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Publication numberUS2563259 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 7, 1951
Filing dateOct 8, 1945
Priority dateOct 8, 1945
Also published asDE832112C
Publication numberUS 2563259 A, US 2563259A, US-A-2563259, US2563259 A, US2563259A
InventorsLouis W Miller
Original AssigneeBehr Manning Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Pile surfaced fabric and method of and apparatus for making the same
US 2563259 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 7, 1951 w MlLLER 2,563,259

FILE SURF AGED FABRIC AND METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING THE SAME Filed Oct. 8, 1945 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 as MM AL Aug. 7, 1951 L. w. MILLER FILE. SURFACED FABRIC AND METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING THE SAME 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 8, 1945 filler,

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Aug. 7, 1951 w. ZLLER PILE SURFACED FABRIC AND METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING THE SAME v 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Oct. 8, 1945 Lpzas WMZZer,

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Patented Aug. 7, 1951 PILE SURFACED FABRIC AND METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING THE SAME Louis W. Miller, Center Brunswick, N. Y., assignor to Behr-Manning Corporation, Troy, N. Y., a corporation of Massachusetts Application October 8, 1945, Serial No. 620,929

23 Claims. (01. 117 9) The present invention relates to the pile surfaced fabric art, and more particularly to the making of fabrics of the type wherein the pileforming fibres are secured to a backing by a layer of adhesive, as distinguished from a woven pile fabric.

Although not exclusively confined thereto, the present invention relates to improvements in pile or flock coating methods, machines and products I in which the pile-forming fibres or flock are de-- posited upon an adhesively coated backing sheet by electrostatic forces, with the result that the flock or fibres are oriented and are adhesively united to the backing sheet at one of their ends only in substantially parallel relation, usually normal to the surface of the adhesive. The invention also has utility in connection with the manufacture of pile surfaced materials of the type in which the flock fibres are mechanically applied to the backing sheet, with or without mechanical orientation, as by the use of sifting devices, beaters, shakers or other orienting means.

In the recently developed electrostatic methods of and machines for depositing pile-forming fibres or fiock upon a backing sheet, to produce a pile fabric, substantiallyall of the fibres are secured to the adhesive in erect relation at one of their ends only. The fibres are packed together as closely as possible, with the result that only the outer ends of the fibres are visible, when the fabric is lying fiat. The uniformity of the pile surface, and the fact that only the ends of the fibres are visible result in a very uniform appearance in the goods and a rather monotonous, even dullness, giving a somewhat lifeless, non-brilliant effect, because of the absence of light reflection from the sides of the fibres.

This uniformity of surface appearance of the pile fabric would not, in itself be a particular detriment, in many cases, and for many uses, were it not for the fact that it has a marked tendency to emphasize or eccentuate any defects, blemishes or irregularities in the flock or pile coating. Certain irregularities, resultingin streaks, spots or splotches appearing on the surface of flock coated or pile fabric may result from one or more of several causes during the flock deposition. For instance, any unevenness in the intensity of the electrostatic depositing field may result in corresponding unevenness in the layer of pile-forming fibres deposited upon the surface of the backing sheet. Uncontrolled corona discharge and arc-over between the two electrodes similarly disturbs the even distribution of the fibres. If the cloth or other backing becomes wrinkled during its passage through the field, the coating of fibres will not be uniform. An uneven flock feed may produce defects in the finished product. Also, if the flock bunches or trees badly or formsknots or clusters in the electrostatic field, the even distribution of the surface is adversely affected. Finally, if flock particles of widely differing lengths are fed into the electrostatic field, certain areas will have a very definitely different appearance from others.

As stated above, all of these defects in the uniformity of the distribution of pile-forming fibres on the surface of a pile fabric are clearly apparent and are most pronounced in a fabric in which substantially all of the fibres are arranged in parallel relation to each other, secured to the base at one of their ends only, in oriented relation, substantially normal to the base. Moreover, any blemishes or defects produced in the fabric, after the manufacturing operation has been completed, likewise show up very predominantly. For instance, any crushing or bending of the fibres, or other displacement from their originalpositions with respect to their neighbors appears quite strikingly in the fabric as a blemish or defect because of the light reflection from the displaced or bent fibres will be different from the ones which remain in their original positions. Hence, portions of the pile surface which are subjected to pressure, rubbing or other wearing infiuences soon become noticeable and, although the fabric may actually be not worn at all, it will appear so and the value of the product will be diminished.

The present invention aims to eliminate all of these difliculties and detriments of the prior, uniformly coated and oriented pile fabrics by producing in the layer of pileforming fibres, a pattern of regular or irregular plan in which the angles of inclination of the pile-forming fibres are deliberately varied, from end to end, relative to the base and the other fibres. The uniformityof parallel distribution of the fibres, normal to the backing, is deliberately altered and interrupted so that the sides of at least some of the pileforming fibres are visible and are capable of reflecting light. The displacement of the fibres from their original, oriented positions preferably is accomplished in a predetermined, pattern form although in some cases it may occur rather indiscriminately throughout certain areas of the sheet or the fibres may be uniformly tipped or laterally displaced over large areas. The displacement of the fibres improves the appearance of the finished product not only because of the actual presence of a pleasing pattern design therein, but, especially because of the reflection of light from the sides of the fibres. This reflection eliminates the even, monotonous dullness of the surface appearance, and, instead imparts life and brilliance thereto.

