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Publication numberUS2565961 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 28, 1951
Filing dateNov 19, 1948
Priority dateNov 19, 1948
Publication numberUS 2565961 A, US 2565961A, US-A-2565961, US2565961 A, US2565961A
InventorsGodfrey Milton L
Original AssigneeEdith Y Edwards
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Ratchet device
US 2565961 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 28, 1951 M. L. GODFREY 2,565,961

RATCHET DEVICE Filed Nov. 19, 1948 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 KINVENTOR.

23, 1951 I M. L. GODFREY 2,565,961

RATCHET DEVICE Filed Nov. 19, 1948 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INIIMI IIQ m-n inrmm NVENT R. g L BY Patented Aug. 28, 1951 RATCHET DEVICE Milton L. Godfrey, Elkins Park, Pa., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Edith Y. Edwards,

Irvington, N. Y.

Application November 19, 1948, Serial No. 61,083

21 Claims. 1

This invention relates to ratchet devices and is primarily concerned with the provision of an improved mechanism which is particularly useful in tools for applying torque such as wrenches or wrench adapters.

The principal objects of the invention are:

, 1. to provide a device of the character described which eliminates the use of the familiar pawl soas to reduce wear and greatly increase the useful life of the tool;

2. to substitute for the old type of pawl, which was dragged over the teeth with which it oooperated, an entirely new type of ratchet mechanism in which the rolling action of a pinion or pinions against a gear is employed:

' 3. to provide a device of the character described in which the load is much better distributed and the mechanism made correspondingly stronger;

4. to provide a ratchet device which is unusually quiet in action with no clicking sound while it is free-wheeling; I

5. and, generally, to provide a ratchet device which has fewer working parts and is much simpler in construction than devices heretofore familiar to those skilled in the art.

How the foregoing objects, together with such other objects as are incident to my invention or which may appear hereinafter, are attained. is illustrated in various preferred embodiments in the accompanying drawings wherein Fig. 1 is an elevation of one end of a ratchet adapter embodying my invention;

Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is an elevation of the other end of the embodiment shown in Figs. 1 and 2;

Fig. 4 is a vertical longitudinal section on an enlarged scale taken as indicated by the line '4-4 in Fig. 1;v

Fig. 5 is an enlarged transverse section taken as indicated by the line 5-5 in Fig. 2;

Fig. 6 is a perspective view of one of the parts of the device of Figs. 1 to 5;

Fig. '7 is a section on the line 1-'| of Fig. 4;

Fig. 8 is a, section on the line 8-8 of Fig. 7;

Fig. 9 is a section similar to Fig. 7 but showing the parts in the positions they will occupy when the direction of rotation is reversed;

Fig. 10 is a section on the line I0l0 of Fig. 9;

Fig. 11 is a side elevation of a complete wrench in which is embodied a modification of my invention;

Fig. 12 is a section on the line |2l2 of Fig. 11;

Fig. 13 is a section on the line l3--l3 of Fig. 11

2 Fig. 14 is a section on the line "-44 of Fig. 13; Fig. 15Iis a section similar to Fig. 14 but showing the parts in the positions they will occupy when the direction of rotation is reversed;

Fig. 16 is a side elevation of one end of a complete wrench with portions broken away to better illustrate still another modification of my invention;

Fig. 1'7 is a section on the line l'lll of Fig. 16; Fig. 18 is a section on the line Iii-l8 of Fig. 16; and

Fig. 19 is a section on the line 19-19 of Fig. 16.

In all modifications, of course, there is a driving and a driven member, but in the several modifications these take slightly different forms although they perform the same functions.

The embodiment of Figs. 1 to 10 inclusive is known as a ratchet adapter, that is, a device with which a separate actuating handle must be-used. The handle is not shown but it will be understood that it can be included as an integral part of the structure if so desired. In fact, in the modifications illustrated in Figs. 11 to 19 inclusive, the handle is so included and the devices are then known as ratchet handles.

