US 2564067 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
4, 1951 M. E. KARP 2,564,067
' DOOR OPERATION AND CONTROL Filed July 24, 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN V EN TOR.
Waem/f. (46p BY Aug. 14, 1951 M. E. KARP 2,564W67 DOOR OPERATION AND CONTROL Filed July 24, 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 i afeh tecl Aug. 14, i951 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE DOOR OPERATION AND CONTROL Martin E. Karp, Kew Gardens, N. assignor, by memo assignments, to National Pneumatic Co Incl, Boston, Mass, a corporation of Delaware Application July '24, 1948, Serial No. 40,493 3 Claims. (Cl. 268- 1:)
This invention relates to doors, and particularly to a system for automatically opening and closbig one or more doors located in a passageway alon which considerable traflic passes, the motion of the traffic being in two opposite directions.
An object of the invention is to provide, in a system including a motor, or motors, for applying the door opening and closing power, successively, novel automatic means for initiating and governing the energization of such motor or motors.
In the embodiment of the invention hereinafter described, and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, the novel automatic means takes the form of a motor controlling relay electrically energized by the action of one or another of a plurality of electronic circuits, wired in parallel relationship, and each including a photo-sensitive initiator; the photo-sensitive initiators being, in turn, responsive to light beams individual thereto, one of which light beams has an intermittently applicable light source while the other light beams have constantly applicable light sources. However, it is to be understood that the illustrated and described embodiment of the invention ijs -merely one of many arrangements which maybe resorted to for practicing the teachings of the invention; also that component phases of the invention may be inter-combined in a variety of relationships, or used independently of other components, within the spirit-of the invention as disclosed; the appended claims being subject to this understanding.
A further feature of the invention is the control of one of the above-described photo-sensitive initiators by a pair of light beams, one of which beams is the intermittently operable beam above referred to, and the other of which beams is constantly operable, and so located as to be subject to interruption so long as the control zone remains occupied; but which interruptions are alternately eiTective and ineffective, depend- .ing upon (a) the concurrent condition of said sources, with respect to the passageway and door or doors, which novel electrical combinations and physical relationships make possible a more satisfactory response of the doors to the varying operational requirements dictated by the different trailic situations encountered from one minute to another. Merely by way of enumerating a few of the possibilities of the system, it may be noted that the following modi operandi are inherent therein:
a. The approach of a person (or vehicle") to the control zone, that is, to either of the'two outer boundaries thereof, causes one of the parallel electronic circuits to become effective "to actuate the motor controlling relay, whereupon the door opens automatically.
b. As the door, in opening, passes a pro-determined intermediate point, one of the two light sources theretofore operating to illuminate a selected photo-sensitive initiator is automatically extinguished; but as said selected initiator remains illuminated by the light from the second light source applicable thereto, this temporary cancellation of one light source does not interfere with the completion of the door opening movement, or with the automatic return of the door in timed relationship to its opening. (3n the other hand,
c. If a person (or vehicle) happens to interrupt the beam from said second light source during the closing movement of the door, and prior to the doors reaching the predetermined point referred to in sequence 21, the motor controlling relay is again actuatedthis time by one of the parallel electronic circuits other than the one referred to in sequence a-and the motor reopens the door. But
d. If a person (or vehicle) happens to interrupt the beam referred to in sequence 0, or any of the other beams, before the start of the door closing movement, that is, while the .door is still in its opening movement, or marking time" in the open position-there is no re-actuation of the door controlling relay, hence the door is free to start to close at the termination of the marking time period (the duration .of the latter, being adjustably pre-set as desired). This novel feature (of rendering the door controlling relay immune-.from re-actuation during the opening and marking time stages) is made possible by the novel electrical combinations above referred to, and without the need of short-circuiting or otherwise disassociating the photo-sensitive initiators, even momentarily.
e. An interruption of the beam referred to in sequence c while the door is in its-final stage of closing-that is, after passing the predetermined point referred to in sequence bwill not re-actuate the door controlling relay (hence the door will not re-open) because on passing said predetermined point the first-named light source is automatically restored, and immediately becomes applicable to illuminate its associated photosensitive initiator, thus rendering any subsequent interruption of the second light source inconsequential for the remainder of the door closing period.
Referring now to the drawings: Fig. 1 is an elevation view of a door and doo operating motor equipped with control elements suitable for practising the disclosed invention;
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the parts shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a plan view of a passageway equipped with a door operable by a motor such as that shown in Figs. 1 and 2; the locations of the light sources and light-sensitive elements of the system being also indicated;
Fig. 4 is a circuit diagram showing the electrical relationships between the component .parts of the system; and Fig. 5 is an enlarged view, in section, of the upper portion of the time delay mechanism shown schematically in Fig. 4. Fig. 6 shows control of a pair of doors.