Moreover, because of'the inherently non-uniform appearance of the surface of the goods, with pile-forming fibres so displaced, any irregularities in the pile coating which may have been produced from any of the abovecauses, are no longer noticeable. Such irregularities are absorbed by the pattern of displaced fibres and become invisible. Also, any crushing, bending or displacement of the fibres which may occurin use is not as noticeable, because the sides ofthe fibres thereby rendered visible-do not ,constitutea pronounced contrast since the sides of many other fibres were alreadyyisible.

From the foregoing it=will be understood that '-the primary object of the present invention is to provide new and improved methods of and means for producing patterns and other visual effects in pile fabrics by displacing some or all of the pile-forming fibres from their initial, parallel, oriented positions.

A further object of the invention is to produce thesedesirable results by displacing certain of the pile-forming fibres in predetermined areas or along predetermined lines, to produce a desired pattern, while leaving the remainder of the fibres in their original positions.

--A further object of the invention is to displace certain of the fibres laterally with respect to each other and tothe adjacent fibres, to exposethe "sides of the fibres and, insome cases, the backing-sheet or the layer of adhesive. The invention contemplates the use of fibres of different lengths and different colors in'the manufacture of a single piece of pile fabric. By displacing or "spreading the fibres laterally along lines of predetermined or arbitrary design, the shorter fibres are exposed to view, with the result that a pleasing color contrast in the pattern is produced.

In addition to.the above mentioned use of fibres of different lengths, unusual results can be obtained by flocking withone color, patterning with air and subsequently flocking with fibres of another color, which fibres will attach themselves to the newly exposed adhesive in the pattern :.lines and thus create'a definite two-tone effect.

In a preferred process of this invention the adhesive is applied substantially uniformly to .the backing, .the fibres are oriented electrostatically upon .the adhesive coating ,to produce a uniform coverage in the form of a pile-surface, the.air jets are appliedtodisplace the fibres and form exposed .areas of .adhesive in pattern'form, andthen other fibres are applied to the exposed area of adhesive to coat thesame. Such other jfibres maybe of the same type as those first applied or different therefrom. For example, the Zlaterappliedfibres may be of difi'erent size, differentcolor or of different material from the prior appliedfibres. It is oftenadvantageous to dis- ;place substantialamounts of adhesivealong with .thefifibres when the air jet treatment is applied since such thinner-areas of adhesive provide lines of greaterflexibility in the finished product. This is particularlydesirable when the fibres applied ito.the exposed areas of adhesive (secondary coating of 'fibres) are shorter than those in theprior .or primary coating. The fibres in the secondary .coatingmay be erect, i. e. normal to the backing or displaced with respect to the normal position. A preferred form of product therefore consists of a primary coating of fibres with one end embedded in a thicker layer of adhesive and a secondary coating of fibres with one end embedded in a thinner coating of the same adhesive, the thinner coating of adhesive with its secondary coating of "fibres being patterned and forming hinges or lines of increased flexibility.

A further object of the invention is to provide methods of and means for accomplishing all of theforegoingresu1ts,which can be employed with existing methods; and machines, for forming pile surface material, simply, expeditiously, economi- ;cal1y and without interfering with the rate of productionor increasing the cost of the finished product.

Afurther object .of the invention is to increase the flexibility of the pile fabrics having relatively heavy pile coatings thereon, by laterally displacing or opening up the fibres along predetermined lines, thereby providing hingelines to facilitate bending of the fabric. In accordance with the present invention the tightly packed fibres in oriented relation on the surface of the backing sheet are tipped laterally along predetermined lines, thereby providing room for the fibres adjacent these'lines to swing together when the fabric is bent or folded with the pile face concave. Moreover, the adhesive along these hinge lines 'is displaced and made thinner, thereby facilitating the bending action and increasingthe flexibility of the product as a whole.

A further object of the invention is to impart porosity to a pile fabric of the type having a backing sheet and an overall layer of adhesive thereon,

*duce a pile fabric, the backing sheet consists of a fabric which'may be woven, as is cloth, or felted, as is ordinary felt, or wet felted, as is paper. It is contemplated that any suitable flexible backing may be used in making my pile fabrics or in carrying out my processes. Usually the pile surface formed by the fibres anchored to the adhesive layer remains attached to the backing sheet. However, a useful product may also'be formed in accordance'with the present invention by carrying out the usual steps disclosed herein, but utilizing a backing sheet or other-support and an adhesive which may be separated after the adhesive is hardenedto hold the fibres permanently in place. The adhesive layer containing the fibres after being strippedfrom the "temporary backing sheet may be usedas such for various purposes or attached by suitable means 'to various permanent backing sheets or supports liberately displacing the pile-forming fibresfrom their original, oriented positions, as deposited by the electrostatic field or other orienting means, while the adhesive in which they are embedded is soft, so that the ends of the fibres embedded in the adhesive may shift with respect thereto and the fibres assume a new position, without bending or crushing the fibres. After this displacement of the fibres, the adhesive is dried, cured, set or otherwise indurated so that the fibres are permanently held in their displaced positions.

