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Publication numberUS2565941 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 28, 1951
Filing dateJun 17, 1946
Priority dateJun 17, 1946
Publication numberUS 2565941 A, US 2565941A, US-A-2565941, US2565941 A, US2565941A
InventorsBarnard Randolph H
Original AssigneeReconstruction Finance Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for producing laminated materials
US 2565941 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

R. H. BARNARD Aug. 28, 1951 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING LAMINATED MATERIALS Filed June 17, 1946 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG. I

FIG. 2

INVENTOR RANDOLPH -H. BARNARD BYJMZM UM ATTORNEYS Aug. 28, 1951 R. H. BARNARD 2,565,941

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING LAMINATED MATERIALS Filed June 17, 1946 I 3Sheet's-Sheet 2 I g L E a y g m 3 f m P1,,

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INVENTOR WP RANDOLPH H. BARNARD BY JWaJW v -4 ATTORNEYS Aug. 28,1951 R. H/B'ARNARD 2,

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING LAMINATED MATERIALS Filed June 17, 1946 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR RANDOLPH H. BARNARD BY JWM&@ MM

ATTORNEYS Patented Aug. 28, 1951 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING LAMINATED MATERIALS Randolph H. Barnard, Toledo, Ohio, assignor, by mesne assignments, to Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of the United States Application June 17, 1946, Serial No. 677,383

7 Claims.

This invention relates tov a method and apparatus for producing flexible, semi-rigid or rigid mats or sheets of fine fibers drawn from molten materials, and is particularly applicable to the production of such mats or sheets from glass fibers.

An object of the invention is to provide a method and apparatus for producing fibrous mats or sheets built up in layers, and in a continuous process.

Another object of the invention is to provide a method and apparatus for producing a semirigid or a rigid board composed of a mat of drawn fibers or filaments.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a method and apparatus for producing mats of fine fibers or filaments that are laid down in layers and bonded together to form a mat wherein the fibers throughout are secured to one another.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a method and apparatus for producing mats of fibrous. materials in accordance with the foregoing object wherein the layers of the matted fibers are plasticized sufiiciently to allow the fibers of each layer, and the fibers in the layers to adhere to one another.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a method and apparatus for producing a mat of fine fibers or filaments wherein the mat is composed of fibers of different diameters, or diiferent materials and wherein the fibers of different diameters or of different materials oomposing the mat are disposed in layers.

Still another object of the invention is to provide-a method and apparatus for producing a mat of fine fibers or filaments wherein the filaments are drawn while the material is in a molten condition and the fibers are laid down in layers upon one another to produce a mat of desired thickness.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a method and apparatus for producing a semi-rigid or a rigid sheet from matted fine fibers or filaments in accordance with the foregoing object wherein the matted fibers are plasticized and compressed to obtain a sheet of desired thickness.

Further objects and advantages will become apparent from the drawings and the following description.

In the drawings:

Figure 1 is a vertical cross-sectional view through an apparatus for producing a product according to the teachings of this invention.

Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 2-2 of Figure 1, illustrating orifices of different size in the meltingfurnace illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 3 is a side-elevational view, partially in cross-section, illustrating the method and apparatus for producing mats in layers according to this invention wherein the layers of fibers or filaments are plasticized between each layer to cause adherence of the fibers in the layer and of the layers with one another.

Figure 4 is a transverse cross-sectional view taken along line 44 of Figure 3.

Figure 5 is a perspective elevational view of an apparatus for producing semi-rigid or rigid sheets in accordancewith the teaching of this invention.

In this invention the apparatus for producing av laminated mat of fibrous materials, such as drawn glass fibers or filaments, consists of a melting chamber of furnace I0 that has the lower portion thereof subdivided into a plurality of drawing chambers ll, Ila, HI) and He. The furnace II], or melting pot, is rectangular in general transverse cross-section, the drawing chambers H, Ila, Ill) and He extending transversely across the melting pot and in spaced parallel relationship. The drawing chambers receive molten material from the body l2 of the material maintained inthe melting pot ID, the body of material. being maintained at a level above the chambers ll, Ila, Ill) and H0 to evenly distribute the molten material into the drawing chambers and to insure their constant filling.

