US 2564052 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 14, 1951 n..y l.. cHlvlLLE, JR
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENNE 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 12, 1948 All@ 14, v1951 l.. l.. cHIvlLLE, JR 2,564,052
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE Aug.'l4, 1951 L. L. cHlvlLLE, JR
INTERNALCOMBUSTION ENGINE 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Feb. l2, 1948 Y v E W Allg- 14, 1951 l.. cHlvlLLE, JR l 2,564,052
INTERNAL COMBUSTI ON ENG INE Filed Feb. 12, 1948 5 sheets-sheet 4 ug 14, 1951 L.. cHlvlLLE, JR 2,564,052
y INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Feb. 12', 194s 5 sheets-sheet 5 Patented Aug. 14, 1951 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2 Claims.
This invention relates to internal combustion engines and more particularly to a combination internal combustion engine and' fluid pump.
It is a general object of this invention to pro duce a combination internal combustion engine and iiuid pump of novel design and improved construction.
It is another object of this invention to produce a combination internal combustion engine and fluid pump including a plurality of double acting pistons with the pistons functioning as pump and motor.
It is another object of this invention to produce a combination pump and motor including valves controlled and actuated by iiuid discharge pressure.
It is a further object of this invention to produce for use in an internal combustion engine a fuel injection system and ignition system controlled by varying pressures within each cylinder.
Another object of the invention is to produce a combination pump and motor having a plurality of aligned cylinders with pistons reciprocable therein, the pistons being connected together by a single connecting rod.
A further object of this invention is to produce a combination internal combustion engine and uid pump having no rotating parts.
The invention will be described in conjunction with the embodiments shown in the ac-v companying drawings in which Fig. 1 is a sectional view showing one form of the invention. Fig. 2 is a cross-section along line 2--2 of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is an enlarged sectional View of the air intake valve and of the fuel injection and ignition means associated therewith. Fig. 4 is an enlarged detailed view of a portion of Fig. 1 showing a hydraulic circuit for controlling the exhaust valves. Figs. 5 to 8 inclusive are schematic views showing the four cycles of operationof the engine and pump. Figs. 9 to 12 inclusive are schematic views of the cyclical operation of a modied form of the invention.
Referring now to the embodiment shown in Figs. 1 to 8 inclusive, 20 indicates the pump and engine combination comprising a casing 2| having therein three aligned cylinders 22, 23 and 24, all cylinders having a common axis. Double acting pistons 25, 23 and 21 are reciprocable in each' cylinder and a connecting rod 28 connects the pistons together. The pistons are hollow as is the connecting rod to provide means for circulating a coolant through the engine, the connecting rod 28 opening at its right hand end to a coolant chamber 29 and to a source of coolant supply 30 at its left hand end. Coolant is circulated from the source 3U, through the connecting rod 28, the pistons 21, 26 and 25 and into the chamber 29. From chamber 29 coolant is circulated through passages 48 in the coolant jacket about the engine and into passages 49 to a radiator or other cooler. Each of the pistons just described is a double acting piston with the outermost faces of the pistons 25 and 21 acting as pumps and with the inner faces of those pistons and both faces of the piston 26 to act as motors. Fluid to be pumped enters the cylinder 22 from the fluid inlet 3l. A check valve 32 is positioned in the inlet normally urged to closed position by a spring 33. Upon movement of the piston 25 to the left anarea of lesser pressure is created to the right of the piston sufficient to overcome the tension of the spring 33 and permit the valve 32 to open allowing fluid from the inlet 3l to ow into the cylinder 22. Reciprocation of the piston 25 to the right closes the valve 32 and opens a fuel outlet valve 34 forcing uid under pressure into a fluid outlet 35. The outermost portion of the cylinder 24 functions in a manner similar to that of the cylinder 22, there being provided a fuel inlet 36, a uid inlet valve 31 and a Huid outlet valve 38 passing fluid under pressure to the fluid outlet 39.
Reciprocation of the pistons is caused by ignition of fuel in the manner of an internal combustion engine. Intake valves 40, 4I, 42 and 43 are provided for each cylinder as are exhaust valves 44, 45, and 41. As previously stated the inner sides of the pistons 25 and 21 act as motors in the internal combustion engine to be described as do both faces of the intermediate piston 23. For the sake of brevity the operation of one such motor, that is, the right hand side of the piston 21 will be described.