The ratchet adapter of Figs. 1 to 10 includes an adapter body or housing member 20 having a cup-shaped housing portion 2011.. This will be considered the driving member. It also includes what I have termed a. locking spindle 2| which, in this instance, will be considered the driven member. However, I wish it to be understood that power can be applied from the other end in which event the member 2| becomes the driving member and the member 20 the driven member. The outer or shank end 22 of the member 20 has a square internal opening 23 into which a suitable handle or a wrench can be fitted so that the member 20 can be rotated to deliver torque to the member 2|. The outer end of the member 2| is formed with a square shank 24 which is adapted to fit into a suitably shaped opening in a cooperating tool. A spring-held ball 25 of familiar type can be provided if desired, it being understood, of course, that the ball may fit into a corresponding socket in the member with which the shank 24 cooperates. Interiorly the members 20 and 2| are provided at 26 with suitable cooperating bearing surfaces.

Surrounding the member 2| is a cover member 21 which I also term a pinion-carrying member because of another function which it performs to be described below. The three members 20, 2| and 21 are cylindrical and concentric and each has relative rotative movement with respect to the others although the degree of rotative movement as between the member 2| and the member 21 is relatively limited as will further appear.

At one side the cup-shaped portion 20a of the housing member is notched or out out as at 28 to accommodate the outwardly bent ends 29 of a snap ring 30 which latter fits into a pair of opposed recesses in the adjacent walls of the portion 20a. and the member 21, the body of the ring lying partly in each recess as clearly shown in Fig. 4. The ring is composed of spring metal which tends to expand so that it presse against the inner wall of the member 20a but it can be compressed by squeezing together the outwardly projecting ends 29 which draws the body of the ring into the recess in the member 21 and permits the parts to be assembled or disassembled. The ring 30 holds the parts together and also serves to create a greater degree of friction or drag as between the member 20a and the member 21 than normally exists between the member 21 and the member. 2| for a purpose which will appear more clearly hereinafter.

The inner wall of the cup portion 20a is provided with an annular series of teeth 3| somewhat in the nature of an internai gear. These teeth mesh and cooperate with one or more pinions 32. Preferably, as illustrated, there are two of these pinions which are diametrically opposed because this gives greater strength and a better balance of forces. These pinions are mounted in and carried by the cover or pinion-carrying member 21. This is accomplished by providing the pinions with suitably extended axes 33 which project into cooperating bearing recesses 36 in the member 21.

Rotation of the pinions is controlled in the following way. The locking spindle 2| (in this instance the driven member) is provided at its inner end with a pair of diametrically opposed jaws 35, the faces of which have inwardly projecting high points 35a, formed so as to fit snugly into and cooperate with the recesses 32a in the pinions 32. The jaws 35 with the high points 35a are spaced sufficiently far apart so that neither side of the jaw will engage the pinion when the parts are in free-wheeling position as will appear more fully below.

As will be seen most clearly in Fig. 6, the jaws are formed in a shoulder or collar portion 38 on the member 21 and in this shouldered por- 5;;

tion, at a point approximately mid-way between the diametrically opposed jaws, is a longitudinally disposed recess or hole 31 which opens toward the cover member 21.

At a point in opposition to the hole 31, the member 21 is provided with a pin 38 mounted for rotative movement in a suitable bearing aperture in the member 21. The inner end of the pin 38 carries an eccentric pin-like extension 39 which is of smaller diameter than the hole 31 and projects intosaid hole as shown most clearly in Figs. 8 and 10. It will be seen, therefore, that the degree of relative rotative movement between the member 2| and the member 21 i limited to that which is permitted by the eccentric pin 35 operating in the hole 31.

The eccentric pin can be turned 180 from the position shown in Figs. 1 to 10, to a position at the opposite side of the hole 31 by means of the reversing lever 40 which has a stem end 4| projecting into a suitable aperture in the side of the pin 38 as seen to best advantage in Fig. 5 in which figure the path of movement of the reversing lever 40 is shown by the broken arc with the arrows 42. The reversing lever 40 is accom- 4 modated in a suitable recess 43 in a side of the member 21.

