US 2566436 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept, 4, 1951 c. c:n wAlTE 2,566,436
BEVERAGE DISPENSNG MACHINE Filed 061,. 11. 1947 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 C. C. WAITE BEVERAGE DISPENSING MACHINE sept. 4, 1951 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 11194'7 sept. 4, 1951 cg@` WAITE y 2,566,436
BEVERAGE DISPENSING MACHINE Filed 061'.. 11, 1947 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 L f 1 f l Y lNVENTOR Uff/gaar /1/4/75 ATTORNEY C. c. wArrE Y BEVERAGE DISPENSING MACHINE:
Sept. 4, 1951 4 Sheets-Sheet Filed Oct. ll. 1947 INVENTOR gm C.' /u/wff M uw ,ATTORNEY Patented Sept. 4, 1951 BEVERAGE DISPEN SING MACHINE I charles c. weite, Jersey city, N. J.. assigner, by
mesne assignments, to Cleveland-Detroit Corporation, a corporation o! Delaware Application oeteber 11, 1947, serial Ne. '179,315
The present invention relates to beverage dispensing machines and more particularly to a machine for mixing, measuring and dispensing a plurality of carbonated beverages selectively, said machine being of the automatic coin-operated type.
It is an object of the invention to provide such a device for measuring', mixing and dispensing a selected beverage from ingredients stored therein, which device is compact, easily cleaned and serviced, and is simple and exact in operation.
A further object is to provide such a device embodying a simple, inexpensive, unitary valve member having positive action and long-wearing, accessible and easily cleaned parts and to provide such a single .unit to replace the multiplicity of valve units usually employed for such purposes.
Figure 1 is a central section, on the line I--I of Figure 2, of the measuring cylinder and valve unit;
Figure 2 is a rear elevation of the device shown in Figure 1; l
Figure 3 is a diagrammatic representation of a system employing a number of units forming apparatus for selectively dispensing beverages;
Figure 4 is a circuit diagram, showing controls for the apparatus shown in Figure 3;
Figure 5 is a diagrammatic representation of a system which constitutes a modication of the arrangement shown in Figure 3; and
Figure 6 is a circuit diagram of the controls for the system shown in Figure 5.
Referring to the drawings:
Figures 1 and 2 illustrate my way of example a measuring and dispensing device, which includes a housing I0 having cylinders II and l2 4,formed therein. The cylinder II is larger in diameter than the cylinder I2. A dual piston has a portion I3 which may forma working fit in lthe cylinder I2, and a portion I4 of larger diameter which forms a working t in the cylinder II.
The portion I3 has a peripheral groove I5 adjacent to the end thereof which carries a sealing ring I 6,- which mayv be formed of rubber-like material to eiect a fluid-tight seal with the walls of the cylinder I2. The portion I4 has a groove I1 formed in th periphery thereof which carries a sealing ring I `18, which effects a fluid-tight seal -with the walls of the cylinder II.`
A boss I8 on the left end or the cylinder has a central hole therein to receive the end of a piston 7 Claims. (Cl. 225-21) rod 20, and this rod may be secured therein by means of a taper pin 2|. I
A cylinder head 22 forms a closure for the end ofthe cylinder II, and is secured thereto by means of bolts 23 or any other suitable means. The cylinder head has stepped bosses 24 and 25. The boss 24 has a cavity 26 formed therein to clear the boss I8 on the piston. `The boss 25 has formed therein a'stuillng box 21 forming a seal with the piston rod 20.
The cylinder head 22 has a boss 28 formed l thereon. A hole 28 formed in this boss communicates with the cylinder II, and has a portion 30 enlarged and internally threaded to receive a pipe 3l.
The piston may be reciprocated in the cylin- I cates with the bore 33 at the right end thereof,
as seen in Figure 1.
A second boss 38 on the housing In has external threads 39 formed thereon for connecting tubing or piping .,thereto, and an internal pas-.
sage 48 therein communicates with the bore 33 at an intermediate point via an annular undercut 4I. The cylinder I2 has a passage communicating with an annular undercut 43,- and the cylinder II has a passage 44 communicating with an annular undercut 45. A11 of these undercuts are understood to be larger in diameter than and are preferably concentric with the bore 33.
