US 2565446 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 21, 1951 B. ABBOTT DISTORTING EASEL Filed March 10, 1948 R. .S. m a m m m 2 m 0 A A 6 m H m m w m x v mw m WWW.
Patented Aug. 21, T951 DISTORTING EASEL Berenice Abbott, New York, N. Y., assignor to House of Photography, Inc., New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application March 10, 1948, Serial No. 14,100
The present invention relates to the art of photography, and, in particular, to easels for holding a sheet of light-sensitive paper or other material during projection printing, as, for example, in enlarging and in reducing.
The general object of the invention is to provide an easel arranged to hold steadily a sheet of lightsensitive paper or other material that is flexible in a curved, twisted, undulate, or other nonplanar condition for the purpose of obtaining in projection printing a print on said sheet which is a distorted image of the subject.
The present invention is of particular application in the production of distorted photographic prints wherein an artistic result is specially had by the selective exaggeration and diminution of certain features of the subject. For example, the easel of the present invention may be conveniently employed to produce caricatured portraits, surrealist scenes, and other novel pictures the artistic merit of which resides in the essential unnaturalness of the reproduction of the subject.
In the drawing:
Fig. l is a side elevational bodying the invention.
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of a similar easel with a somewhat modified means for supporting the same.
Fig. 3 is a side elevational view of the supporting means appearing in Fig. 2.
The easel, itself, is preferably a fairly thin sheet of copper or other flexible material, which is designated NJ in Figs. 1 and 2, having along two view of an easel em- 7 sides thereof, as shown, a series of lugs I l which are bent not completely upon themselves to provide a plurality of 'means for holding the edges of a sheet of light-sensitive paper or other material. Such a sheet is designated l2 in Figs. 1 and 2. Further to insure the relationship of the sheet to the easel itself I provide near one corner of the easel, as, for example, at or near the upper righthand corner as shown in Fig. 2, a resilient clip l3, which is attached in any suitable manner to the back of the easel and folded over against the frontal surface as shown in Fig. 1.
In Fig. 1 I have shown one embodiment of means for supporting the easel, comprising a tripod I4, with feet l5, each thereof being adjustable as to height by means of threaded shanks l6 engaging tapped holes within legs I1. Mounted on the top of the tripod I4 I provide a pedestal l8, having a socket I 9 in the top thereof, within which is mounted a ball 20 rigidly fixed to an arm 2| terminating in a face plate 22 secured in any suitable manner, as, forexample, by soldering, to the back of the easel.
Obviously, in the construction shown in Fig. 1, the sheet It may be positioned in any one of a great variety of positions relative to, say, a horizontal line g.
Due to the flexible nature of the material of the sheet [0 the same may be curved, twisted, made undulate, or otherwise bent and formed in conditions otherwise than planar. So, likewise, a flexible sheet of photograph paper or the like, held against the frontal surface of the easel by means of the lugs I I and the clip I3 is constrained steadily to keep the nonplanar contour of the sheet l9. Also, if a fairly soft material such as copper, which of course has but little resilience, is selected for the material of sheet l0, bends formed in the sheet'remain as formed until further bending moments are applied thereto.
I The dotted lines of Fig. 2 illustrate one contour available in the easel of the present invention other than a planar contour, as indicated in the figure by solid lines, and is exemplary of the many which are available. To avoid soiling the sensitized paper or like material it would appear to be better practice to form the sheet In before the sensitized sheet is applied thereto. However, the final form of the easel surface desired with respect to any subject to be photoprinted as a distorted image is plainly most conveniently discovered experimentally; and, for this reason, I prefer to coat the frontal surface of the sheet In with a thin, flexible material capable of reflecting considerable light, so that the image of the subject may be projected onto the easel, and the latter may be bent experimentally until the image is distorted as desired and also may be readily seen by the photographer while such experimental bending is being carried on. After the image reflected from the frontal surface of the easel is that desired to be printed, the projection may be discontinued and the sensitized sheet I2 fixed in position of the easel, and the photoprinting may then be continued to produce an actual print of the image as earlier viewed in projection on the bent frontal surface of the easel.
In Fig. 3 I show, in side elevational View, a modified means of supporting the easel. This same means is shown in part in Fig. 2. The support of Fig. 3 comprises a plate 23, having beneath at each corner a suitable foot member 24, such as a rubber knob, and having a centrally located socket 25 which may fit within a hole in the center of the plate and be secured on the underside of the plate by means of a nut 25 and having a ballended rod 21, the other end of which is provided with another socket 28, supported by socket 25; and having a ball-ended rod 29, the other end of which terminates in a face plate 3! which may be secured to the back surface of the sheet in as indicated in Fig. 2 by dotted lines by means of screws 3!, the ball-end of rod 29 being supported by socket 23. Obviously the supporting means illustrated in Fig. 3 makes available a greater number of angular'dispositions of the easel than does the means illustrated in Fig. 1.