Referring first to Figs. 1, 2 and 3, a passageway having bounding walls |2 (Fig. 3) is traversed by a door |3 hinged, as at M, to swing open and closed upon application of turning effort to a lever l6 (Fig. 2) secured to the upper end of the door hinge-shaft l4. Lever I6 is in turn hinged, as at H, to a link forming an operating connection with a piston assembly movable within the cylinder assembly l8, l9 (Figs. 1 and 2) constituting a fluid motor for power operation of the door |3. Link 20 carries a striker l5, for a purpose to be explained hereinafter.
While the fluid motor l8, l9 may be of any desired construction, the arrangement suggested in Figs. 1 and 2 is convenient for the purposes of the present invention in that it requires only one shiftable valve (indicated at 2| in each of Figs. 1, 2 and 4) to control the alternate door opening and door closing strokes of the piston assembly within the motor.
This single valve control is possible by reason of the difierential cross-sectional areas of the two joined cylinders I8 and I9, and the correspondingly difiering areas of the two joined piston sections reciprocable in said cylinder assembly. A solenoid 22, when energized (by the novel circuit action hereinafter described) shifts the valve 2| to a position permitting discharge to the atmosphere of the pressure fluid Within cylinder Hi to the left of the piston assembly; and as line pressure is constantly maintained in conduit 23 supplying the cylinder |8 to the right of the larger piston section, there is produced a movement or" the piston assembly tothe left, as
viewed in Figs. 1 and 2, whereupon links l8 and position indicated in Figs. 1 and 2, thus re-clos--- 4 ing the door l3. The novel means producing these alternate energizations and de-energizations of the solenoid 22 will now be described.
The elements controlling solenoid 22 include, as illustrated schematically in Fig. 4, an electronically actuated relay switch 21, a motor-operated switch 28 having bridging sections 29, 30 and a snap-action switch 3| having bridging sections 32, 33 engaging pairs of contacts 34, 35, respectively; the latter pair being directly in series with the winding of solenoid 22, in a circuit extending from current supply lines 36, 31, and the former pair of contacts being in series with the winding of the relay 38, to hold said relay energized following initial current flow thereto by way of the first named relay switch 21, and until interruption of current flow by reason of the opening of normally closed switch section 29.
The novel control elements further include an electronic amplifier 4| whose cathode energy is received from line-36, 31, being adjustable by use of a variable resistor 42, and whose anode circuit includes the winding 43 of the relay switch 21; also a plurality of photo-electric cells 46, 41, 48, all connected in parallel relationship across line 36, 31, in a circuit which includes the grid element 43 and the cathode of amplifier 4|. Cells 46 and 41 are located at opposite ends of the passageway H, l2, as shown in Fig. 3, and are in positions to receive light from lamps 5|, 52, respectively. Cell 48 is adjacent cell 48, and can be illuminated by each of two lamps 53, 54, the former being adjacent lamp 52 and the latter only a short distance from the cell itselfin practice, it may be enclosed in the fixture housing the cell 48. A switch 56 (Figs. 2 and 4) is normally held closed by a spring 51 (Fig. 2) but includes a cam-roller 58 engageable by a cam 59 on lever Hi, to open said switch and thus interrupt current flow to lamp 54 when the door is in the position indicated by dash line 6| in Fig. 3, or thereabouts. Lamps 5| to 54 are wired in parallel, in the secondary circuit of transformer 62. Their operating voltage is, of course, less than that of line 36, 31.
Switch 3| is shown as operable by a pair of collars 68, 69 on the plunger rod 66 of relay 38, the rod being urged upwardly by a compression spring 61, and downwardly by the magnetic effect produced while current flows through the winding of relay 38. As one or the other of collars 68, 69 engages the switch arm, and tilts it about its central pivot, over-center spring 1| completes the switch throw and assures firm, simultaneous making or breaking of both circuits controlled thereby, depending upon the direction of swing.
To delay the upward, or return movement of rod 66, following de-energization of the relay 38, for a pre-determined interval of adjustable length, so that there will be a pre-determined interval of delay in the opening of the circuit to the door valve magnet 22, there may be employed any known type of delay dash-pot, or the like, such as the delay mechanism indicated at 12-82 in Figs. 4 and 5. As shown, this delay mechanism includes an air receiving vessel 16 closed along its lower circular edge by a flexible diaphragm 14 secured to said edge by screws 18. Rod 66 carries elements 12, 13 for adjustably clamping the diaphragm 14 thereto. An air inlet valve 16 is urged to closed position by a compression spring, but is drawn open by suction as rod 66 moves diaphragm 14 down to the dash-line position shown at in Fig. 5.