In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, the fibres are displaced from their original, oriented positions, substantially immediately after being deposited in the adhesive, and before the adhesive has had an opportunity to harden or set, by the use of air or gas currents, blasts or jets directed against the surface of the material, along lines of predetermined pattern, at particular points, or uniformly over large or small areas, depending upon the effect desired in the finished product. The displacement of the fibres need not occur immediately after the formation of the pile surface, that is, immediately after the fibres have been deposited and before the adhesive has had an opportunity to set, since the invention contemplates deliberately softening a previously set layer of adhesive, by the use of solvents or heat, depending upon the nature of the adhesive, and then displacing the fibres which are somewhat loosely held in the resoftened adhesive.

The preferred embodiment of the invention includes the use of one or more air or gas currents, jets or blasts to displace the fibres from their original positions. As shown in the several examples of the invention described below and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, the air or gas blasts may be held stationary with respect to the path of movement of the goods, or may move with the goods or may have relative movement with respect thereto, depending upon the effects desired in the finished product. For instance, if parallel longitudinal strips are to be produced, the fabric may be drawn past a plurality of spaced air or gas jets continuously playing upon the pile surface. The jets will tend to displace the fibres laterally, producing the desired striped effect. If continuous wavy or curved stripes are to be produced, the spaced, continuously discharging jets may be shifted laterally back and forth with a continuous, intermittent or irregular movement, to produce stripes of the desired character; or the air or gas jets may remain stationary and the fabric be shifted laterally to produce the same effect.

If dots, points or similar devices are to be produced, intermittent blasts of extremely short duration may be directed upon the surface of the goods from substantially fixed positions, or the jets may be arranged to move with the goods to play upon the same spots or areas for a longer period of time.

If it is desired to displace all of the fibres over a relatively large area in one direction, the fabric may pass adjacent a current of air or gas of greater length, so that the fibres are. tipped uniformly from their lower ends to their upper ends, from their original positions. For instance, in accordance with the present invention, it is possible to produce a part or hide eifect in the goods by blowing all of the fibres on one side of a predetermined line in one direction and the other fibres on the other side of the line in the other direction. v A vast number of design variations may be effected by changing the positions, directions, intensities, durations and relative movements of such jets, blasts or currents and no attempt to describe them all has been made in this specification.

Moreover, patterns of predetermined design such as flowers, stars, letters, words and all types of figures may be produced in the goods by employing stencils or the equivalent, moving with the goods and through which currents of air or gas may be projected onto the pile surface. Such stencils may be mounted upon a drum to rotate adjacent the path of movement of the goods or upon a traveling belt or sheet moving in coordinated relation with respect thereto.

One skilled in the art will readily appreciate many variations and modifications of the procedures and instrumentalities suggested above and described below in connection with the embodiments shown in the drawings. Moreover, mechanical devices adapted to produce similar results will readily occur to those skilled in the art in the light of this description of pneumatic devices and methods of producing --th desired results.

In the drawings, Figure l is a digrammatic side elevation of anapparatus in accordance with the invention.

Figure 2 is a transverse section and elevation taken substantially on line 2-2 of Figure l, on an enlarged scale.

Figure 3 is a similar view of a modification.

Figure 4 is a similar view of another modification.

Figure 5 is a transverse section and partial elevation of another modification.

Figure 6 is a section, taken substantially on line 66 of Figure 5.

Figure 7 is a view similar to Figure 6, but showing another modification.

Figure 8 is a face View of one of the nozzles shown in Figure 7.

Figure 9 is a plan view of one type of product made in accordance with the invention.

Figure 9a is a transverse sectional view of another type of product made in accordance with the invention.

Figure 9b is a similar view of a further modification.

Figure 10 is an inverted plan view of a modified air discharging system.

Figure 11 is a section on line ll--H of Figure 10, but with the parts not inverted.

Figure 12 is a view similar to Figure 10, showing another modification.

Figure 13 is a section on line 13-43 of Figure 12, but with the parts not inverted, and

Figures 14 and 15 are transverse sectional elevations of further modifications.