It will be understood, of course, that any of a considerable number of more or less equivalent means for supporting the flexible easel may be employed. For example, the easel might well be supported by means of a gooseneck of flexible tubing such as is common in'the structure of desk lamps and the like.
The invention contemplates an'easel which may not only be bent, twisted, curved, and otherwise distorted from a planar shape, and also carry means thereon to hold against its frontal surface a sensitized sheet substantially bent, twisted, curved, or otherwise distorted in accordance with such frontal surface of the easel, but which may also be rotated and set in any of a variety of angular relationships with respect to a supporting sur- -f-acesuch as a table top or the like.
Also, such easel may be conveniently employed in-photoprinting where the projection is from the side :or from above. In the drawing I show, in
"Fig. '1, an embodiment of the easel before the same has been distorted from planar shape, and with the sheet ID disposed vertically; but it will be fully understood that the sheet Hi may be disposed horizontally for use where the projection is more or less vertical. The same will be understood with respect to the embodiment shown in Fig. 2, wherein dotted lines indicate a possible distorted shape which the easel may be caused to assume.
While I prefer to use copper for the sheet in,
because of its cheapness and high degree of pliability, it is apparent that other pliable sheets, 'metallic or nonmetallic in character, can be employed, particularly pliable white alloys, where- =with no white or other light-colored coating is required.
be rotated and otherwise variously positioned angularly with respect to said support.
2. An easel for supporting a photographic; printing paper in curved, twisted, undulate, and
other nonplanar shape in the path of light rays projected from a subject for the purpose of obtaining a distorted photoprint of said subject, which comprises a flexible sheet of relatively little resilience so that the same tends to maintain a shape into which the same is bent, a support for said sheet, and means universally connecting the rear of said sheet with said support whereby said sheet may be rotated and otherwise variously positioned angularly with respect to said base, said means comprising a ball and socket link, the frontal surface of said sheet being coated with anadhering, flexible film of material capable of reflecting light without glare whereby the projec'tion of said rays may be seen and said sheet experimentally bent prior to photoprinting, and at the edges of said sheet clamps for holding against the frontal surface of said sheet said paper in conformity with said frontal surface.
3. The easel of claim 2, said sheet being of soft copper and having marginal lugs bendable over the margin of said paperfor the purpose of holding thesame against'the frontal surface of said sheet in conformity with said surface.
4. An easel for supporting a photographic printing paper in curved, twisted, undulate, and other nonplanar shape in the path of light rays projected'from a subject for the purpose of obtaining a distorted photoprint of said subject, which comprises a flexible sheet of relatively little resilience having clamps :on the edges thereof for holding said paper against the frontal surface of said sheet in conformity with said surface, a support for said sheet, and means universally connecting the :reariof said sheet with said support whereby said sheet may be rotated 'andotherwise variously positioned angularly with respect to said support, said means comprising a ball and socket link, one end of such link-being rigidlysecured to the rear of said sheet and the other tosaid support.
5. A means for holding ;a photographic printing paper in @curved, twisted, undulate, and other nonplanar shape in the path of light rays projected from :a subject for the purpose ofobtaining a distorted ph-otoprint of said subject which comprises a pliable sheet against which .the back of said paper isapplied and-secured in conformity with a surface of said sheet, said p1iab1e sheet being/0f soft copper and having marginal lugs bendable inwardly for-the purpose of securin such paper against the surface of saidsheet in conformity with said surface.
6. .A means for holding a photographic printing sheet incurved, twisted, undulate, and other .nonplanar-shape in the path of light rays projected from .asubject for the purpose of obtaining a distorted photoprint ofsaid subject, which comprises .a pliable sheet of soft copper capable of repeated distortion from a .flat, planar condition and aga'instwhich the back of said paper maybe applied .and secured in conformity with the distorted contour of said sheet, said sheet having a reflecting surface on which a projected image can be discerned whereby the degree and character of the distortion of the image of the printed paper can be predetermined prior to applying and securing the .printing paper to said sheet.
7. The .means .of claim 6 wherein the copper sheetis provided with marginal lugs bendable inwardly for the purpose .of securing said paper against thesheet. 1
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 744,928 Mills Nov. 24, 1903 753,351 Beidler Mar. 1,1904
' 840,084 Muller Jan. 1, 1907 1,457,209 Chanier May 29, 1923 2,314,272 :Gudin Mar. 16, 1943 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 27,102 Great Britain"; Dec. 10, 1903