US 2564061 A
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Aug 14, 1951 B. G; GoBLE 2,564,0l
DAYLIGHT SUN ILLUMINATED CROSS AND TOWER Filed Jan. 31, 1946 INVENTOR j mricazz@ @MLQ Patented Aug. 14, 1951 NT OFFICE DAYLIGHT SUN ILLUMINATED CROSS AND TOWER Bert G. Goble, Tulsa, Okla.
Application January 31, 1946, Serial No. 644,543
This invention relates to daylight sun illuminated cross and church tower, but may be used for other things such as memorial for soldiers, and the cross may be placed out on mountainside or top to be seen from cities or by passersby. When the sun shines on this cross it reflects and gives the elect of large diamonds reflecting light.
The cross may be made up of truncated spheres or the like silvered on the inside of glass as a mirror, or may be metal with a reflecting surface of the desired curved surface to reflect sun or artificial light to the direction desired, and an object of the invention is the harnessing up of this reected light to follow one looking to differ ent positions or angles from the cross. Also a new and novel tower is provided for the support lof the cross or crosses, with a symmetrical gradual tapered top with no noticeable olsets visible and which tapered top seems like part of the tower and gives the appearance of all being built to support the cross on its top.
The main object of this invention is to create a new style church tower running its pilaster columns clear to the top of the square or Octagon without being tied together with a belt course, and making a top tying into and a part of the tops of said pilasters without the noticeable offsets in all old style architecture which architects have tried to eliminate the last thousand years, and this symmetrical tapered top is finished with a cross that the sun illuminates in daytime and can be illuminated by night by floodlighting. The four main piers or pilasters are distinctly separated in appearance their full lengths, especially at their tops where it has been customary to tie them together by a belt course. My design intentionally does just the opposite, separating these columns by setting the windows and their turnaways back from the face of the columns with no noticeable offsets on tapered top of pinnacles, accomplishing the idea lacking in all other towers.
One of the main objects of this invention is to form the top of a church tower that does not have noticeable oiset but gradually tapers off to a peak.
Another object of this invention is to form the top of a church tower or other tower that blends into and onto the top of the main pilaster columns and seems part of them or with a similarity, giving the appearance of tying them all into one unit.
Another object of this invention is to make a church tower with many points pointing upward in the general direction of the cross on its top and 2 Claims. (Cl. 2li-L) 2 emphasizing the Gothic architecture by many vertical lines and few horizontal lines.
Another object of this invention is to build a church tower lacking carving but carrying dignity in its design and the general appearance of being all built to support a cross.
Another object of this invention is to make the top of a church tower with seven tiers of pinnacles representing the seven days of the week, the seventh being the Lords day on which the cross is placed.
With the above and other objects in view the invention consists in general of certain new and novel ideas and details of construction and combination of parts hereinafter fully described, illustrated in the accompanying drawings and claimed.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is the top portion of a church tower constructed in accordance with the present invention.
Figure 2 is an enlarged View of part of the cross on top of tower.
Figure 3 is a section of one of the truncated spheres of the cross taken at line A-A in Figure 2.
Figure 4 is a cross sectional View taken at line B B in Figure 2.
Figure 5 is a plan view of one of truncated spheres making up the cross in Figure 2.
Figure 6 is a side view of one of the pliable washers placed over the, pipe and between the truncated spheres.
Figure 7 is the edge view of washer shown in Figure 6.
Figure 8 is side View of a reflector of a different shape.
Figure 9 is a fragmentary sectional View showing the manner of mounting a sphere of a cross on a support.
Figure l0 is a side view of Figure 9 showing portion of the center of the reflector concaved to cause a, different result in reflecting to that of the sphere shaped reflector and fastened to a flat surface. v
Figure 1l is a sectional view on line lC-C of Figure l, showing one side of the tower.
Figure l2 shows one of the several pinnacles l, 8, S etc. on a larger scale.
Figure 13 is a sectional View taken substantially on the line l3-l 3 of Figure 12.
Referring to the drawing of the invention more in detail.