The valve body 34 has a plurality of spaced annular grooves formed therein carrying rubberlike sealing rings 4B, 41, 48, 43 and 50, which sealingly engage the walls of the bore 33,.
The undercut 43 in the cylinder wall is between the rings 46 and 41; an undercut 5I is formed in the cylinder wall between the rings 41 and 48; the undercut 4I is between the rings 48 i and 49; and the undercut 45 is between the rings 49 and 50.
The right end of the valve body 34 has a central axial hole 5I-a therein which communicates with-a cross hole 52, the ends of which terminate in an annular groove containing a tubular ring .53 of rubber-like material forming a check valve, which allows syrup to pass from the passages 31, 5Ia and 52, to pass into the undercut 43 and into the cylinder I2 via the passage 42 when a suction is created in the cylinder, but prevents the syrup from passing in the opposite direction when the piston I3 is moving into the cylinder I2 and creating a pressure.
A cross-passage 54, formed in the valve body 34, communicates with an axial passage 55 which in turncommunicates with a cross-passage 56, the ends of which terminate in an annular groove containing a tubular ring 51 of rubberlike material forming a check valve between the undercut 5I and the cross-passage 56.
A passage 53, formed in the web 32, com municates with a smaller or restricted passage 59 which in turn delivers syrup into a mixing' chamber 60, to be presently described, angularly. In the valve body between the rings 48 and 49 and communicating with the undercut 4| the urge of the spring 14 against the plug member 1I and the disc 13, carried thereby, against the lip 6 1, is slightly greater than the pressure of the carbonated water against the area of said disc at the left end of the passage 36.
Since the piston I4 and the piston I3 move in unison, the movement of the piston I3 toward the left end of the cylinder I2 creates a partial vacuum in the latter and the cylinder I2 is filled with syrup as follows: syrup via the passage 31 passesinto the passage 5Ia and thence via the cross-passage 54 and the check valve 53 into the undercut 43. From this undercut, the
Y syrup passes via the passage 42 and into the I control valve (not shown) therebetween, the
The valve body 34 has a central passage extending from the left end thereof and terminating slightly beyond the lip 61. This passage is fabricated as follows: beginning at the left end is a straight portion 68 which communicates with an internally threaded portion 69 slightly smaller in diameter, and the portion 69, in turn communicates with a straight portion 10. Slidably carried in the portion 10 is a plug member 1|, the exterior of which has a plurality of longitudinal flutes 12 formed therein to form iiuid passages.
The right end of the plug member 1| has a counterbored hole therein carrying adisc 13 of seating material adapted to cooperate with the lip 61. The left end of the plug member is cupped to receive the right end of a spring 14. the left end of which extends into a ysocket in a threaded bushing engaging the threads in the portion 69 and having a passage 16 therethrough. p
The left-end of the valve body 34 is enlarged and threaded to engage a correspondingly threaded enlarged portion 11 of the bore 33.
VTo the left of the threaded portion 11 is a chamber 19 with which a counterbore 80, provided with a conduit 8| communicates.
4 'Operation' f 64 into the counterbore 45 and, via passagev 44, into the right end of the cylinder II. This causesthe piston I4 to move to the left and the cylinder illls with carbonated water, because control valve may be turned to subject the left face of the piston I4 to this pressure, and the pistons start moving toward the right. Thus, the piston I4 forces the'carbonated water Vout of cylinder I2 via the passage 44. and the piston |3 forces the syrup out of cylinder I2 via the passage 42.
As the carbonated Water is forced into the undercut 45, it is prevented from entering the passage 63 by the check valve 64, and therefore it must go via the cross-passage 65 and the `central passage 66 to the valve 61, 13, thereby unseating the valve-due to the fact that the pressure on the carbonated water, due to the forcing of the water by the piston I4, is substantially greater than the carbonated water source. Water passing through the valve 61, 13 passes via the flutes 12 and the passage 16 and into the chamber 19.
ySyrup in the cylinder I2 is forced via the passage 42 and the cross-passage 54 into the passages and 56 and via the check valve 51 into the undercut 5|.
From the undercut 5|, the syrup passes via the passage 58, 59, 19 into the chamber 19, 60 where it meets and is co-mingled with the carbonated water and they both pass in a mixed state via the conduit 8| ,to a point of use.