The drawing chambers H, He, II b and .0 are each provided with a plurality of orifices 13, [3a, liib and I30 respectively, through which the molten material in the melting pot H] is exuded. The orifices l3, [3a, I31). and [30 may all be of like size, or as illustrated in Figure 2, the orifices may be of different size, such as those in chambers 13a and [-321 relative to those in chambers I3 and I30, so'that fibrousv material of different size can be drawn from the various chambers to lay down fibrous laminae containing fibers of different size.

With the body of molten material lz maintained at a level above the drawing chambers I la, Nb and He the greater quantity of molten material removed from chambers, I la and I lb is automatically compensated for by more material flowing to these chambers without requiring complex feeding mechanisms for varying the rate of feed of material to the chambers in proportion to the rate of material removed. therefrom. The

ably secured therebeneath. The dish-shaped member l6 has the upper edge thereof disposed above the level of the lower 'edgeof'thebafile' wall l4.

Batch material is fed into the melting pot or furnace ID from a hopper l1 under control ofany automatic feeding mechanism .which regulates the rate of feeding into the melting pot ID. The batch material falls into the chamber formed by the dish-shaped member l6 and'the baflle wall 14,

and is melted therein. The level of the molten material In the dish-shaped member [6 rises until it overflows the upper edge thereof into the chamber [8 of the melting pot and mixes with the bodylZ of molten material therein. Thus, the body of molten material I2 is fed with newly melted batch material to maintain the level thereof relatively constant.

' The batch material is fed by the feeding mechanism in response tothe level of the body of molten material l2, an electrode l9 extending through the top wall i of the furnace Hlfor the purpose of being engaged ,by the surface of the body of molten material l2. The electric lines and'Zl connecting with the melting-pot l0 and theelectrode l9 respectively, connect with the bers II, Ha, Nb and He respectively, there is provided high pressure air conduits and 26 on opposite sides of each row of the orifices and extending longitudinally along the same. The air conduits 25 and 26 are provided with discharge outlets 2'! and 28 respectively, which are directed toward one another to produce converging air streams which converge substantially vertically in alignment with the orifices l3, 13a,

I3?) and respectively. The converging air streams pick up the molten material that is vcollected in the collecting chambers or hoppers "29, 29a, 29b. and 290 disposed beneath the rows feeding mechanism, not shown, and cause the same to stop operation when the level of the body of molten material l2 rises to engage the electrode l9, electric current flowing between the electrode l9 and the melting-pot l0 atthis time to complete electric circuit to the controls of the I feeding mechanism for this purpose. Whenever the level of molten material falls sufiiciently to disengage the lower end of the electrode {9, electric current will stop flowing through the lines 20 and 2| and thereby actuate the raw batch feeding mechanism to start the same inoperation to repleni'sh the supply of material into the meltingpot l0.

The chamberjla in the melting-pot It may be maintained under pressure greater than atmosphere to cause the moltenmaterial to exude through the orifices [3, 13a, BI) and I30 by supplying gaseous pressure into the chamber l8 through the conduit connection 22.

An electric heating coil 23 is placed around the main body of the meltingchamber was melt the material within the member [6 and to retain the upper edge of the member l5 sufficiently hot to cause a fining of the glass when'fiowing over the upper edgefof the member Hi. I

Electric heating coils "24 are also provided around each'of thedrawing chambers H Ila, Nb and Me which may all be maintained at the same temperature, or be individually controlled to establish difiere'nt conditions of fluidity of the moltenmateri'al in the respective'drawing chambers heated thereby according to the amount of material required to be exuded from the respective drawing chambers.

The heating coils 23 and 24 may either be electric resistance heating coils or the coils may be connected toa source of high frequency energy ifor'heatingthe melting-pot ID by high frequency induction current. V

Beneath each row of orifices l3,l3a, l3b'and I30 in the bottom walls of the drawing cham exuded through the respective orifices and draw the molten material into fine fibers which are of orifices 13, 43a, 13b and 130 respectively.

The fibers that are collected in the chambers or hoppers 29, 29a, 29b and 290 discharge through the open bottom ends of the respective chambers onto a conveyor belt 38 that is carried by a plurality of rods or rollers 3|.