In operation the embodiment of Figs. 1 to 10 functions as follows. Assuming that it is desired to apply power from the member to the member 2| in the direction of the arrow in Fig. 9, the operator turns the handle which fits into the recess 23 of the member 20 in. the direction indicated in thisfigure. This motion tends to drag the member 21 with the member 20 because of the friction between the ring and the inside of the cup portion 20a. Inasmuch as the pinions 32 are carried by the member 21, they will be brought against the corresponding high points a of the diametrically opposed jaws as shown in Fig. 9, the pinions tending to rotate slightly in order to permit the high points 35a to fit snugly into the nearest recess 32a on each pinion. When this occurs the parts, of course, go solid" as it is expressed and torque is transmitted to the locking spindle or driven member 2| During this driving stroke, the eccentric pin 39 is arranged to occupy a substantially mid portion in the hole 31 so as not to interfere in any way with the proper meshing of the'pinions with the jaw faces 35a. This is best illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10.

In the reverse of free-wheeling motion, the parts will assume the positions indicated in Figs. '1 and 8. When the operator reverses the motion of the handle with which he is actuatin the device, rotation will be taking place in the direction of the arrow. in Fig. '7. This will tend to drag the pinions 32 away from the jaw faces 35a with which they were engaged and bring them to the mid or neutral position shown in Fig. '7 where they are stopped by virtue of the fact that eccentric pin 39 then contacts the wall of the hole 31 as shown in Fig. 8. In this position the pinions are free to rotate and the ratchet device is free-wheeling.

Considering the direction in which the sections of Figs. 7 and 9 are taken, the operation just described, of course, is a clockwise transmission of torque and would be used, for example, in tightening a nut. In order to reverse the torque for the purpose of removing a nut, the reverse lever 40 should first be swung orto the dotted line position shown in Fig. 5, whereupon the eccentric pin 39 will cooperate with the opposite side of the hole 31 in order to arrest or stop motion of the part 21 with respect to the part 2| so as to establish free-wheeling on the return stroke of a nut-removing application of power. However, it should be noted that the eccentric pin 39 will again occupy a substantially neutral position in the hole 31 when the nut-removing torque is being delivered by the operator. It will be understood, of course. that when this occurs the opposite high points or faces 35a of the jaws will engage the pinions 32.

One thing more remains to .be described and that is the fact that there is a very slight degree of looseness in the fit between the locking spindle 2| and the cover or pinion-carrying member 21. This is for the purpose of permitting the jaw faces 3511 at the diametrically opposite sides of the member 2| to fit snugly into the cooperating recesses 32a of the pinions and thereby distribute the load equally between the two pinions and the two jaws. This looseness is necessary because it would be a very difficult if not an almost impossible manufacturing task to make the parts so completely accurate as to insure substantially instantaneous and complete contact at the two opposite sides of the locking spindle. However, the degree of looseness is so slight that it is not illustrated in the drawings but the reasons therefor will be fully appreciated by those skilled in the art of manufacturing precision tools. Even without the looseness the device would still be operative because it would be quite possible to operate the tool with only one jaw meshing with a pinion. Indeed, for less exacting work or for work involving relatively light loads, it is quite possible to manufacture my device with only one pinion and one jaw.

From the foregoing it will be seen that my improved ratchet device will have a very much longer life because wear on the teeth is reduced to an absolute minimum. In the old style ratchet and pawl mechanism the drag of the pawl over the teeth tended to wear the tops of the teeth as well as the pawl itself. This difliculty, of course, is completely overcome by my invention because the rolling action of the pinions eliminates this type of wear. In fact, the only wear which occurs is of minor consequence and is nothing more than would be encountered in a pair of meshing gears. proved device is stronger than previous mechanisms because the load can be distributed over a plurality of teeth. Furthermore, the action of my ratchet is smooth and quiet and there is no clicking sound while it is free-wheeling. Finally, the mechanism of my improved device is relatively simple and involves the use of comparatively few parts, which correspondingly reduces manufacturing costs.

In the modification illustrated in Figs. 11 to 15, the general principles involved are exactly the same as in the modification of Figs. 1 to 10. However, in these figures a complete wrench is disclosed with the operating handle 44 becoming an integral part of the housing member 20b. In addition, the reversing mechanism illustrated is of a, different type although, in operation, the functions which it performs are exactly the same as the functions which are performed by the reversin mechanism of Figs. 1 to 10.