Referring to Figure 1, a supply of backing material, such as cloth or paper in roll form is shown at 10, mounted on any suitable support, from which the material may be drawn. A suitable semi-fiuid adhesive 1 l is applied to the back ing sheet l2 by a knife coater l3, or the like, as the material is drawn over a roll I4, on its way to an electrostatic field created between upper and lower electrodes l5 and 16. The backing sheet passes through the field with its adhesively coated surface facing downwardly, as is well understood in the art, and the pile forming fibers I! are brought into the field from a suitable source of supply, such as a hopper l8, by'a conveyor l3, trained for movement about rollers 20', 2!, either ofwhich may be positively driven at variable speed by conventional. means. .Thus, a continuous layer of. flockor pile formingfibres is brought into the electrostatic field by'the conveyor I9, below the adhesively coated surface of the backing sheet. The field may be of con tinuous, interrupted or alternating polarity, and may be widely varied as to its intensity and periods of alternation or interruption, to suit the particular type of pile forming material being deposited. As is Well understood in the art, if alternating current is employed to create the field, the pile forming fibres are caused to dance back and forth between the upper andlower electrodes until a dense coating of pile-forming fibres has been deposited in the adhesive, in oriented relation, with substantially all of the fibres parallel to each other and secured at one of their ends only.

At a suitable point adjacent the path of movement of the pile surfaced material, means are positioned for displacing the fibres in accordance with the present invention. Although a number of modifications ofsuch means are shown in the accompanying drawings, it must be understood that the same are illustrative only and are in no sense limitations on the invention, as many other modifications may be employed.-

As shown in Figures 1 and 2, a simple pipe 25 isarranged transversely of and below the backing sheet as it emerges from the electrostatic field. The pipe is provided with a plurality of small holes or jet openings 26, facing the backing sheet, for directing currents, jets or blasts of air or gas toward the pile forming fibres held in the soft adhesive on the backing sheet. Air or gas under variable, regulated pressure is delivered to the pipe from a source of supply 21 through conduits 28, which may include a flexible section 29. A valve 30, operated by hand or by automatic, mechanical or electrical means may be interposed in the line at any desired point.

The pipe 25 may be mounted for translational movement with respect to the backing sheet, or means may be provided for moving the sheet relative to the pipe. As shown for purposes of illustration, the end cap 3! of the pipe is connected by a pitman 32 to the pin 33, associated with a rotatable crank 34, so that endwise, reciprocating movement is imparted to the pipe. This arrangement will produce wavy lines or patterns in the pile forming fibres by displacing the fibres on opposite sides of the lines, as indicated at 35 in Figure 2. If the pipe 25 is maintained stationary the lines along which the fibres are displaced will, of course, be substantially straight and parallel as indicated at 35 in Figure 9.

By adjusting and varying the motion of the pipes and intensity and duration of the blasts or currents of air an enormous variety of designs may be produced in the pile surface. Other effects may be produced, for instance, if the pipe is mounted as in Figure 3.

In this modification the pipe 40 is again mounted for translational movement with respect to the backing sheet. The pipe is provided with one or more sets of openings or jets 45 which will project currents of air upwardly. However, a series of concentric rings 46 supported by a bar 41 are held in a stationary position, these rings being spaced the same as the openings inthe pipe so that as the pipe oscillates the air is interrupted by-the rings as the openings pass under the rings.

Quite striking results can be produced in this manner.

Figure 4 illustrates another modification comprising a drum 50 mounted for rotation on a hol 8 low stationary shaft 5| supported in brackets 52. Rotation may be imparted to the drum by a sprocket 53 and a chain 54, driven from any suitable point. The hollow shaft 51, connected to a source of air under regulated pressure by a hose 55 or the like, supports an upwardly extended air chest 56 having its open upper end disposed in substantially sliding contact with the inner circumference of the drum. The drum is provided with a plurality of openings 51 which may be of any desired size and shape and which register successively with the air chest so that air under pressure is discharged through them onto the pile surface of the fabric to displace the pile-forming fibre as indicated at 58 in Figure 4.

The apparatus shown in Figure 5 is similar, except that the drum periphery is made from relatively heavy wire screen material 60 or the like and a stencil sheet 6| having openings 52 therein is wrapped around the screen and held in placeby bands 63 or the like. The openings .62 may be of any desired shape and configuration, to form designs of corresponding shape and configuration in the pile surface of the material being treated, by displacing the fibres as indicated at 64 in Figure 5. As the openings register with the air chest 65, air passes through them and strikes the layer of pile forming fibres, displacing them. The stencil sheet 6! may be made from any substantially impervious material, such as paper, cardboard, sheet metal or treated cloth.

As shown in Figure '7, a plurality of radially projecting arms 70 having specially shaped discharge heads ll may be employed to print designs of corresponding shape on the fabric by directing air blasts of corresponding cross-sectional shape. against the pile-forming fibres to displace them from their original positions. The radial arms 10 are carried by a sleeve 12 mounted for rotation on a stationary hollow shaft 13 having a longitudinal slot 14 formed therein with which the inner ends of the arms register successively. It will-be understood, of course, that the sleeve 12 may support a plurality of sets of arms, longitudinally spaced along its length.

If it is desired to make all of the pile-forming fibres lie in inclined position in the same direction, this result can be accomplished by any arrangement of devices which will create a continuous current of air moving over the surface of the material in one direction. For instance, a transversely arranged pipe, similar to the one shown in Figure 2, may be provided with laterally directed air jets, or the holes 26 may be drilled in the pipe at an angle, to create a transversely flowing stream of air. Similarly, a pipe with a continuous slot may be employed, arranged at an angle to the line of movement of the backing material.