Referring with particularity to Figs. 1 to 3 inclusive, the valve 43 is normally urged to closed position by a spring bearing against an annular portion 5l of the casing and against a plunger 52 fixed to the valve stem. The tension of the spring 50 is such that with reciprocation of the piston 21 to the left the consequent decrease in pressure within the cylinder 24 will be sufcient to permit atmospheric pressure existing in the air intake conduit 53 to overcome the tension of the spring 50 and open the valve 43 admitting air to the cylinder. As the valve 43 opens, the plunger 52 is drawn downwards. Above the plunger 52 is a fuel chamber 5,4 connecting to a conduit 55 connected to a source of fuel. A check valve 56 is provided between the conduit and the fuel chamber which check valve is urged to closed position by a spring 51 which bears against the check valve and against the plunger 52. Downward movement of the plunger 52 with opening movement of the valve opens the check valve, permitting fuel to be drawn into the chamber 54. As the piston 27 reciprocates to the righrwhe" increase in pressure -Witninrhein cylinder 24 (along with the pressure of the spring*A 50) closes the valve 43 and also closes the connection between the fuel chamber and the con-1- duit 55 by closing the check valve Closings., movement of the valve 43 causes upward movel5 ment of the plunger 52 attached .threto'c'lands' thereby forces fuel through a hollow. portion of the valve and into the cylinder 24'whe're the' fuel may be ignited in a manner to be describedf. When the valve 43 is fully closed needle valve 20 59 tcloses-fthelowerf s end-of Athe hollow. portion' 58 to .prevent fuel. drip or .ringof theffuelrwithinl.: the: hollow.v portion...4
Also connected-:to thevalve 43 is a U shaped*-r arm .6.0-which extends in themannershown to 1-25 an ignition fmeans I Slidableawithin. the=igni.,... tionrmeansis a timing. member 62 provided-.with a catch. 5-3 Vurged outward .againsttheupwardly... extending yportion-0f thearm .50 .by a spring1.54.r A secondspring tends .to hold thetimingmem--. ber..6.2 Yin the position shown in Fig. 3. Movement. of thearm downwardwith openingtof :theintake. valve 43-brings .theend ofthe arm down to avposition. belowthe catch-.63` andpermits the-: springall `to move the catch over and .above -the..35 arms .As the; =va1ve 43 .closes `'with reciproca-tions'. of theLpistonlI the. timing. member Si'is carried` upwardfagainst..thetensiony of .the spring .65h31. the. arm..60.". Further. closing movement. of the.. valve43 harries thetiming .member upwa1dto a 40 point `wheretheslanting face of the catch 63 en-` gages ashoulderl provided on the casingof the.. ignition means,.-. Upon contacting. the shoulder.. 61 V'the catchis movedto the left to a. point where.. it no. longer. engages .the end 66 of the. armandxl thereupon the spring.65 returns the .timingrnember' $2 t' its initialpositionshown.
As 'the'.timing member. 62 .is drawnupwardsas just'des'cribed it will Ycarry the end 'I0 of the-time... ing member above a catch'II provided-in an igni.. 50 tioira'ctuatingmember l2. The ignition actuate. ingmember 'I2 is provided with an electrical cons., tact 13 'adapted to 'bemoved into contact lwith a. secondv electrical contact' 'I4 to complete anelece trical circuit through asparkingcoil .(not shown) '55 It "can'be seen-'from' the 'foregoing'that with release ofthe catch "83 which vpermits the spring 65 to movethe timing-'membe'r to its'initial'posi'- 1 tion-such return "movement of the timing fin-ern;i berI :carries Lthe ignition actuating member .12 in :f the same direction to bring the Contact I3 into Contact With-thefelectricalcontact "I4 to complete the' 'circuit. Asfthe timingfmember' is moved downwardlyito complete the circuit -just described theA catchstrik'es a shoulder portion 75`and`-i`s 65 forced inwardly to release the actuating member from vlthettiming member. and.' permit theactuat-v 1- ing..mernberI to return to 'thefposition shown after 'f 'COIIIDletingfL the electrical: 1 circuit; Pivotally` mounted at theupperfend of the actuatin'gamem; t. 70 beris a cam-1ike-member 89 carrying :an elec-` .I trical -contactha spring 82 urges the cam.80 downwardly toward another electrical contact 83.. Movementof the actuating member 'I2 vdownwardly.. permits. the spring .82tf-,0 brugthelasi-...g
mentioned electrical contacts together to complete a circuit. The last two contacts are those which complete an electrical circuit through a sparking device 'I5 and are held apart except during a short period of time immediately prior and immediately subsequent to the contact of contacts 'I3 and I4 which connect to the spark coil.