As illustrated in Figure l, a collecting sheet 32 may be placed upon the conveyor 30 to receive the first laminae layer of fibrous materials from the drawing chamber 'il'. However, this sheet 32 may be dispensed with, and the laminae layer delivered directly onto the conveyor belt 30.

"The conveyor belt 39 moves generally in a rightward direction carrying the fibrous material therewith as discharged from the collecting chamber 29. As the conveyor belt 30 moves forward in its movement, the fibrous material from the collecting chambers 29,2911, 2% and 29c is added to the fibrous material discharged thereonto by the prior collecting chamber so that a mat'of fibrous material is built up in a plurality of individual layers. The laminated mat 35 may then pass between hoods 3B and 31 containing heating means either of which or both can be used for slightly plasticizing, or softening the laminated'mat to-cause the laminae to adhere together.

In Figure 3 there is illustrated an arrangement of apparatus for producing a laminated mat of fibrous material wherein the layers of drawn fiber may be processed before another layer of fiber is placed thereon. I

In the apparatus of Figure 3- there is provided a plurality of individual melting-pots or furnaces 43, 49a and 45b in which batch materialis fed for melting in the same manner as heretofore disclosed and described, the batch material being fed from the hoppers ll, Ala and Mb, respectively. In this instance; the melting-pots or furnaces 43,4361, and 49b areindicated as having a single outlet for' fibrous materials wherein all of the orifices in the outlet for any one furnace are all of the same size. As illustrated, the orifices 42 for the furnace or melting-pot extend across the furnace in the same manner as heretofore disclosed and described with regard to Figure l, and all of the orifices are of the same size. The orifices 42a for the furnace 40a may be of a largersize, as illustrated, and the orifices 62b for the furnace 4% may be of a still larger size. The arrangement is such that each of'the furnaces 49, 40a and 401) may be independently controlled and may, if desired, lay down layers of fibrous material of different type, as well as fibrous material having fibers of different size. Also, all of the furnaces could lay down fibrous material having fibers of the same size but of different type, various materials giving various physical characteristics to the laminated mat.

While the furnaces or melting-pots 40, a and 40-bareillustrated as each laying down a mat of fibers all of the same size, yet each of the-furnaces could be replaced with the type illustrated in Figure 1 so that a plurality of layers of fiber could be laid down at each of the furnace stations indicated by the furnaces or meltingpots 49-, 49a and 40b.

The melting-pots Ml, a. and 4022 are positioned above a conveyor belt 43 carried between a pair of guide-rolls 44 supported by the machine frame 45. Heads 4.6, Add and 45b containing a heating unit are positioned adjacent each of the meltingpots 40, 49a and 40b respectively in; the direction ofadvance of the conveyor belt 43. The heat from the heating units in the hoods 4:6 is adapted to plasticize, or soften, the mat of fibrous material passing therebeneath to cause the fibers of the mattoadhere together andto cause the fibers between the layers to adhere.

The operation ofthe apparatus is such that the fibers or filaments produced from the furnace 40:, in the same manner as those produced as described with regard to the furnace shown in Figure, l, are laid down as a layer of fiber upon the conveyor belt 43. The mat of fiber or filaments thus produced passes beneath the heating hood 45 to plasticize or soften the same before the mat passes beneath the second furnace or melting-pot 40a which, lays down, a second layer of fibrous material, the furnace or melting-pot 40b then laying down the third layer. After each layer of fiber is laid down, it is plasticized by the heat from the hoods 46, 48a and 46b, and may be rolled or compressed to a selected thickness by means of rollers 48 when the laminated mat passes between the hoods 5B and which also contain heating units for heating the laminated mat of fibrous materials.

The laminated mat produced in, the manner heretofore described may be cut to predetermined lengths by a reciprocating knife 52;.

If desired, various synthetic resins may be applied to the surface of the laminated mat to impart selected colors thereto or to give the mat added physical strength by the use of the resins. The resins may be sprayed upon the surface of the laminated mat from a spray-head 53 extending transversely across the mat, and may be applied either before or after the last heating step, or may be applied between the layers of the laminae, if desired.