As soon as the hydraulic pressure upon the piston I4 is relieved, the pressure of the carbonated water again forces the piston toward the left and the cylinders II and I2 again illl with carbonated water and syrup respectively. If it is desired to operate the device mechanically, suitable mechanical elements may be connected to the rod 20, so as to move it, and the pistons connected thereto, to the right for discharging the carbonated Water and the syrup from the cylinders II and I2, respectively, and causing them to meet in the chamber 19.
The member I0 may be suitably mounted on a support, for example, a support 32, by means of screws, such as the screw 83 engaging a threaded hole in a boss 84 formed on the body member I0.
Referring to Figure 3,' which is diagrammatic, a system is shown whereby a plurality of diierent flavors of drinks may be dispensed. Although the system shown only lprovides for three, it is obvious that the arrangement may be extended to provide for as many different Aflavors as desired.
A piston unit |0a (like that shown in Figures 1 accesso and 2) has its syrup connection 39a connecd by a conduit 30 to a syrup tank 33 containing one of the wanted flavors. A second piston unit |b has its syrup connection 33h connected via a conduit 91 to a syrup tank Il containing another wanted flavor. and a third piston unit |0c has its syrup connection 36a connected viaa conduit I9 to a syrup tank 90 for containing a third desired navor.
The hydraulic connection 3|a leads to a point or position 9| on a hydraulic valve Il. Likewise, the hydraulic connections 3|b and 3|*c lead respectively to points or positions 32 and 33 on the valve 95. The valve has a rotor 34 which has a radial passage 91 which communicates with a hydraulic iluid supply pipe via an axial hole 39 and a radial hole 99. The hydraulic valve 98 is supply, delivers water to a low pressure surge tank |0|, and a pipe |02 connects it to the inlet of a motor-driven pump |33. The discharge port |04 of this pump is connected via pipes |09 and |06 to a high pressure surge tank |91 which receives the water under high pressure from the pump |03. The tank |01 may be provided with a gauge |09 and a pressure controlled switch |39 which controls the motor-driven pump |03 to maintain a predetermined pressure in the tank |01.
Water passes from this tank via pipe ||0 to a refrigerated coil ||I and thence via pipe ||2 to a carbonator ||3.
A solenoid controlled valve ||4 is included between the pipe ||0 and the tank |01 for controlling the ilow of water via the coil into the carbonator. and a member ||0 controls the supplying of current to the valves I|4 so that a predetermined level of liquid is maintained in the carbonator ||3.
A CO2 gas tank ||9 is connected via a pressure reducing valve A||1 and a pipe ||3 to the carbonator ||3. l
A pipe H9, leading carbonated water from the carbonator has a branch pipe |29 extending to the carbonated water connection 33a on the device I0a; a branch pipe |2| connecting to the carbonated water connection 39h on the device |0b; and an extension |22 connecting to the carbonated water connection 39c on the device |0c, so that carbonated water is supplied to all of the devices.
The pipe 96, described above as connected to the selector valve 95, has its other end connected to a solenoid operated valve |23 which also Vconnects via a pipe |24 and the pipe |00 to the high pressure surge tank |01. A pipe |23 connects to the low pressure tank |0| and also the solenoid valve |23. The valve |23 under certain condi-4 tions establishes communication between the pipes 9B and |24, and when these conditions terminate, interrupts communication between pipes 99 and |24, and establishes communication between pipes 96 and |20.
Each piston rod carries a ilanged actuating member for actuating a control; for example. the
piston rod a carries a flanged actuating member |2Ba which actuates a limit switch |21; the piston rod 20h also carries a flanged actuating member |26b which actuates a limit switch |29; and the piston rod 20c carries a iianged actuating member |26c which actuates a limit switch |29.
Referring to Figure 4, which shows diagrammatically the control circuits of the system shown inFlgure3,Ia andlarepresenttwolines. connected to a source of current. The pressure controlled switch |09 is connected via a wire |39 to L1 and is connected via a wire |31 to the motor of the pump unit |03, and the motor is connected via a wire |33 to Lz. When the pressure in the tank |01 falls to a predetermined pressure, the switch |09 closes and the pump unit operates to pump water into the tank |01 until a predetermined higher pressure (depending on the differential of the pressure control) is attained in said tank, whereupon the switch |09 opens.