It can be seen from the foregoing that injec tion of fuel into the cylinder and subsequent ignition fthereinlis accomplished in response to varying pressure in the cylinder 24 caused by reciprocation of the piston 21 therein. Amount of fuel injected can easily be controlled by providing a variable-:volume for the fuel chamber 54 and the timing may be adjusted by adjusting the position-'offthefconta'cts 'I3 and 14 and basically by the length of the .members 62 and 'It and the location' of the catches 53 and 'l I.
Afterfignition of the fuel within the cylinder 24 and the consequent movement of the piston 2l to .ther left theeXhaustfvalVe His opened and combusted fuels are forced out through'anexhaust manifold 90 by movement of the piston 2l tothe right.. The .manner in which I control movement of the. exhaust Valve can .best be seen by ,referringzto Fig. 4. The uid outlet valve 38 is urged to closed position by a spring 9| and is provided with vanelongated valve stem 92 having a reduced portion.93 located-in a conduit 94 con- .nectedeto thefluid out1et39.- `The-conduit 94 is connected in .-a hydraulic circuit' for. controlling. f
Tllvalve 4'I is supported ina casing |00 which -1 is providedwith a number of fluid passages. while the-valve"45i`s supported in a casing .IUI which is also provided with fluidpassages The conduit 94 nconnects.with a uidconduit .I 05 to admituid under" pressure from the' outlet. 30'thereto...:The. w
conduit |05 .connects to .thecasing |00 where it branches into'a firstp'assageway |06 ancla second passageway' |01," the passageway v|01." connects with a conduit' I'08 leading to .the interior of the'.
casing-Im;vv Th passageway |06 connects with a cylinderv 'I-'IIl in which is located an extension .|.I I
of theivalve' stem connecte'dto 'the valve4'It'o provide'a means whereby the pressure in the control circuit may move'theA valVe"'4'I .to the open position'shown. 'The passageway. |06 is controlled by a slide valve I'I2 slidabl'e'in a bore 'I I3 'in the casing-"Iadapted to b-e moved within that bore byfuid pressure from a conduit I I4 and `by fluid pressurein the conduit I'I5. "A by-pass conduit I I6 connects withthe passageway |06 'and is con" trolledfb'y'thevalve-v I I2 as is by-pass conduit II'I wh-i'ch'fconnectsA with passagewayv |07." The pas-4 sagewayf|06 fis extended'in conduit form to `con" nection with a casing |20 associated'with'valve 44 fand"to fcontrol' a slide-valve therein similar'to the1slidel`va1ve-| |2.1ffThe 'other end-of the slide valve'in'theffcasing .|20 receives hydraulic uid' from: a; conduit I2| which connects with conduit 'I'heloperation of theA engine'and particularly' theoperationdof the rhydrauliccontrol for lthe exhaustvalvesiwill now be'described. With "the partsv in .thecpositlonshown in Figi 8 piston 25 has complei'fedrfa'.v compression stroke-'fand is aboutto is making an exhaust stroke to exhaust combusted gases through the valve |11 While drawing fluid into the cylinder 25 through the valve 31. The left hand side of piston 26 is making an inu take stroke whilethe right hand side is on its compression stroke and piston 25 is under power forcing iiuid within the cylinder 22 out through i the valve 35.