Figure 10,. an inverted plan view, shows the fabric, moving in the direction of the arrow, leaving the electrostatic depositing and orienting field, with the fibres Ila disposed in parallel relation, normal to the backing and held in that positionby the soft adhesive on the sheet. An air distributing pipe 15 is disposed beneaththe line of movement of the material, on an oblique line with respect thereto. The pipe is provided with a plurality-of upwardly directed openings, or, a substantially continuous upwardly directed slot 16. Air, supplied to'the pipe under regulated, variable pressure by a hose 11, or the like, flows transversely across the under-surface of the sheet, thereby displacing the pile-forming fibres from theposition normal to thebacking, as indicated at Ila, to the inclined position, as indicated at l 1b.

Figure 12, a similar inverted plan, shows an arrangement for displacing the fibres laterally in opposite directions from a central line or part. Two pipe sections 19, 80, connected in V-shape in plan are provided with upwardly directed openings or slots 8|, 82, so that air is caused to fiow in opposite directions from a central line 83 over the surface of the pile-forming fibres, thereby displacing them from the position normal to the backing, as indicated .at I la, to lie inclined in opposite directions as indicated at I10 and lid.

Still another arrangement is shown in Figure 14. In this connection, a pipe 185 is positioned below and at right angles to the line ofv movement of the fabric. The pipe carries a plurality of upwardly projecting and laterally directed nozzles or spouts 86, which cause currents of air to fiow transversely with respect to the direction of movement of the web. As a result, the fibres are all tipped laterally, as indicated at He in Figure 14. I

Preferably, the spouts or nozzles 86 are mounted for rotational adjustment in the pipe 85, so that a large number of different eifects may be produced in the pile surface, by changing the positions of some of the nozzles. For instance, as shown in Figure 15, the nozzles on one side of a central line may be directed in one direction, and the others in the other direction, to produce oppositely flowing streamsof air and to displace the pile-forming fibres in opposite directions, as indicated at H) and Hg. One nozzle 8! may project a perpendicular jetv of .air against the backing sheet, to accentuate the part, as indicated at 83 in Figure 15. It should be understood that, in all cases, the fibres, lightly secured in the soft adhesive,.are tipped laterally or otherwise displaced from their lower ends to their upper ends, without bending the fibres or otherwise changing them from their original state by the displacing force. In. other words, the fibres are not bent or crushed between their areas of contact with the adhesive and their outer ends.

Many other arrangements will suggest themselves to one skilled in the art from aconsider'ation of this description. 1

After the web of material leaves the fibre displacing station it maybe trained over positively driven rollers 36, and then formed into festoons 31 for drying or otherwise setting the adhesive.

- When the adhesive has been set,.the fibres will be maintained permanently in their displaced positions. c

By regulating the size and intensity'of the air or gas jets, the adhesive layer may be partially displaced and made thinner along predetermined lines or areas. Moreover, the effect of the jets or blasts may, in fact, so displace the adhesive as to remove it entirely from such predetermined lines, points or spots, to the end that the back. ing becomes porous and is capable of breathing in use, after the adhesive has been set. a

It is thought that'the-operation of the apparatus will be entirely clear to those'skilled'in the art from a consideration of the foregoing description. The fabric-is unwound from the .roll 10 by the positively driven'rollers 36, which may be covered with rubber or other friction producing means. As the backing sheet passes under the blade 13, it receives acoating. of soft,i:semi-fluid adhesive, of regulated thickness, depending upon the vertical adjustment of the-blade. ;As the 10 backing sheet passes through the electrostatic field between the electrodes l5 and IE, it receives a coating of pile-forming fibres in parallel, oriented relation, normal to the backing sheet, secured to the adhesive at one of their endsonly. The pile forming fibres, such as cut flock are brought into the field from the source of "supply 3, by a continuously moving conveyor It, and the excess collected, as indicated in the drawings. If desired, two separate sources of supply may deliver pile-forming fibres of diiferent colors and of different lengths to the conveyer IQ, for in.- troduction into the field, or a mixture of flock of different colors and of different lengths may be placed in the hopper l8.

Any one or more of the fibre displacing instrumentalities shown in the drawings and described above may be employed, behind the electrostatic field or elsewhere in the path of movement of the pile surfaced material. The jets, blasts or currents of air or gas displace some or all of the fibres, primarily by tipping them laterally from their upright, oriented positions, normal to the backing sheet, by a lateral,pivoting or swinging movement, although some of the fibres may, if desired, be displaced laterally by a translational movement.

The backin sheet may be appropriately colored, and a substantially transparent adhesive may be employed, so that the color of the back; ing sheet will show through the adhesive, and be exposed to view, along the lines, spots or areas, where the fibres are displaced. If desired, however, a colored adhesive may be employed, so that the color thereof is similarly visible, where the fibres have been displaced. It will be apparent, moreover, that combinations of col-' ored backing sheets and of colored adhesives may be employed, to produce many different ornamental effects. Furthermore, the use of flocks or pile-forming fibres of two or more different colors and lengths makes possible the creation of other color design eifects.