Also, if desired, moisture barriers can be placed between the laminae to prevent passage of moisture from one side to the other of the laminated mat. The material may be supplied in rolls positioned between the melting-pots 49, 49a and the heating hoods 46 and 46a heretofore referred to, the vapor barrier being laid upon the laminae of fibrous materials after the fibrous materials are laid down upon the conveyor belt 43.

It may be that under certain circumstances, the plasticizing of the laminae of fibrous materials will suflice to cause the vapor barrier 54 to adhere to the surface of each layer of laminae. However, if desired, suitable adhesive materials can be sprayed upon the surface of the layers of fiber or on the vapor barrier from spray-heads 55 to cause the laminae of fibrous materials to adhere to the vapor barrier positioned between them.

In Figure 5 there is illustrated a modified arrangement of apparatus wherein the layers of fibrous material are formed into a semi-rigid or a rigid sheet, depending upon the degree of softening of the fibers and the amount: of" com: pression applied thereto. In this arrangement, the apparatus is in most respects like that: of. the apparatus disclosed: in Figure 3 wherein the ma-- chine frame 60' carries the melting-pots or funnaces GI and Sla. Adjacent. each of the melting-pots 6.0 and 61 there is provided a heating hood 6.2 and 62c. In operation, the laying down of the layersof' matted fiber is the. same as heretofore: disclosed and described. However, to form a. semi ri'gid'or a rigid sheet, compression rollers 63 and 6311 are adapted'to compress the layers of fibers. after they have been plasticized' or softenedunder the heating: hoods 6.2 and. 6.2a

respectively to thereby produce av more rigid and dense structure in the laminated mat, or in this instance, a laminated sheet. The cut-elf knife 64 shears the laminated sheet to predetermined lengths.

If desired, the fibrousmaterials, as disclosed in Figure 5, may be laid down upon a sheet that is surfaced with an adhesive. material'tfi from the distributing head 61. The sheet '55 may be one which acts only as a vapor barrier, or the sheet may be in the form of a decorative surface for the rigid sheets so that they'will have greater utility as a wall decoration.

It will, of course, be understood that While the apparatus shown herein illustrates variousfeaturesof this. invention. wherein a laminated fibrous mat or a laminated fibrous sheet. can be obtained, and that the various drawings. illustrate these. features separate and apart. from the features illustrated on other figures. ofthe drawings, that the various features disclosed. and described herein can be transferred from one apparatus to the other to incorporate themin desired ar-' rangement, and that the applicant .does not intend to be limited in this invention to the specific arrangements of the features ofthis invention as disclosed in any one figure of the drawings, but only in the various combinations of these features that fall within the scope of this applicants invention. While the apparatus dis.- cl'oscd and described herein constitutes preferred illustrations of apparatus incorporating features of this invention, and of methods. of obtaining laminated fibrous mats or sheets, either rigid or semi rigid sheets, yet the apparatus and the methods performed thereby are capable of alteration without departing from the spirit of the invention, and all apparatus or methods performed thereby that fall within the scope of the appended claims are intended to be included herein.

Having thus fully described my invention, what I claim as newand desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

l. A continuous process for producing a mul tiple-layer mat of glass fibers that; comprises, melting batch material, forming a plurality of individual mat-like films of glass fibers from the I melted batch material, separately delivering each of the films concurrently and individually upon a surface moving therebeneath in sequential advancing progression one upon the other to produce a laminated fibrous mat, and applying heat to each of the laminae of the fibrous mat imme diately after a lamina is laid down and before another lamina is placed thereupon to plasticize the laid-down lamina whereby to cause adherence between the fibers in the heated lamina and between the laminae.

2. A continuous process for producing a multiple-layer mat of glass fibers that. comprises, melting batch material, forming from the melted batch material aplurality of individual mat-like films .of glass fibers at individual spaced aligned forming stations, moving a common: supporting member past all of said stations, and laying down each of the separately formed mat-like films individually directly upon said supporting member insequential advancing progression oneupon the other to produce a laminated fibrous mat. 1 y

'3. A continuous process 'for producing a multiple-layer mat of glass fibers that comprises, melting batch material, forming from'the melted batchi'material a pluralityof individual mat-like films of glass fibers at individual forming stations,-individually.laying downeach of the sepa rately formed mat-like 'films concurrentlyand individually upon a surfacemoving therebeneath in sequential advancing progression one upon the other to produce a laminated fibrous mat, and applying heattoi the laid-down film between adjacent stations to plasticize thefibers in .the film between the stations to cause adherence between thefibersxin the film and provide for adherence to the heated film of a subsequent film'laid down from-a subsequent station; a