When the device has reached the position shown in Fig. the right hand side of piston 26 fires and the assembly moves towards the position of Fig. 6. Valve 54 thereupon closes and valve 38 opens. Closure of valve 35 directs iiuid under pressure from the conduit |40 to the conduit |11! to casing housing the exhaust valve 44 to open that valve exhausting cylinder 22. Control fluid is also directed into conduit |I5 to shift the sleeve t valve H2 upward from the position shown in Fig. 4.
When the device reaches the position of Fig. 6, the left hand side of piston res and impels the piston assembly toward the position of Fig. 7. Valve 38 closes and valve 35 opens. Control fluid is directed from conduit 54 to conduit |65, passageway |01 and conduit |00 to open the exhaust valve 45. Control fluid is also directed into conduit |2| to move the sleeve valve in casing |20 upwards in preparation for the next cycle.
Asthe device reaches the position shown in Fig. 7 piston 21 fires and impels the piston assembly toward the position of Fig. 8. The valve opens and valve 54 closes to direct control iiuid into conduits 15| and |52 to move exhaust valve 56 to open position. Control fluid also flows into the conduit s to shift the sleeve valve l2 downward to the position shown in Fig. 4.
It can thus be seen that the engine operates as a four cycle engine. Accumulators |55 and |45 maintain the pressure in the outlets 35 and 39 respectively to insure adequate pressure for the control fluid. v
A modified form of the device is shown in Figs. 9 to 12 inclusive. The combination internal combustion engine and fluid pump shown in those figures comprises a casing having a first pair of cylinders |5| and |52 in line and having a common axis. The casing also contains a second pair of aligned cylinders |53 and |55. Reciprocable in the cylinders |5| and |52 are pistons |55 and connected together by a connecting rod |51. rihe two cylinders just mentioned are s-eparated by a portion |58 of the casing and a similar portion |55 separates the cylinders |53 and |54. Pistons and |6| are reciprocable in the last named cylinders and are connected together by a connecting rod |62. Each cylinder is provided with intake valves |63, |65, and |66 and exhaust valves |61, |68, |69 and |10. A iiuid inlet valve |1| and |12 is provided in each of the cylinders |5| and |52 and fluid outlet valves |13 and |14 are provided for each of the cylinders |53 and |54. Each of the fluid inlet 'valves is connected to a iluid outlet valve by a rod |15 and |16. A connecting passage |11 and |10 connects one of the rst pair oi cylinders with one of the second pair of cylinders and each connecting means is provided with a check valve |19 and |80. The
rods |15 and |16 are of course so positioned` in the casing as not to interfere with the connecting rods |51 and |62. A rocker arm |8| is positioned at the end of the rods |15 and |16 so that movement of a rod in a direction opening the uid inlet and outlet valves causes movement of the other rod in a direction to close the inlet and outlet valves on the last mentioned rod. The intake valves are of the same construction as the intake valves in the first embodiment described and the exhaust valves are hydraulically controlled in a manner similar to that previously described and therefore the description of each of those valves and their operation is omitted at this point. Each piston operates as a double acting piston with the outside Wall of the piston acting as a motor and the inside face of the piston acting as a pump. The engine part of the combination is a four cycle engine and operates in the following manner.
With the assembly in the position shown in Fig. 9 piston |55 is completing a power stroke and is, by means of the connecting rod |51, moving the piston |56 in an exhaust stroke. Fluid on the left hand side of piston\|55 is pumped through the connecting means |11 (opening the valve |19) and into the cylinder |53 to move the piston |60 to the right on its compression stroke, thereby drawing the piston |6| to the right on its intake stroke and pumping fluid on the right hand side of the last mentioned piston out through the exit means in which valve |14 is located. As the pistons complete their stroke piston |69 res and the device moves toward the position of Fig. 10. Pressure of piston |60 on the uid contained in the cylinder |53 opens valve |13 and therefore opens valve |1| and closes valves |12 and |14. Fluid is then pumped out of the casing. Piston |6| is driven to the left on a compression stroke opening the check valve |00 and drawing fluid from the cylinder |52 into the cylinder |54 thereby causing piston |56 to move to the right on its intake stroke and force piston |55 to the right on an exhaust stroke. At the completion of this cycle piston |6| fires and moves the device toward the position shown in Fig. 11. Piston |6| is under a power stroke and the pressure on the hydraulic fluid within the cylinder |54 opens the valves |12 and |15 and closes the check valve |30 and valves |1| and |13. By virtue of its connection to piston |61) through the connecting rod |62 movement of the piston |6| to the right moves the piston |60 to the right on its exhaust stroke thereby opening check valve I 19 and drawing fluid from the cylinder |5| into the cylinder |53 and thereby moving the piston |55 to the left on its intake stroke andpiston |56 to the left on its compression stroke. Fluid iiows into the cylinder |52 through the Aopen valve |12. Upon the completion of this cycle piston |56 ires and pressure on the fluid in the cylinder |52 closes the valves |12 and |14 and opens the check valve |80 permitting iiuid to ow into the cylinder 54 to move the piston |6| to the left on its exhaust stroke and draw the piston |60 to the left on its intake stroke. Piston |55 is of course moved to the right on its compression stroke with ymovement of the piston |56 to the right on its power stroke. Valves |1| and |13 are open while check valve |19 is closed to admit fluid to the cylinder |5| while fluid is pumped from the cylinder |53 through the outlet in the casing.