The housing member 20b, of course, is the driving member and arranged within it is the locking spindle or driven member Ma having the central shouldered or enlarged portion 36a. The pinion-carrying member 21a serves as a cover member for one side of the housing 20b and is. held in place on the locking spindle 2 la by means of the snap ring 45. This ring is similar in construction to the ring 30 in Figs. 1 to 10, but it does not perform the dragging function as between members 20b and 21a which was characteristic of the ring 30 in Figs. 1 to 10. In this instance the requisite drag between parts 20b and 21a is created by the radially acting spring-held ball 46, the spring and the ball being seated in a suitable radial hole in the body of the member 21a and the ball being retained by slightly staking the same around the margin of the hole into which it fits. The opposite side of the wrench is closed by another cover member 41 held in place by the screws 48, this cover being in the form of a ring which seats against the shouldered portion 36a on the member Zia and also against the shouldered portion 49 on the inside of the housing 2%.

Internally, the housing portion 20b of the wrench is provided with a series of teeth 31a corresponding to the teeth 3| in Figures 1 to and these teeth cooperate with a pair of pinions 32b having their extended axes 33a projecting into Furthermore, my im- 3% with the peaks 35c coming to rest against the low points 320 between the teeth of the pinion. The reversing mechanism of Figs. 11 to will now be described. As viewed in Fig. 12, the left 7 hand end of the locking spindle 21a is formed with a slot 50. A cooperating slot 5| is formed in the cover member 21a. It should be noted, however, that the slot 5| is of greater width than the slot 50 and that the two slots are arranged so that the walls at one side will coincide when the ratchet is free-wheeling as will further appear. Mounted in these slots is the reversing bolt 52, having a knurled operating portion 53 projecting outwardly through the slot 50 in the looking spindle 2 la, as most clearly shown in Figs. 12 and 13. The bolt 52 is yieldingly pressed outwardly against the inner face of the member 21a by the spring-held ball 54, the ball with its spring being fitted into an axial hole in the locking spindle Zia. The bolt can be held in either one of two positions by the ball entering the cooperating latch holes 55 on the bottom face of the bolt.

The bolt has a width corresponding to the width of the narrower slot 50 and it also has one of its sides in substantial alignment with the 00- inciding sides of the two slots 50 and 5lwhen the parts are in free-wheeling position as shown in Fig. 14. The ends of the bolt are tapered as at 52a so that when torque is being delivered by the wrench the bolt may swing into its neutral position shown inFig. 15 with its sides clear of the walls of the slot 5| so that the high points 350 of the jaws 35b are free to mesh with the pinions 32b as shown in Fig. 15. In thisfigure, the sloping portion 52a is shown as just clearing the inner edge of the side wall of the slot 5|.

From the foregoing description of Figs. 11 to 15 inclusive, it is believed that the method of operation Will be evident but it will be summarized as follows. Suppose that torque is to be applied in the direction of the arrow in Fig. 15. The wrench handle 44 is turned in a clockwise direction and, by virtue of the drag between the portion 20b and the locking spindle 2111, as created by the spring-held ball 46, the member 21a will move with the housing 201), which motion will cause the pinions to approach and then mesh with the faces 350 of the jaws 351) as shown in Fig. 15. When this occurs, the parts go solid" as previously described in connection with Figs. 1 to 10, the bolt 52 being then in its neutral position Where it has no contact with any of the walls of the slot 5! as shown in Fig. 15. On the return or counter clockwise stroke of the wrench handle 44, which is shown in Fig. 14, the pinions 32b are drawn away from the adjacent jaw faces 350 but are held in a mid or neutral position by virtue of the fact that the side of the bolt 52 comes into contact with the side wall of the slot 5! as shown in Fig. 14. This limits relative motion between the locking spindle Ma and the pinion-carrying or cover member 21a much in the manner that this motion is limited by the pin 39 operating in the hole 31 of Figs. 1 to 10.