The air thus drawn in can be expelled, as the rod 63 attempts to re-ascend, only through the adjustably restricted exhaust port 8|, controlled by screw 82. Thus the period required for complete re-ascent of the rod 66 (even though spring 81 continuously urges the rod upwardly) can be regulated by adjustments I2, 13, and 82.
As hereinabove indicated, interruption of the light beam illuminating cell 46, or the light beam illuminating cell 41, will so disturb the potential balance in the circuit of grid 49 of amplifier 4| (and, incidentally, there may be one such amplifier for each cell, with their anodes wired in parallel with each other and in series with relay 43) as to cause current fiow from power source 35 to relay 43 the flow path being through the amplifier 4|.
a. As relay 43 is thus energized, switch 21 is caused to close, whereupon current flows to relay 38, the flow path including switches 21 and 3B in series. Rod 66 is pulled down by the magnetic action of relay 38 thereon, and the downward movement throws switch 3| to the dash-line position, bridging switches 34 and 35. Closure of switch 34 sets up a self-holding circuit for relay 38, by way of switch 25, and closure of switch 35 energizes valve magnet 22, whereupon fluid is exhausted through valve 2| and motor l8, l9 shifts rod 20 to the left, to swing door is open to the position marked 24 in Fig. 3.
b. As door l3, in opening, reaches the position marked 6! in Fig. 3, cam 59 will automatically swing switch 56 to the open position, thus extinguishing light 54 (see Fig. 4); but as photocell 48 remains illuminated by the light from source 53, this temporarycancellation of light source 54 does not interfere with the completion of the door opening movement, or with the automatic return of the door in timed relationship to its opening. Such automatic return occurs as a result of the following sequence of events: first, switches '29 and 30 open as striker l5 (Fig. 2) engages switch rod 28, just as the door approaches open position 24; secondly, this opening of switch 29 de-energizes relay 38 and allows spring 61 to return rod 66 to its upper position (at the delayed pace determined by the adjustments of unit 16); thirdly, returnof rod 66 to its upper position throws switch arm 3| back to the fullline position, breaking the circuit to valve magnet 22 at the switch 35; fourthly, this de-energization of valve magnet'22 allows valve 2| to re-connect motor line 26 with the fluid supply, whereupon the motor pistons start moving to the right and cause door [3 to swing back toward the closed position. From this point on, th sequences and possibilities are as indicated in paragraphs c, d, and e of the earlier portion of this description.
Should it be desirable, suitable variable resistors may be included in the photo-cell circuits, to facilitate adjustment and equalization of potentials therein.
The system will, of course, operate similarly when applied to a passageway controlled by a pair of doors, such as doors I3A and ISB of Fig. 6, or to any other type of door or door combination; also with door motive power differing from that specifically illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2.
What I claim is:
1. In a door operating system, a door operating motor, a circuit controlling energization of said motor, a normally open motor-controlling switch in said circuit, means including a solenoid and a retardation device for causing closure and subsequent re-opening, respectively, of said switch, a circuit including said solenoid, said circuit including two switches in series relationship, the first series switch being normally open and the second normally closed, means including a second solenoid and energizing means therefor for closing said first series switch and thereby energizing said first-named solenoid to cause closure of said motor-controlling switch and motor-energizing circuit and consequent opening movement of the door by action of said door operating motor, a holding circuit for said firstnamed solenoid, means operated by said motor as the door reaches fully open position to open said holding circuit and simultaneously open said second series switch and thereby prevent the transmission to said first solenoid of any further energizing impulses during the interval between opening of said holding circuit by said motor operated means and re-opening of said motorcontrolling switch by operation of said retardation device, thereby making it impossible to prolong said interval even though further energizing impulses should be applied to said second solenoid during such interval.
2. A door operating systemas defined in claim 1, wherein said motor-operated means for opening said holding circuit includes a switch in said holding circuit, and a mechanical link between said holding circuit switch and said second series switch for causing their simultaneous operation by said motor-operated means.
3. A door operating system as defined in claim 1, wherein said door operating motor includes a cylinder and a piston movable in said cylinder in response to creation of a fluid pressure difierential on opposite faces of said piston, means responsive to closure of said motor-controlling switch to create such a fluid pressure difi'erential, in a direction opposite to that which normally prevails, and thereby cause said piston to move in a door-opening direction.
MARTIN E. KARP.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the flle of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,033,533 Green June 4, 1935 2,173,455 Roby Sept. 19, 1939 2,187,173 Parvin Jan. 16, 1940 2,227,483 Bendz Jan. '7, 1941