The solenoid of the solenoid operated valve |23 has one terminal connected via a wire |39 to Ia and its other terminal connected via a wire |40 to a contact point |34 of a relay |3|. A contact arm |35 of the relay, adapted to contact the point |34, is connected via a wire |4|.
The limit switches |21, |29 and |29 are normally closed, and are connected in series. One terminal of the switch |29 is connected to La via a jumper |42, and one terminal of the switch |21 is connected via a Wire |43 to a contact point |32 of the relay |3|`. A contact arm |33, adapted to cooperate with the contact point |32, is connected via a wire |44 to one terminal of the winding of the relay |3| and to one terminal of a coin operated switch |30, and the latter is in turn 'connected via a wire to the line La. The other terminal of the winding oi the relay is connected .via a wire |46 to L1.
When the switch |30 is closed by a coin, the winding of the relay |3| is energized and the contact arms |33 and |35 are respectively brought into contact with the points |32 and |34.
The circuit established by contact of the arm |33 with the point |32 constitutes a sticking" circuit through the series limiting switches' |21. |29, |29 which keeps the winding of relay |3| energized until `one of saidlimiting switches is opened by the movement of one of the piston rods 20a, 20h, 20c. The coin operated switch |39 does not remain closed except for a few seconds after it is actuated by the coin, so the sticking" circuit is set by the coin switch and disabled by the flange member |26 carried on the piston rod 20 at the completion of the stroke of the pistons.
The circuit established by contact of the arm |35 with the contact |34 energizes the solenoid of the valve |23, and water at an elevated pressure from the tank |01 is delivered via the pipe 93 to whichever cylinder is selected by the customer by setting the selector 99. At the end of the delivery operation when the winding of the relay 3| is deenergized bythe engagement of the flange |26 of the unit I0 selected, with its associated limit switch 21, |28 or |29, the circuit of the solenoid of the Vvalve |23 is opened. .As soon as this occurs, the valve shifts so as to deliver the water which actuated the cylinder into the low pressure tank' |0|. The return of this water is abetted by the action of the carbonated water via one of the pipes |20, |2|, or |22 (depending on which unit |0 was selected for the operations above described) in refilling the cylinder of the unit. The movement of the piston unit I4, I3 at the same time causes the cylinder I2 to ll with syrup, and the unit is ready for the next operation.
A modiiled form of the device of Figure 3 is shown diagrammatically in Figure 5, and a modification of the circuits therefor is shown in Figure 6, which is similar in some respectsI to the circuit shown in Figure 4.
accuse Referring rst to Figure 5, the arrangement is similar to the arrangement shown in Figure 3 except (that the pistons are actuated mechanically, to deliver a'desired beverage, instead of hydraulically. In Figure 5, like elements to those shown in Figure 3 are given the same numerals. Electric motor and magnetic clutch units |41a, |4Ib and |41c are linked respectively to the piston rods 20a, 20h, and 20c for moving the latter.
The linkages are all alike, so the description of one of them should suiice. The motor clutch unit |4`Ia, for example, has a shaft v|49 projecting from the gear reduction end |50. Within the end of the casing |59 is an element of a magnetic clutch secured on the shaft |49. The other element is on a shaft (not shown) within the casing, driven through the gear reduction at reduced speed, and a magnetic winding carried on one of the clutch members is energized to drive the other member.
The outer end ofthe shaft |49 has keyed thereto arm |48 having an elongated slot I5| formed therein and engaging a pin |52 in the piston rod 20a. As soon as energy is supplied to any one of the units |41a, I41b or I41c, its motor starts operating and its clutch is also energized, so that the arm |48 is moved in a clockwise direction. Thus, the pistons I4,r I3 connected to the piston rod so moving, discharge the carbonated -water and the syrup from the unit selected for operation.
When the piston rod has been thus moved to its extreme position (where all the carbonated water and syrup arel discharged) such position being like the position of the piston rod 20a of Figure 5, the flange member I26c engages and actuates the limit switch |29.l This elects deenergization of the motor and clutch unit |41, and the pistons I4, I3, the piston rod 23 and the arm |48 return to Itheir normal positions under the urge` of carbonated water under pressure entering the cylinder II of the unit I which was discharged by the above described operation. At the same time, the cylinder I2 is lled with syrup.