The motion just described. of course, may be used for turning down a nut, by way of example. If it is desired to remove a nut. Just the reverse action must take placeand this can be accom plished. by reversing the position of the bolt 52. By applying the thumb or finger to the portion 53 the bolt may be pushed to the opposite side of the slots in which it moves, whereupon the operation can take place in the opposite way from that just described. When the bolt is so pushed over to the opposite side it should'be noted that the tapered portion 52a performs an additional function, namely, that of a cam working against the adjacent corner la. of the slot 5| (see Fig. 15). This serves to change the relation between the members 27a and Na so that the-adjacent faces of the two slots 58 and Bi will again coincide as shown in Fig. 14. At this time I should also like to point out that the bolt 52 is longitudinally symmetrical so that it can be turned end for end. This is a. distinct advantage in assembling the device.

.The embodiment of Figs. 16 to 19 inclusive illustrates a stillfurther modification, but here again the basic principles involved are exactly the same. The device of these figures is also in the form of a complete wrench having a handle Met with a housing portion 4422 at the end thereof. This housing portion, of 'course, is the driving member. Within the housing portion is the driven member 56 and, in this instance, the driven member is equipped with a series of teeth 51 constituting, in effect, an external gear as distinguished from the internal gears of the previous figures. A cover or pinion-carrying member 58 is held in place by a snap ring 59. Only one pinion 60 isutilized in this embodiment and this pinion hasan axis which-extends outwardly at each side, the left hand end 6| of the axis, as shown in Fig. 17, being mounted in and carried by the cover or pinion-carrying member 58. The right hand portion 62 of the pinion axis extends into a cooperating slot 63 in the housing member 44b. The reversing mechanism inthis instance takes the form of an eccentric pin 64 which cooperates with the hole 65 in the-pinion-carrying member 58. The eccentric pin 64 is mounted upon the reversing pin 66 which can be turned 180 through the are indicated by the arrows in Fig. 16 by means of the reversing lever 61. The pin 86 is mounted in the housing member Mb and the reversing lever 61 is accommodated in a suitable slot 68 where it can readily be reached by the finger of the operator.

The operation of the embodiment of Figs. 16 to 19 is as follows. If torque is to be applied in a counter clockwise direction, as shown-by the arrow 69 in Fig. 16, the operator turns the wrench handle and, therefore, the housing Mb in the direction of such arrow whereupon the jaw face on the left hand side, as seen in Fig. 16, will engage the pinion 60. The parts will now go solid as it is termed and torque will be delivered to the driven memberq56. During this portion of the operation, the eccentric pin 54 occupies a position in the center of the hole 65 so as notto interfere in any way with the shoulder '20 meshing with the pinion 60. In the reverse or freewheeling stroke the operator turns the handle 44a in the direction of the arrow 1 1, shown in Fig. 16, whereupon the jaw I0, which is shown engaged with the pinion, will be moved away from the pinion and the pinion will assume a mid position between the two jaws Hi. This is brought about by virtue of the fact that eccentric pin 64 will then engage the side wall of the hole 65 and limit the relative rotation between the housing member Mb and the pinion carrying member 58.

When the direction of torque is to be reversed, the lever 61 is first swung around to the position opposite to that shown in Figs. 16 to 19, whereupon ally the operations just described can take place in the reverse direction.

Itmight be well to note at this point that the embodiment of Figs. 16 to 19 inclusive operates in a slightly diiierent manner from that which is characteristic of the structures shown in the other figures. In Figs. 16 to 19 the embracing jaws which engagethe pinion are carried by the driving member and are moved against the pinion .when torque is to be. delivered by the tool whereas, in the other figures the pinion is dragged with the housing member into a position where. it contacts with the jaws on the locking spindle. However, this constitutes nothing more than a mere reversal of the basic idea. The embodiment of Figs. 16 to .19 yields at least most of the advantages of the structures disclosed in the other figures with the single exception of the matter of load distribution. In Figs. 16 and 19 only one pinion has been used while in the other figures two pinions are employed, one at each side of the tool. However, as stated before, more than one pinion can be employed in any modification if desired.