As suggested above, and as indicated in Figures 9a and 9b, new and striking types of products may be produced by first coating the fabric I2 with a layerof pile-forming fibres or 90a, embedded in a layer of adhesive 9|, then dis-' placing the fibres laterally from a line, spot or area 92, by a jet or blast of air or gas. The jet or blast displaces'the adhesive layer 9| and decreases its thickness, as indicated at 93. A secondary coating of pile-forming fibres'94 or 94a may then be deposited by electrostatic or mechanical means in the lines, spots or areas so previously opened up and are secured in the adhesive 93 of reduced thickness. The secondary pile-forming fibres 94 or 94a may be of differe ent lengths, colors and/or other characteristics from the primary fibres 90 or 90a, to provide pleasing design eifects.

The lines of reduced adhesive thickness constitute zones having improved bending properties, as compared with thea'reas ofthicker adhesive, and increase the flexibility of the sheet asawhole I As indicated in Figure 9c,"the primary fibres 90- may all be tipped laterallyaway from the line 92, by the use of laterally directed currents, for instance as suggested in Figures 12-15.

As indicatedinjFigu're 9b, however, the majority of the pile-'fornling fibres' aoa 'may .be left in their original positions, normal to the :back ing 12 and layer of adhesive. 9|, whilethe fibres 90b of the primary layer,galong narrow zones on each side of the line 92 may be displaced and tipped laterally, exposing the layer of adhesive 83 of'reduced thickness. ,The secondary fibres 94a may be deposited by electrostatic or mechanical means in the adhesive 50 exposed and these fibres may be of different colors, lengths and/or other characteristics from those of the primary coating.

In order to produce the products of Figures 9a and 9b, it is only necessary to pass the fabric through a second fibre or flock depositing apparatus, after the previously deposited fibres have been displaced or opened up, as described above.

It should also be understood that the present invention is not limited to an over-all coated product, as the adhesive may be printed upon the base fabric in predetermined designs, so that the flock particles or other pile-forming fibres will be secured to the backing sheet only over the adhesively coated areas. The fibres in those areas may be displaced from their original positions, by any or all of the instrumentalities described above, ,to produce the advantageous results contemplated in accordance with the invention.

After the fabric leaves the fibre displacing means, it preferably passes to an adhesive drying or setting zone, where the adhesive is subjected to heat or other drying or setting influences. After the adhesive has been set, the fibres will be maintained substantially permanently in their displaced positions.

It must be understood thatthe various fibre displacing instrumentalities need not be used substantially immediately after the fibres have been deposited and/or oriented, as similar results may be accomplished by softenin a previously set adhesive, by the use of solvents, solvent vapors, or heat, dependin upon the nature of the adhesive. It is only important that the adhesive be in azrelatively soft condition, when the fibres are subjected to the displacing influences, and that ,the. adhesive be subsequently dried, set or otherwise indurated to maintain the fibres in the resulting positions.

In the following .claims, ;where reference .is made to currents, blasts or jets of air, the term air is intended toinclude any and all suitable aseous media.

All modifications coming within the scope of the appendedclaims and their equivalents are included within the invention.

I claim:

1. The method of making pile surfaced material which comprises depositing pile forming fibres in substantially upright, parallel, oriented relation upon a layer of adhesive, subjecting at least a portion of the fibres while the adhesive is soft, directly to a current of air of sufiicient force to displace the fibres from end to end from their original positions, and setting the adhesive to maintain the fibres in their displaced positions substantially permanently.

2. The method of making pile surfaced material which comprises forming a coating of adhesive upon a backing sheet, depositin on the adhesive, a plurality of pile forming fibres in oriented, parallel relation With the fibres secured to the adhesive atone of their ends only, subjecting at least some of the fibres while the adhesive is soft, directly to ;a current of-airof sufficient force to displace the fibres from end to end from'their initial, oriented positions, and

1! setting the adhesive to-maintain the fibres in the displaced positions substantially permanently.

3. The method of making pile surfaced material which comprises moving an adhesively coated backing sheet along a predetermined path, continuously forming on the adhesive a layer of pile forming fibres in oriented, substantially upright, parallel relation, subjecting the fibres directly to a current of air of sufiicient force to displace certain of the fibres from end to end from their original positions while leaving other fibres unaffected, and settin the adhesive to maintain the fibres in the resulting positions substantially permanently.

4. The method ofmaking pile surfaced material. which comprises moving an adhesively coated backing sheet along a predetermined path, continuously forming on the adhesive a layer of pile forming fibres in oriented, substantially parallel relation, subjecting the fibres directly to a plurality of currents of air of sufiicient force to displace certain of the fibres from end to end from their original positions while leaving other fibres unafiected, and setting the adhesive to maintain the fibres in the resulting positions substantially permanently.