Figure l shows elevation of upper portion of a church tower with its pilaster columns I and shows their return corners Z and the dark glass trim 3 that is extended outward and the recess in the windows and their trim and the return on the pilaster are for the purpose of pulling out the pilaster columns their full length for appearance. The recessed windows in the recesses '2B of the pilaster columns comprising a tower body formation are purposely not tied together with a belt at their tops at 5. Above the pedestal is recessed back considerably from the face of pinnacles 'i terminating in pyramidions. These pinnacles 'l are the topping 01T of the pilaster columns and the starting of a group of pyramidions so placed that they eliminate the fault of the large noticeable oifsets as the tower is tapered off. This is a thing that architects have tried to do for the last thousands years. The other thing this design accomplishes is that it ties the whole tapered top comprising a surmounting tower zone into the main structure by making each upper tier of pinnacles a little smaller than the ones just under them, but preferably makes all of the same general design, but of the sani@ general design as tops of pilaster columns, and 8, 9, Eil, II, I2 and |3 are all evenly spaced to make an even taper in appearance as shown by line I, and each of the pyramidions is smaller nearing the top. On the extreme top of pinnacles is placed a cross I4 and on the lower portion of the symmetrical tapered top there are three crosses I5, symbols oi the Trinity. All crosses are illuminated in daylight when the sun shines on them and give the resemblance` of large diamonds. These crosses are illuminated at night by floodlights I5 which may be easily gotten to by doors Il' opening inward. Obviously the upper tiers of pinnacles are supported on suitable offset portionsof the tower but the pyramidion top portions of successively reduced size serve effectively to conceal and disguise such offsetting.
The upper cross I4 may be illuminated at night by floodlights i and may be serviced through doors I9. The pilaster columns I aretapered at each outside edge and returned at 2 to cause a J recess at 2i! to make each column stand out as an individual unit and not tied together at the top with the usual belt. This is done to clearly bring out each as a column its full length. lThe tower is built its full length to seem as one complete unit all tied together for on@ purpose, to support the cross on top with dignity and reverence with its many points pointing upwards toward Heaven.
One form of constructing the cross I4 is as shown in Figure 2; an upright pipe 2| and the arms extending out about horizontally as indicated at 22 and threaded at 23. The reectors as shown at 24 and 25 etc. are made of truncated .sphere-shaped hollow glass and their inside surfaces silvered like a mirror to reilect the sun. The curve allows these flashes 25-A of sunbeam to hash in many directions. The sunbeams hit the reilectors and cast flashes in the directions of 26, 2l and 28 equally beautifully,
ure 6 and Figure '7 has an extension 33 to keep the reector from touching the pipe 2| and 22 to keep 24 and 25 from breaking by vibration, and also as seal so the ventilation may be governed through the pipes 2| and 22 through holes 34 in the pipe into the reflectors and by desired size hole in caps at 35 and other inlets held to equalize temperature inside to that outside and eliminate sweating.
Figure 3 shows a section view of one of the reilectors taken at line A-A. 36 shows the glass thickness and shape and 3l is a section of the pipe. 38 is silvering and its protector on inside of the truncated sphere reector.
Figure 4 shows one end 0i a reflector 32 and a section of the pipe the reflector slips over.
Figure 5 shows an enlarged side view of a truncated sphere reector and Figure 'l shows an edge view of the rubber washer 3| placed between the reilectors to protect them from breakage and to seal the ends of the reectors. The extensions 33 keep the glass from touching the pipes 2| and 22 eliminates breaking as well as making the connections air tight and air circulation through the reiiectors regulated by holes in pipes 34 and 35 and holes in reflectors at 39 for moisture change and draining. Figure 6 is just a side view of washers as in Figure 7.
Figure 8 shows an end view of a reilector, the shape of which may be desirable where the cross is located in certain locations relative to the altitude of surrounding country to that of the altitude of the location of the cross, and also where it is desirable to get effect of the reflection of the sun where the cross is between eyes looking at the sun rays in the general direction of the sun arrows SS-A and are reflected to refiect sun on opposite side from the sun as indicated at 40. The radial point in making curve is longer radius as at 4I and the shorter radius at 42 on ends same as the whole reector used in cross in Figure 2.
Figure 9, the reflector 43 is about a half of the truncated sphere in Figure 5 and as indicated at 43 used on crosses or the like and may be used on a flat support as at 44 and may be fastened by means of screw 45 and may be preferable in the three crosses I5.
Figure l0 shows a reflector 46 with a reverse curve as at 41 which may be desirable in some situations but serves to reflect sun or articial rays oi light to certain locations relative to the reector.
Figure 1l shows a cross section of small portion of the main tower at line C-C in Figure l, and shows the desired deep recess on each edge of the pilaster columns I at 20 where the relief structure or window trim are set back and the return 2 on pilaster column serves as bringing out the pilaster columns boldly, and the windows and trim 48 are dark and bring out the light colored long columns their full length.
The reflected sun rays off of the cross I4 cover quite a territory, sun rays coming in at directions as at 49 and leaving the reflector as at 50 and 5|, and at night when the crosses are illuminated by iloodlights I6 and I8 the flash covers a variety of angles also. The cross I4 iloodlighted by lights I8 by rays indicated at |3--A, and crosses I5 at the bottom oodlighted by lights I6 and as indicated by rays I E-A.