I claim:

1. In a tool for applying torque, a ratchet device comprising a driving member, a driven member, an annular series of teeth on one of said members, a pinion meshing with said teeth, a pinion-carrying member having rotative relationship with the driving and driven members, a jaw on the other of the driving and driven members, said jaw being adapted to embrace the pinion with suflicient clearance to permit rotation of the pinion, a side ofsaid jaw being adapted to abut against the pinion and prevent rotation thereof when torque is to be delivered bythe tool, and a stop means for limiting relative rotative movement in the opposite direction between the pinion-carrying member and said jawprovided member to a position where the pinion is free to revolve within said jaw as aforesaid.

2. A device in accordance with claim 1 wherein the stop means includes an element which is shiftable into either one of two extreme positions whereby on or theother face of the jaw can abut against the pinion for reversal of the torque delivered by the tool while still limiting movement in the opposite direction to permit free rotation of the pinion as aforesaid.

3. A device in accordance with claim 2 wherein the shiftable element is a pin mounted for oscillating rotary movement in the pinion-carrying member and having an eccentric extension projecting into and working in a hole in the jawprovided member.

4'. A-device in accordance with claim 2 wherein the shiftable element is a bolt mounted for limited sliding movement in transversely extending slots. in the pinion-carrying member and in the jaw-provided member, the slot in one of said members being Wider than the bolt.

5. A device in accordance with claim 2 wherein the member having the annular series of teeth is a generally cup-shaped body member with the teeth on the insideof the cup and wherein the pinion-carrying member and the jaw-pros vided member are concentric with and extend into the cup or" said body member.

6. In a tool for applying torque, a ratchet device having three concentrically arranged, relatively rotatable members one of which is provided with an annular series of teeth, a second of which carries a pinion which meshes with said teeth and the third of which has an abutment which is adapted to engage the pinion to prevent rotation thereof when torque is to be delivered by the tool, together with stop means for limiting relative rot-ative movement in the opposite direction between the pinion-carrying member and th member having the abutment to a position' where the pinion is clear-of said abutment and freely rotatable.

7. A device in accordance with claim 6 wherein said third member is provided with a pair of spaced abutments each of which is adapted to engage the pinion and between which said pinion may be positioned for free rotation and, further, wherein the stop means includes an element which is shiftable into either one of two extreme positions whereb one or the other of said abutments can contact said pinion for reversalof the torque delivered by the tool while still limiting movement in the opposing direction to permit free rotation of the pinion in its position between said abutments asaforesaid.

8. A device in accordance with claim 7 wherein the member having the annular series of teeth is a generally cup-shaped body member with the teeth on the inside of the cup and wherein the pinion-carrying member and the member having the spaced abutments are concentric with and extend into the cup of said body member.

9. A device in accordance with claim 6 wherein the pinion is provided with an extended axis and wherein the pinion-carrying member is provided with a bearing hole into which said extended axis projects.

10. In a tool for applyng torque, a ratchet device according to claim 6 wherein the member having the annular series of teeth is a generally cup-shaped body member with the teeth on the inside of the cup and wherein the pinion-carrying member and the member having theabutment are concentric with and extend into the cup of said body member.

11. In a tool for applying torque, a ratchet device according to claim 1 wherein the member having the annular series of teeth is a generally cup-shaped body member with the teeth on the inside of the cup and wherein the pinion-carrying member and the jaw-provided member are concentric with and extend into the cup of said body member.

12. In a tool for applying torque, a ratchet device according to claim 1 wherein the member having the annular series of teeth is a generally cylindrical member with the teeth on the outside thereof and wherein the jaw-provided member is a concentric housing member embracing said cylindrical member.

13. A device in accordance with claim 1 wherein a plurality of pinions and cooperating jaws are provided with the pinion-carrying member having a slight degree of looseness of fit with respect to the jaw-provided member.

14. In a tool for applying torque, a ratchet device according to claim 1 wherein the member having the annular series of teeth is a generally cup-shaped body member with the teeth on the inside of the cup and wherein the pinion-carrying member and the jaw-provided member are concentric with and extend into the cup of said body member, and, further, wherein the jawprovided member is arranged as the central member with the jaw opening outwardly.