Since the piston rods 20 are actuated mechanically, the connections 3 I, 96, the valve |23 and the return pipe |25 are eliminated, together with the selector valve 95.
Referring now to Figure 6, the circuit for the motor driven pump |03 is identical with thecorresponding circuit in Figure 4. In both these circuits, the liquid level controlled switch II is shown as in series with the solenoid valve I|4 and opens the valve when the liquid level in the carbonator I I3 reaches a predetermined low level, and closes it when the liquid level yreaches a predetermined higher level, consequently a desired liquid level is maintained in the carbonator.
The switch |30 is closed by the insertion of the coin in the machine. This energizes the winding of the relay |3|, causing the members |32.
- and |33 to establish a sticking circuit through the normally closed limit switches |21, |28 and |29, as was the case in Figure 3. The members |34 and |35 are also brought into contact, thereby supplying energy from L1 via the wire |4I, contacts |35, |34 and the Wire |56 to a contact arm |54 of a selector switch |55. The selector switch |55 has: a contact point |51 connected via a wire |58 to the motor clutch unit I41a, which is in turn connected to L2 via a wire |59; a second contact point |60 connected via a wire |6| to the motor-clutch unit I41b, which is in turn connected to L2 via a wire |62; and a third contact point |63 connected vla a wire |64 to the motorclutch unit I41c, which is in turn connected to L2 via a wire |55.
Thus, the purchaser can select the flavor of the beverage he wants by positioning the selector switch arml |54 on the contact point corresponding to the flavor desired. When the beverage is delivered, the limit switch associated with the unit I0 selected opens, causing the relay I3I to open and interrupt the circuit between Li and the selector switch arm |54. As soon as this occurs, the cylinders of the unit refill with carbonated water and syrup in the manner repetitively described above.
Although I have described a preferred embodiment of my new and improved dispensing machine and a modification, many changes may be made in the arrangements shown within the scope of the appended claims.
l. In a beverage dispenser, a structure including at least a cylinder for measuring carbonated water, a portfin said cylinder via which fluids may be admitted and rejected, a piston in said cylinder, a head for said cylinder, a piston rod extending through a stuiling box in said head, aconduit secured to said head and communicating with said cylinder and with a source of hydraulic pressure via a magnetically controlled valve, actuating means carried on said piston rod, a limit switch in the path of said actuating means, a source of carbonated water connected to said port via a one-way valve, circuit means for supplying energy to the winding of said magnetic valve and including said limit switch, whereby hydraulic pressure moves said piston away from said head until said actuating means deenergizes said winding, the carbonated water content of said cylinder being discharged by said movement, and other carbonated water from said source being adapted to force said piston toward said head and refill said cylinder after said winding is deenergized.
2. In a beverage dispenser, a plurality of sets of dual measuring cylinders, each having a twostep piston therein and each piston having a piston rod extending therefrom and carrying actuating means; one cylinder in each set being connected to measure carbonated water and its piston being motivated thereby, the other cylinder in each set being connected to measure syrup, and the measured carbonated water and syrup discharged from each set being adapted to commingle; a hydraulic distributor functioning as a selector, individual connections between several positions or stations on said distributor and said sets, connections between said distributor and a source of' water under a pressure lower than the pressure of said carbonated water, a twoway magnetic valve included in saidlast connection, a source of water under a pressure higher than the pressure of said carbonated water also connected to said valve and adapted to be placed in communication with said' distributor when the winding of said valve is energized and thereby said source of water of lower pressure is disassociated from said distributor, relay means for supplying energy from a source to the winding of said valve, and a sticking circuit in said relay including a series of limit switches, one for each set and each vadapted to be opened by the actuating means of its set. i
3. In a beverage dispenser, a structure including, a carbonated water measuring cylinder, a syrup measuringV cylinder .in axial alignment therewith.' pistons-insaid cylinders interconnected within said structure to move in unison, a port in said iirst cylinder for connection to a source of carbonated water, whereby said cylinder may be filled by the carbonated water displacing its piston, a port in said second cylinder to be connected to a source of syrup, whereby the latter may fill said second cylinder under the urge of suction created therein by the movement of its piston, a piston rod connected to one of said pistons and 'extending outside said structure, and motor driven means operatively connected to said piston rod for forcing said pistons in one direction only to discharge the contents of said cylinders.