5. The method of making pile surfaced material which comprises moving an adhesively coated backing sheet along apredetermined path, depositing on the adhesive, pile forming fibres in oriented, substantially parallel relation, substantially normal to the backing sheet, subjecting the pile coated surface directly to a plurality of independent jets of air as the backing sheet is moved along said path and while the adhesive is soft, said jets being of sufilcient force to displace laterally certain of the fibres from their original positions along a plurality of lines while leaving other fibres unaffected, and setting the adhesive to maintain the fibres in the resulting positions substantially permanently.

6. The method of making ,pile surfaced material which comprises movingan adhesively coated backing sheet along a predetermined path, depositingon the adhesive, pile forming fibres in oriented, substantially parallel relation, substantially normal to the backing sheet, subjecting the pile coated surface directly to. a-plur-ality of independent jets of air as the backing sheet is moved alongv said path and while theadhesive is soft, to displace laterally certain of the fibres from their original positions along a plurality of lines while leaving other fibres unaffected, shifting the relative positions Of'the air jets andthe backing sheet, to vary the directions of the. lines correspondingly, and setting the adhesive to maintain the fibres in the resulting positions substantially permanently.

7. The method of making pile surfaced material which comprises moving an adhesively coated backing sheet along a predetermined path, depositingon the adhesive, pile forming fibres in oriented, substantially parallel relation, substantially normal to the backing sheet, intermittently directing a plurality of independent spaced air blasts directly toward .thefibres as the backing sheet moves along said .path, to displace certain of the fibresfromtheir original oriented positions laterally from theareasof application of the air blasts, and settingthe adhesiveto maintain the fibresin the resulting positions substantially permanently.

.8. Themethod of making pile surfaced materialwhich comprises moving an. adhesive coated backing sheet valong a predeterminedpath, de-

positing on the adhesive, pile'forming fibres in oriented, substantially parallel relation, substantially normal to the backing sheet, intermittently directing a plurality of independent, spaced air blasts directly toward the fibres as the backing sheet moves along said path, to displace certain of the fibres from their original oriented positions laterally from the areas of application of the air blasts, periodically shifting the relative positions of air blasts and the backing, and setting the adhesive to maintain the fibres in the resulting positions substantially permanently.

9. A method of making pile surfaced material which comprises moving an adhesively coated backing sheet along a predetermined path, depositing on the adhesive a layer of pile forming fibres of at least two different lengths and of respectively different colors in oriented, substantially parallel relation substantially normal to the backing, subjecting at least some of the fibres directly to currents of air ofsufiicient force to displace them laterally and thereby to expose the differently colored fibres of shorter length, and setting the adhesive to maintain the fibres in the resulting positions substantially permanently.

10. A method of making pile surfaced material which comprises moving an adhesively coated backing sheet along a predetermined path, depositing on the adhesive a layer of pile forming fibres of at least two different lengths and of respectively different colors in oriented, substantially parallel relation substantially normal to the backing, subjecting the fibres directly to currents of air along predetermined, spaced-apart lines, said currents being of suificient force to displace them laterally while leaving the other fibres unaffected and thereby to expose the differ ently colored fibres of shorter length along said lines, and setting the adhesive to maintain the fibres in the resulting positions substantially permanently.

11. The method of making pile surfaced material which comprises moving along a predetermined path an adhesively coated backing sheet having a predetermined color visible on its coated surface, continuously depositing on the adhesive, pile forming fibres of a different color in oriented, substantially parallel relation, substantially normal to the backing sheet, subjecting the fibres directly to jets of air, as the backing sheet moves along said path and while the adhesive is soft, of suflicient force to displace the fibres from their original positions while leaving other fibres unaffected, thereby to eXpOse to view the first-mentioned color, and setting the adhesive to maintain th fibres in the displaced positions substantially permanently.

12. An apparatus for forming pile surfaced material, comprising means for depositing upon and securing to an adhesively coated backing sheet, pile forming fibres in substantially upright, parallel oriented relation, and means positioned in spaced relation from the first mentioned means for directing a current of air of sufficient force directly upon at least some of the fibres to displace them from their original positions.

13. An apparatus for forming pile surfaced material, comprising means for moving an adhesively coated backing sheet along a predetermined path, means for depositing upon and securing to said adhesively coated backing sheet, pile forming fibres in substantially upright, parallel oriented relation, and means, positioned in spaced relation in the direction of movement of the backing sheet from the fibre depositing and securing 14 means,- for directing a plurality of jets of air di-' rectly toward and against the secured fibres while the adhesive is soft, to displace them from their original positions.

14.'An apparatus for forming pile surfaced material, comprising means for depositing upon an adhesively coated backing sheet pile forming fibres in substantially parallel oriented relation, means for directing a current of air directly toward and against the fibres while the adhesive is soft to displace certain of them from their original positions, and means for varying the effective direction of the air current directing means.

-15. An apparatus for forming pile surfaced material, comprising means for depositing upon an adhesively coated backing sheet pile forming fibres in substantially parallel oriented relation, means for directing a current of air toward the fibres while the adhesive is soft to displace them from their original positions, and means for varying the relative positions of the air current directing means and the backing sheet.