.-4.A continuous process forproducing amultiple-layer mat of glass fibers that comprises, melting batch material, forming-from thejmelted batch material a plurality of-individualmat-like films of glass-fibers at individualforming stations,,the glass fibers'of atileastone of said films having difierent characteristics than theiglass fibers of other of; the films individually. laying down eachmf the separately iormedxmat-like filmsconcurrently and individually upon-a surface moving therebeneath' in sequential advancingprogression one upon the other to produce a. laminated fibrous mat; and applying-heat to the laid-down'film between adjacent stationsgto plasticize the fibers in the filmbetween the stations to cause adherencebetween the fibers ,in thefilm and provide for adherence to the heated film of a subsequent film :laid down from asubsequentstation.--.

5-. A continuous process-for producingamultiple-layer mat, of; glass fibers that comprises, melting batchmaterial, forming from the-melted batch'material a pluralityofi individual mat-like films of glass fibers at individual forming stations, individually laying down each of the separately formed mat-like films concurrently and= individuallynpon a surface moving therebeneath in sequential advancing progression one upon the otherto produce a laminated fibrous-mahapplying heat to the film laid down at each station while moving between stationsto plasticize the fibers in the film between-the stations, and thereafter applying pressure to the so-heated film and mat to compress the film andobtainrigidity of the laminae upon cooling. r

6. An apparatus for producing a multiple-layer mat of glass fibers in a continuous process-comprising, means forming a plurality of individual stations at which batch material is heated and held in a molten form, each of said stations ,in-e eluding means for producing a mat-like stream of glassfibers; from the molten material, a conveying surface beneath said stations, said stations being spaced longitudinally of said conveying surface, the said conveying surface being movable progressively beneath said stations, each of said stations including means delivering said streams onto said conveying surface individually in sequence in anadvancing progression oneon the other to produce a laminated mat, and heat: ing means disposed adjacent said conveying'sur v face and between adjacent stations whereby, to heat the film laid down' by-a prior station before the film is laid down by a subsequent-stationrto plasticize the fibers in the s c-heated film to cause adherence of the fibers therein and adherence between engaging films." Y r 7; An apparatus for producing a multiple-layer mat of glass fibers in a continuous process'com prising, means forming a plurality of individual glass fiber forming stations at which batch mate- 'rial is heatedand held in molten form, 'each'of 's'aidstations including means producing a stream of glass fibers from molten material passing therethrough, each of said stations also-include ing'individual hopper means receiving the glass fibers as producedat the respective stations as sociated therewith, said'hoppermeans being arranged in spaced aligned relationship for delivery of glass fibers therefrom in streams independent- 13 of 'eachother, a conveying member movable past each of said hopper means in advancing progression'from the first of said stations to the last thereof, each of saidhoppenm-eans having the discharge end thereof positioned relative to said conveying member for independent delivery-of glass fiberstreams from each of the hopper means on to the conveying member-in a sequential advancing-progression one upon theothersas-the conveying member passes each of the hopper means to thereby produce a laminated :mat;

I RANDOLPH'H. BAlFtNARD.-

. REFERENCESCITED "The'following references are of recordin'the file of this patent: w

I UNl TED sTA'rEs PATENTS Num er Date Name 1,712,124, I Stack May 7,1929 4,940,975 Shaver Dec. 26, 1933 2,189,840 Simison et al. Feb. '13, 1940 2,206,059 Slayter July 2, 1940 J 2,257,767 Slayter et al. Oct. 7, 1941 Kleist et al June 16,1942

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Classifications
U.S. Classification264/258, 425/404, 156/246, 65/442, 425/115, 425/315, 65/60.2, 65/53, 65/152, 425/130, 425/373, 156/62.8, 425/505, 65/60.8, 425/145
International ClassificationC03B37/01, C03B37/00, C03B37/06, C03B37/081
Cooperative ClassificationC03B37/081, C03B37/06
European ClassificationC03B37/06, C03B37/081