15. A device in accordance with claim 1 wherein the stop means is a pin mounted for oscillating rotary movement in one member of the jawprovided and the pinion-carrying members, which pin has an eccentric extension projecting into a cooperating hole in the other of said jaw-provided and pinion-carrying members, together with means for oscillating said pin to shift the eccentric extension into either one of two extreme position whereby one or the other face of the jawcan abut against the pinion for reversal of torque delivered by the tool while still limiting movement in the opposing direction to permit free rotation ofthe pinion as aforesaid.

16. In a tool for applying torque, a ratchet device comprising a cup-shaped housing member,- an annular series of teeth on the inside of the cup wall, a concentric cover member fitting into the cup to the outside of said teeth and rotatable therein, a pinion carried by the cover and meshing with said teeth, a locking spindle projecting into said cup through a central hole in said cover member, an abutment on the inner end of said spindle adapted to engage the pinion, said spindle having relative rotative movement with respect to the cover by means of which the abutment can be brought into contact with the pinion, and stop means for limiting movement of the spindle in the direction which carries the abutment away from the pinion.

17. The device of claim 16 wherein a pair of opposed abutments are provided on the spindle which is adapted to engage the pinion and wherein the stop means is shiftable into one of two extreme positions whereby one or the other abutment can engage the pinion for reversal of torque delivered by the tool while still limiting relative movement in the opposite direction to permit free rotation of the pinion.

18. In a tool for applying torque, a ratchet device comprising a cup-shaped driving member, a concentric cover member fitting into the cup of said driving member, a concentric driven member projecting into the cup through a hole in said cover member, an annular series of teeth on the inner end of said driven member, a pinion carried by the cover member and meshing with said teeth, a pair of opposed abutments on the inner wall of the cup, one or the other of which is adapted to be brought into contact with said pinion to stop rotation thereof when torque is to be applied by the tool, said driving member, said driven member and said cover member having relative rotative relationship, and stop means for limiting movement of the driving member with respect to the cover member whereby movement of the driving member which withdraws an abutment from the pinion is limited to a position where the pinion can rotate freely between the two abutments.

19. A device in accordance with claim 1 wherein the pinion is provided with an extended axis which projects into a bearing hole in the pinioncarrying member.

'20. In a tool for applying torque, a ratchet device comprising a driving member, a driven member, an annular series of teeth on one of said members, a pinion meshing with said teeth, a pinion-carrying member having rotative relationship with the driving and driven members, a jaw on the other of the driving and driven .members, said jaw being adapted to embrace the pinion with sufiicient clearance to permit rotation of the pinion, aside of said jaw being adapted to abut against the pinion and prevent rotation thereof when torque is to be delivered by the tool, and a bolt for limiting relative rotative movement in the opposite direction between the pinion-carrying member and the jaw-provided member to a position where the pinion is free to revolve within said jaw as aforesaid, said pinion-carrying member and said jaw-provided member being provided with transversely extending slots in which said bolt is slideably mounted, the slot in one of said members being wider than the bolt and said bolt having a tapered end adapted to clear the adjacent corner of the wider slot when the tool is delivering torque.

21. The device of claim 20 wherein the bolt is longitudinally symmetrical and, further, wherein the bolt is shiftable into either one of two ex- 15 treme positions whereby one or the other face of the jaw can abut against the pinion for reversal of the torque delivered by the tool while still limiting movement in the opposite direction to permit free rotation of the pinion as aforesaid. MILTON L. GODFREY,

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Number Name Date Miles Oct. 31, 1882 Larue July 19, 1898 Belt Apr. 23, 1907 Johannesmeyer Nov. 21, 1916 Parkes Dec. 9, 1924 Kress Sept. 10, 1946 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date France March 9, 1928

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Referenced by
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US3231212 *Aug 8, 1963Jan 25, 1966Arthur T BlakeSelf-locking core chucks
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Classifications
U.S. Classification192/43, 81/63
International ClassificationF16D41/16, B25B13/00, B25B13/46, F16D41/00
Cooperative ClassificationF16D41/16, B25B13/465
European ClassificationB25B13/46B1C, F16D41/16