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Publication numberUS2566561 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 4, 1951
Filing dateJan 31, 1947
Priority dateJun 28, 1946
Publication numberUS 2566561 A, US 2566561A, US-A-2566561, US2566561 A, US2566561A
InventorsVladimir Edelberg
Original AssigneeVladimir Edelberg
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Screwing and unscrewing tongs, particularly for drilling pipe joints
US 2566561 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 4, 1951 v EDELBERG 2,566,561 SCREWING AND UNSCREWING TONGS, PARTICULARLY FOR DRILLING PIPE JOINTS Filed Jan. 31, 1947 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 I/Vl E/VTOR' VLAD/M/R EDEL BERG ATT RNEY Sept 4, 1951 EDELBERG, 7 2,556,561

SCREWING AND UNSCREWING TONGS, PARTICULARLY FOR DRILLING PIPE JOINTS A Filed Jan. 31, 1947 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Fis.2

L l I T .54

Patented Sept. 4, 1951 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFlCE QE NQ AND UNS WING TQNG'Si BA TICULARLY FOR DRILLING PIPE JOINTS Vladimir Edelberg, Tunis, Tunisia Application January 31, 194'], Serial No. 725,421 In France June 28, 1946 6 Claims. 1

The present invention relates to improvements in tongs for making and breaking threaded joints of drilling pipes and drill rods used for drilling holes, particularly for oil wells. The various steps involved in the making and breaking of said threaded joints between the sections or stands of well pipe are of primary importance. For example, in order to change a worn out boring tool at a depth of 9000 feet, more than 220 joints must be made and then broken so that it is essential to reduce to a minimum the time necessary for performing the steps of screwing and unscrewing the threaded joints.

One of the objects of the present invention is to provide a novel self-powered tongs assembly which is permanently supported by the substructure of the rotary table of the drilling plant in order to be always ready for operation.

Another object of the invention is to provide self-powered tongs with which the steps of free screwing and of hard tightening can be performed in one single continuous operation without intermediate manoeuvres when making a joint, as well as the steps of breaking and of free unscrewing of the joint.

Still another object of the invention is to provide self-powered tongs of the internal reaction type comprising gripping means or sets of jaws adapted to engage the pipe string at both sides of the joint and driving means supported by the tongs assembly and adaptedto produce relative rotation of the gripping means in either direction, whereby one of the sets of jaws forms the necessary fulcrum against which the action of the other set of jaws is exerted.

, With these and other objects in view, the tongs according to the invention are mainly characterized by the fact that they comprise two cylindrical housings rotatably arranged the one above the other concentrically to the pipe string so as to rotate with respect to one another, an annular member inside of, and rotating with, each of said housings and a crown arranged to rotate freely with respect to each housing, a set of arms pivoted on said annular member and provided at their inner ends with jaws pivoted thereon, control links each pivoted on said crown and on one of the jaw-carrying arms, handles on each crown for tightening both sets of jaws on the pipe at both sides of the joint respectively, guiding means for allowing the vertical displacement of one of the crowns together with the corresponding annular member with respect to their cylindrical housing, power means supported by one of said housings and driving onnections for rotation of the second housingby said power means. v

The invention will be better understood from the following description'in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:

Fig. l is a plan view of the tones assembly.

Fig. 2 shows the tongs in elevation and partly in vertical section.

Fig. 3 is a partial ei-evational view showing the tongs in the position corresponding to the beginning of the screwing.

Fig. 4 is a perspective view showing the tongs in the position corresponding to the beginning of the unscrewing.

The tongs assembly shown in the drawings comprises a base plate i (Fig.2) provided with a central aperture concentrically arranged to the pipe string and which is supported by a plurality of fluid-operated pistons 2, 2 of which the eylin ders (not shown) are fixed 'on the sub=struoture of the rotary table of the drilling plant in a man-'- her to enable the tongs to be displaced vertically and to be brought exactly to the height of the joint to be made or broken. A lower cylindrical housing 3 is rot'atably supported on said base plate l bymeans of rollers 4. Within the housing 3' is rotatably arranged a crown 5. The base plate 'I is provided with a plurality of spring= pressed balls 6 ooperating with depressions 6 provided on the lower face of crown 5 which al= low the latter to be immobilized with respect to plate I-. Within the housing 3 and above crown 5 is an annular member 1 provide with ribs 1 engaging vertical grooves 'I provided on the inner face of the housing 3. Four arms 9, 9", '9 9'" are pivoted on the annul r member 1 by meansof truimion's 8, 8'. 8", 8" and the free ends or the arms carry jaws in, ID, 10' 10" pivoted thereon, whereas control links H, II, H", H' are pivoted at oneend on crown 5 by means of pivots l2, l2, I2", 12'' and at the other end on the jaw-carrying arms .9, Q, 9", 9', so that a relative rotation between crown 5 and annular member 1 causes the arms 9 to swing inwardly and to bring the jaws ID in contact with the pipe string below the joint.