4. A beverage dispenser according to claim 3, in which settable means partly on said piston rod and partly on said structure are provided to cause said motor-driven means to cease operating when a predetermined quantity of carbonated water and syrup have respectively been discharged from said cylinders.
5. In a beverage dispenser, a structure including, a carbonated water measuring cylinder, a syrup measuring cylinder in axial alignment therewith, pistons in said cylinders interconnected within said structure to move in unison, a port in said first cylinder forconnection' to a source of carbonated water, whereby said cylinder may be filled by the carbonated water displacing its piston, a port in said second cylinder to be connected to a source of syrup, whereby the latter may iill said second cylinder under the urgefof suction created therein by the movement of its piston, a piston rod connected to one of said pistons and extending outside of said structure, motor-driven means operatively connected to said piston rod for forcing said pistons in one direction only to discharge the contents of said cylinders, and switching means controlling said motordriven means and actuated to cause said motor-,
driven means to cease operating when said pistons have reached a predetermined position durl ing their movement in said direction.
6. In a beverage dispenser, in combination, a carbonator, a tank of CO2 gas connected thereto, a pumping system connected to a source of water and adapted to deliver water to said c'arbonator at a higher pressure than the pressure of the CO2 gas therein, measuring means including a cylinder directly connected to said carbonator and also including a second cylinder connected to a source of syrup, piston means in each cylinder, said two piston means being interconnected, whereby the piston means in said first cylinder is displaced as such cylinder fills with carbonated water, the second cylinder meanwhile filling with syrup, means for subjecting the piston means in the first cylinder to the influence of water at said higher pressure to simultaneously eject the carbonated water content and the syrup content, respectively, from said cylinders, the piston means in said first cylinder having a piston rod connected thereto which extends beyond the head of such ilrst cylindenengaging means secured to said piston rod and movable therewith, magnetic valve means connected to said pumping system, to said irst cylinder, and to a bypass leading to the inlet of said pumping system, a normally closed limit switch positioned `1'0 in the path of said engaging means, a circuit including the winding of said magnetic valve means, said limit switch and a source of current. and means to energize said circuit to cause said valve means to shift from communication with said bypass to communication with said ilrst cylinder, whereby both of said piston means are caused to eject the contents of said cylinder until said engaging means opens said switch, thereby causing the water at higher pressure toypass from said rst cylinder to the inlet of said pumping system.
7. In a beverage dispenser, in combination, a carbonator, a tank of CO2, gas connected thereto, pumping system connected to a source of Water and adapted to deliver water to said carbonator at a higher pressure than the pressure of the CO2 gas therein, a plurality of measuring means, each fora different avoredbeverage and each including a cylinder directly connected to said carbonator and a second cylinder connected to a source of syrup, piston means in each cylinder of each measuring means, the two piston means of each measuring means being in terconnected whereby the piston means in the first cylinder of each measuring means is displaced as the cylinder iills `with carbonated water, the second cylinder of such measuring means meanwhile lling with syrup, a piston. rod carried by the piston means in the iirst cylinder of each measuring means, an engaging means carried by each such piston rod, a normally closed limit switch for each such piston rod in the path of its engaging means, magnetic valve means connected to said pumping system, to the rst cylinder of each measuring means, and to a bypass leading tothe inlet of said pumping system, all said limit'switches being connected in series with one another, with the winding of said magnetic valve means and with a source of current, a selector valve which the operator may set for a beverage of a selected flavor from one of said measuring means, whereby eachtime said magnetic valve means is energized to eiect delivery of a beverage of a selected ilavor, water at said higher pressure actuates the piston means of the measuring means containing the selected flavor, and upon delivery of the same, the engaging means of the piston rod of such measuring means opens the limit switch in its path, thereby causing said higher pressure water to pass from said first cylinder of the selected measuring means to the inlet of said pumping system.
CHARLES C. WAITE.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,332,945 Holderle Mar. 20, 1920 1,470,381 Lamb Oct. 9,1923 1,746,597 Lind Feb. 11, 1930 1,798,095 Manley Mar. 24, 1931 2,391,003 Bowman Dec. 1B, 1945 2,427,429 Waite et al Sept. 1.6, 1947