins having 9 to 11, average 10, carbon atoms per molecule.

4. A liquid polish comprising about 8 to about llweight per cent of a mixture of carnauba wax, paraffin wax and microcrystalline wax, and the balance to make 100 weight per cent of a hydrocarbon solvent therefor, said solvent consisting essentially of a fraction of alkylate produced by condensing oleflns with isoparafiins, said fraction having an initial boiling point of about 290 to about 320 F., a 90% point of about 355 to about 375 F., a final boiling point of about 385 to about 410 R, an aniline point of about 178.5 to about 186 F., a flash point (T. C. C.) of about 110 to about 136 F., a paraflinicity index of at least 125 and a bland odor such as U. S. P. white mineral oil; said fraction consisting primarily of isoparafilns having 9 to 11, average 10, carbon atoms per molecule.

5. A paste polish comprising about 26 weight per cent of a mixture of carnauba wax, candelilla wax, paraffin wax and microcrystalline wax and the balance to make 100 weight per cent of a hydrocarbon solvent therefor, said solvent consisting essentially of a fraction of alkylate produced by condensing oleflns with isoparaflins, said fraction having an initial boiling point of about 290 to about 320 F., a point of about 355 to about 375 F., a final boiling point of about 385 to about 410F., an aniline point of about 176.5 to about 186 F., a flash point (T. C. C.) of about to about 136 a paraffinicity index of at least F., and a bland odor such as U. S. P. white mineral oil; said fraction consisting primarily of isoparafiins having 9 to 11,

average 10, carbon atoms per molecule.

,6. A wax polish comprising about 2 to about 20 parts by weight of hard wax, about 2 to about 25 parts by weight of soft wax, up to about 10 parts by weight of an additive and the balance sufiicient to make 109 parts by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent therefor, said solvent consisting essentially of a fraction of alkylate produced by condensing olefins withisoparaffins, said fraction having an initial boiling point of about 290 to about 320 F., a 90% point of about 355 to about I 375 F., a final boiling point of about 385 to about ARTHUR C. PABST. RUDOLPH J. HOLZINGER.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name v Date 2,010,297 Flaxman -1 Aug. 6, 1935 2,153,161 Shapiro Apr. 4, 1939 2,214,263 Weihe Sept. 10, 1940 2,311,338 Holtzclaw et al Feb. 16 1943 2,439,021 Quigg Apr. 6, 1948

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2010297 *Dec 5, 1933Aug 6, 1935Union Oil CoLiquid polishing wax
US2153161 *Jul 11, 1936Apr 4, 1939Abraham ShapiroRubbing wax composition
US2214263 *Aug 8, 1938Sep 10, 1940Mcaleer Mfg CompanyPolishing composition
US2311338 *Mar 22, 1939Feb 16, 1943Standard Oil Dev CoWax composition
US2439021 *Jul 24, 1945Apr 6, 1948Phillips Petroleum CoPreparation of saturated hydrocarbons
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2755189 *Jun 24, 1954Jul 17, 1956American Machinery CorpCoating process for fruits and vegetables
US2776268 *Oct 18, 1952Jan 1, 1957Best Foods IncLeather paste polish containing wax and a monoglyceride
US2795563 *Jun 18, 1953Jun 11, 1957Shell DevOdorless coating composition
US2851369 *May 31, 1956Sep 9, 1958Simoniz CoPolishing composition
US2914430 *Feb 18, 1953Nov 24, 1959British Insulated CallendersMethod of using low viscosity-low volatility mineral oil and wax in an insulated electric cable
US3067046 *Jan 27, 1959Dec 4, 1962Arthur Hooker SamuelNew composition of matter
US3074799 *Aug 9, 1960Jan 22, 1963Simoniz CoPolishing composition
US3214282 *May 2, 1963Oct 26, 1965IbmMethod of preparation of carbon transfer inks
US3328179 *May 1, 1964Jun 27, 1967Exxon Research Engineering CoWax polishing composition
US3353971 *Jan 11, 1963Nov 21, 1967Dow Chemical CoEthylcellulose latex polish composition
US3437623 *Feb 14, 1966Apr 8, 1969Petrolite CorpGrafted waxes
US6258882 *Dec 23, 1998Jul 10, 2001The Smithsonian InstitutionWax-resin surface polishes
Classifications
U.S. Classification106/10, 524/277, 106/271, 585/9, 585/13, 585/721, 106/196.1, 106/230, 106/285, 585/709
International ClassificationC09G1/00, C09G1/08
Cooperative ClassificationC09G1/08
European ClassificationC09G1/08