It can thus be seen that the engine is a four one of the four pistons serves to pump iiuid and f also'servesto moveieachfof the otherthree pistons through'onegstroke of its cycle.
Each of the 4species of motor shown may -.be startedvby compressed airor by an auxiliary pump directing luid under pressure'to the; pump oylinders. As such starting devices areknown theyare gnot described herein.
While I have shown and Adescribed myY novel fengineiandpump as employing a fuel .injection and ignitionsystem which I believe to bexnovel and. havefurther shown the devices asemploying 4ahydrauliccontrol for the exhaust valve Vsystem .it Vis ,clear .that conventional valve` ignition and :fueLsystem'Inay be used. It is also clear that the novel ieatures of the fuel ignition and exhaust system` may be employed on engines of types other "than that shown herein. Therefore, while I have Vshown these features employed in two embodiments of anovel combination pumpand .internal combustion engine such showing is not to be con- :strued as an express limitation to thespecic vcombination shovvn.
1I claim: 11. A combination fluid pumpandinternalcom- I1hustion engine lcomprising a .first pair iof .aligned .cylinders having av commonaxis, a double acting :piston reciprocable in each cylinder, a connecting lrod connecting the pistonsto act togethena `second: pair Aof `aligned ,cylinders having ra common axis, a vdouble acting kpiston recprocable each "of the lastmentioned cylinders, arconnecting rod connecting the last mentioned Apistons fto ia'ct together, the outer `face -of each ofthe'pistons .act-
ing :as a motor with theinner facezof each .piston acting as a uid pumnuid inletmeansinf'the I'inner-end of each of the Vfirst pairof'cylinders,
uid outlet :meansin the inner end of eachlof the 1second pair Vof cylinders, .means conneotin'g'the inner end of one of :the rst cylinders'with lthe inner .endzof one off the secondzcylndersgmeans vconnecting the inner end .ofthe othersrstcylmoder with Lthe inner .end of the. other. second cylinder, a V'check valve inA each nconnectingzmeans,
means for admitting fuel to theouter-endof'each cylinder, means for igniting thefuelprmeans for exhausting combusted vfuel fromeachzcylinderpa valve. in each uid inlet and a valvein ea'chiuid outlet, means connecting eachiluid :inletl valve with a fluid outlet valve to. cause theirconn'ected valves-to open and close together said enginebeing 1.a four-cycle engine with ignition: of ".the'; fuel :in one cylinderbeing. adapted to causeireciprocavtion of .the piston therein and '.tocause.- cyclical :movement of the pistonLto whichiitzisiconnected and reciprocation of one of the lastLmentioned pistons `causing flow of fluid throughfsaid v:oon-
necting means to cause cyclicalmovement'of the 'other'two pistons.
2. Apparatus of the character described in' claim 1 in which movement of connected fluid inletand Vfluid Aoutlet valves toward open position is adaptedI to cause movement of the fother voonynected inlet and outlet valves toward closedl position.
LESLIE L. .CHIVIIlIE, "JR,
TREFERENCES CITED The following references 'are of record Ainthe file of this patent:
UNITED STATESr ALEATIEINTS