Figure 12 is an enlarged elevation of one of the pinnacles l, 8, 9, etc. The face A-I is a broad View and its corners Z-A are returned on 45- degree angle. The tops of portion of 2-A are cut at a steep angle to a point at 2-B to give a pointed Gothic appearance. The fiat face A-I is stopped on the horizontal at 56 for contrast, and the plain relief arrow pointed relief posts 53 run quite a distance below the top 56 on the flat surface at 53--A and also quite a distance above and pointed at 53-B to give a very pointed Gothic effect to the completed pinnacle, and the many points pointing toward Heaven is symbolic of the One now in glory who once hung on the cross, and the completed tower of many pinnacles points Heavenward and general direction of the cross and lattice strips 54 are supporting the pointed relief posts 53 at quite a little off the horizontal as a relief work and to support and emphasize the sharp pointed relief posts 53. All this is to work together to complete a symmetrical tapered tower to a peak to support the cross I4.
at line I3-l 3. The Steeple 6I, or the four pointed at line B-I3. The steeplo 6 I, or the four pointed portions of the pinnacles has a square base 62 and taper to a point 63.
The thing new and novel in the combination of pinnacles 8 to I3 and 6I and shown in detail in Figure 12 is the distance is greater from the faces 64 to E34-A than it is from face 65 to face 65-A and allows space to use post 66 back of the pointed part of `Z-A, which makes a well planned place to stop the lattice 54 and I5 above the horizontal line 56. This allows a support for ends of lattice 54 and these lattices give the effect of strengthening the pointed relief post 53 and contrast for the many vertical lines.
The main idea of the seven tiers of pinnacles to taper top of tower is to avoid irregularity in olfsets and finish the tower to a point with the different top points and point of one relief post of each pinnacle about touching the line 61. As shown 68, 69 and IIJ and all other points on the outside of the different pinnacles that are placed on the four corners about touching the line 61 and thus overcoming the obstacle that has confronted architects for years. This specially designed pinnacle overcomes difficulty of objectionable offsets of church tops and makes a beautiful top that looks as if made for the purpose of supporting the cross, and persons seeing any portion of this tower from a distance from top to bottom it immediately causes person seeing it to know they are looking at part of a church tower. Eliminating noticeable offsets in church towers may be accomplished by other style pinnacles or ornaments by setting the outside of upper tier overlapping the inside part of lower tier.
The idea of daylight illumination by sun rays or at night by full moon or by artificial light may also be used for signs to be seen at a long distance. The sun ray reflection differs to that of any artificial light rays as the rays of artificial rays waste and soon dim out, but sun rays travelling millions of miles before reaching reflector may be reflected by mirror reflectors a great distance through darkness and are practically as bright at a great distance as close up. So the sunlight reflections may be seen at long distances.
It is strictly understood that changes may be made within the scope of the drawing and claims without departing from the spirit of the invention.
What I claim as new and novel is:
1. In architectural tower structures adapted for use with edifices purposed for religious activities, a tower body formation of generally rectangular shape in plan View, a surmounting assemblage rising from the body portion and comprising a plurality of individual pinnacles each terminating in a pyramidion with the pinnacles arranged in a rising step formation on each side, and with the vertices of the pyramidions of each step located successively inwardly to form a composite pyramidal .structure to thereby present a sky-line pseudo-pyramidal appearance of the surmounting tower assemblage and eliminate the appearance of offset formations lying outside of the pseudo-pyramidal contour, the pinnacles of adjacent predetermined steps varying as to number with other adjacent predetermined steps presenting a similar number of pinnacles but varied in spacing width to thereby produce the pseudopyramidal contour, and a cross formation carried by and rising from the vertex of said surmounting assemblage.
2. An assemblage as in claim 1 characterized in that the tower body is formed of a plurality of vertically extending structural formations on predetermined side faces of the tower, each of such faces having its formations in side contact and with the exposed formations of a face arranged to present collectively two distinctive appearance types arranged in alternation, each type extending continuously lengthwise of the tower body to thereby present a horizontal series of vertically extending bands with adjacent contacting bands formed from different types and with alternate bands formed of the same type, the pinnacles of the lower step of the surmounting assemblage of such face being positioned to surmount the bands of but one of the types to thereby continue the spacing of the bands of the other type into such surmounting assemblage.
BERT G. GOBLE.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 411,516 Anderson Sept. 24, 1889 1,785,422 Klodskov Dec. 16, 1936 1,786,789 Sutphen Dec. 30, 1930 1,825,497 Wilfred Sept. 29, 1931 OTHER REFERENCES Handbook of Architecture, by Fergusson, published in London, England, in 1859, by John Murray (2nd edition) page 674.
Websters Collegiate Dictionary, fifth edition, copyright 1936, by G. C. Merriam Co., The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., page 755.