16. An apparatus for forming pile surfaced material, comprising means for depositing upon an adhesively coated backing sheet pile forming fibres in substantially parallel oriented relation, means for directing a current of air toward the fibres while the adhesive is soft, and means for periodically rendering the air current directing means ineffective.

1'7. A pile surfaced fabric comprising a backing sheet, a coating of flexible adhesive thereon, a primary coating of pile forming fibres attached to areas of said sheet having a thicker coating of said adhesive, said primary coating fibres being interrupted to form patterned lines therein, said patterned lines having a thirmer coating of adhesive thereon, and a secondary coating of fibres embedded in said thinner coating of adhesive, said fabric being more readily bent along the said pattern covered by said secondary coating of fibres in said thinner coating of adhesive, whereby the fabric as a whole is more flexible.

18. A .pile surfaced fabric comprising a backing sheet, a coating of flexible adhesive thereon, a primary coating of pile forming fibres attached to said adhesive, said primary coating of fibres being interrupted on patterned lines along which the coating of adhesive is thinner than elsewhere, and a secondary coating of fibres of shorter length than those in the primary coating embedded in the thinner coating of adhesive along said lines, said fabric being more readily bent along said lines covered by the secondary coatin of fibres in the thinner coating of adhesive, whereby the fabric as a whole is more flexible.

19. A pile surfaced fabric comprising a backing sheet, a coating of flexible adhesive thereon, a primary coating of pile forming fibres, the majority of which are secured to said adhesive at oblique angles with respect to the plane of the backing, said primary coating of fibres being interrupted on patterned lines along which the coating of adhesive is thinner than elsewhere, and a secondary coating of fibres embedded in said thinner adhesive, the majority of which are disposed substantially normal to the plane of the backing, said fabric being more readily bent along the lines of thinner adhesive, whereby the fabric as a whole is more flexible.

20. A pile surfaced article comprising a flexible layer of solid adhesive, a primary coating of pile-forming fibres attached to said adhesive guano layer, said primary coating of fibres'being inter rupted in patterned lines along which .thecoating of adhesive is thinner than elsewhere, and asecondary coating of fibres of different characteristics from those in the ,primary coating embedded in the thinner part of the layer of adhesive along said lines.

21. The method of making pile surfacedmaterial which comprises depositing a coating of pile forming fibres in substantially parallel, oriented relation upon a layer of flexible adhesive of substantially uniform thickness on a backing sheet, subjecting the fibres'to a, current of air along a patterned line and thereby displacing the fibres adjacent said line laterally and exposing the adhesive and reducing its thickness along said line, depositing a secondary coating of pile forming fibres in oriented, upright relation upon the adhesive of reduced thickness along said line, and setting the adhesive to maintain all of the fibres in the resulting positions substantially permanently.

22. The method of making pile surfaced material which comprises depositing a coating of pile forming fibres of substantially uniform length in substantially parallel, oriented relation upon a layer of flexible adhesive of substantially uniform thickness on a backing sheet, subjecting the fibres to currents of air diverging in opposite directions from a patterned line and thereby displacing the majority of the fibres on opposite sides of said line laterally and exposing the adhesive and reducing its thickness along said line, depositing a secondary coating of pile forming fibres in substantially upright, parallel, oriented relation upon the adhesive of reduced thickness so exposed along said line, and setting the adhesive to maintain the fibres in the resulting positions substantially permanently.

16 F 23. Apparatus for forming plle'surfacedmaterial, comprising means for depositing and securing upon an adhesivelycoated backing sheet, pile formin fibres in substantially parallel, oriented relation, substantially normal to the sheet, a plurality of air delivery devices having their effective'portions arranged relative to each other in accordance with a predetermined ,pattern or design, means for bringing the said air delivery devices and the pile forming fibres secured uponsaid backing into proximity while the adhesive is soft, and means for delivering air through said devices onto the adjacent fibres, whereby the air displaces certain of the fibres from their original positions relative to adjacent fibres in accordance with said predetermined pattern or design.

LOUIS W. MILLER.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 774,890 Mutterer Nov. 15, 1904 1,802,547 Allen Apr. 28, 1931 1,810,328 Slater June 16, 1931 1,883,535 Burnett Oct. 18, 1932 1,912,625 Dreyfus June 6, 1933 2,076,451 Fallscheer Apr. 6, 1937 2,152,077 Meston et al Mar. 28, 1939 2,160,828 Cheney June 6, 1939 2,242,182 McCann May 13, 1941 2,302,020 Frederick Nov. 15, 1942 2,303,202 Faris Nov. 24, 1942 2,368,706 Fountain Feb. 6, 1945 2,384,951 Millar Sept. 18, 1945

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Classifications
U.S. Classification428/89, 428/90, 28/160, 118/63, 156/72, 427/206
International ClassificationB05C19/00, B05D5/06, B05D1/16, D04H11/00, D06N7/04, D06C23/00, B05D3/04
Cooperative ClassificationD04H11/00, B05D3/042, D06C2700/31, B05D1/16, B05C19/001, B05D5/06, D06C23/00
European ClassificationD04H11/00, D06C23/00, B05C19/00B, B05D1/16