upper housing rotatably supported on the lower housing 3 by means of conical rollers I3 contains anupper annular member l5 p"r0= vided on its periphery withverti'cal ribs 16 (Figs. 1 and 2) engaging vertical grooves I! provided on the inner side of housing l4, the annular member l5 being thus permitted to be displaced. vertically without rotating with respect to housing I4. The upper annular member 15 is provided in the same manner as the lower annular member 1 with four arms [8, 18, i3", 18" pivoted on member l5 by means of pivots I9, l9, l9, l9 and carrying on their free ends jaws 20, 25, 20", 29 pivoted at 2i, 2!, 2!, 2l. A crown 22 rotatably arranged in the housing I l above the annular member I5 is provided with four control links 23, 23', 23", 23" pivoted at one end on the crown 22 at 24, 24, 24', 2t and at the other end on the jaw-carrying arms l8, 18', I8", 18" at 25, 25, 25", 25" respectively. The control crown 22 is provided with handles '26 by means of which it can be rotated in order to bring the jaws 29 in contact with the pipe string above the joint. The upper annular member 15 is supported within the housing 44 by spring-pressed cup-shaped members 21 (Fig. 2) and it is further provided with pins 28 traversing vertical slots 29 provided in the upper housing it and bearing upon an outer cam ring 3:! freely supported by pins 3| screwed in the housing i i. The cam ring 33 is provided with handles 32 and has its upper and lower edges symmetrically sloped so as to form a cam which cooperates with the pins 28 of the annular member Hi to cause said member to be raised or lowered when the ring 33 is rotated by means of handles 32.

The lower housing 3 carries driving means illustrated .as three pairs of electrical motors 33-3 2, 33-34, 33-34", driving worms 35, 35,, 35 respectively meshing with a toothed crown 35 provided at the lower part of the upper housing [4 which is also provided with handles 31.

The operation of the self-powered tongs assembly described above is as follows:

In order to unscrew a threaded joint of the pipe string 33 (Fig. 4) which is assumed to be set on the slips, the upper jaw-carrying arms [8 v are brought into the position shown in Fig. 1, i. e. to the right of the radial position with each jaw 20 on the left side of the corresponding arm, whilst the lower jaw-carrying arms 9 are brought inthe position shown in dotted lines for one of said arms in Fig. 1, i. e. to the left of the radial position with jaws It on the right side of the arm. The cam ring 30 is then rotated by means of the handle 32 in order to bring the annular member I5 in its lowest position within housing I l, as shown in Fig. 4. The operator then raises the tongs by means of the fluid-operated pistons 2, 2 so that the annular member [5 is at the same level as the upper part of the joint to be unscrewed.

The operator now rotates the control crown 22 in a clockwise direction by means of handles 25 until the jaws 2E] firmly engage the upper part of the joint. The motors 33, 34 etc. are then started so that the upper housing tends to rotate counterclockwise, tightening the jaws 20 on the joint. No unscrewing takes place, however, because the lower set of arms 9 and jaws II] are not tightened on the lower part of the joint. The rotation of the motors causes the lower housing 3 to rotate clockwise together with the lower annular member i and lower control crown 5 until the springpress ed balls I; register with the depression 6 provided on said crown which is thus immobilized, and as the annular member 7 still rotates clockwise with housing 3, the jaws carried by arms 9 are brought in contact with the lower part of the joint and tightened thereon. The rotation of housing 3 isthen stopped due to the gripping of jaws l0. onv the pipe string. The

torque developed by motors 33, 34 etc. rapidly increases and is transmitted by the two sets of jaws it} and 2G to the two corresponding pipe sections in opposite directions. At a certain moment the joint is broken, whereupon the upper housing it begins to rotate rapidly until the joint is completely unscrewed. The operator immediately stops the motors and, by means of handle 26, rotates the control crown 22 counterclockwise in order to open the jaws 29 carried by arms 18. The operator then starts the motors in the opposite direction while preventing the upper housing Hi from being rotated by holding one of the handles 31, thus imparting by reaction a counter-clockwise rotation to the lower housing 3 which results in the release of arms 9 and jaws [0.

When two sections of pipe are to be screwed together, the position of arms 9 and I8 is inverted with respect to that shown in Fig. l and the annular member I5 is brought to its raised position by rotating the sloped ring 33 by means of handles 32, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, the pins 28 fixed on member l5 and cooperating with said sloped ring 33 sliding upwards within the slots 29 provided in the upper housing It during the rotation of the ring 30 thereby causing the raising of member I5. The jaws are set in contact with the pipe and tightened in a manner similar to that described above for unscrewing the joint, with the exception that the housings 3 and [4 are rotated in the opposite direction and the sloped ring 36 is brought to its lowest position shown in Fig. 4 as soon as the jaws 29 are tightened in order to allow the annular member i5 carrying said jaw to move downwardly during the screwing up of the joint.

In the first step the upper part of the joint is rapidly rotated, the friction of the lower housing 3 against the base plate I being sufiicient to prevent said housing from turning. During the step of hard tightening of the joint, the increase of the torque developed by the motors causes the lower housing to be rotated until the balls 6 of the base plate I fall within the depressions 6 of the control crown 5 causing the arms 9 and jaws it to be tightened on the pipe and blocking the housing 3. The hard tightening of the joint being thus obtained, the arms 9, i8 and jaws [0, 26 are released in the same way as in the case of the unscrewing described above.

What I claim is:

1. A self-powered tongs assembly for making and breaking threaded joints of drilling pipes and drilling rods, particularly for drilling oil wells, comprising two cylindrical housings rotatably arranged the one above the other concentrically to the pipe string so as to rotate with respect to one another, an annular member inside each of said housings rotating therewith and a crown arranged to rotate freely with respect to each of said housings, a set of arms pivoted on each of said annular members and provided at their inner ends with jaws pivoted thereon to engage separate sections of the pipe respectively, control links each pivoted on said crown and on one of the jaw-carrying arms to swing said arms inwardly upon relative rotation of the crown and annular member, handles fitted on the upper crown for rotating the crowns to tighten both jaw sets on separate sections of the pipe at both sides of the joint respectively, guiding means for allowing the vertical displacement of one of the annular members together with the corresponding control crown with respect to their cylindrical housing to follow the relative vertical displacement of the separate sections of the pipe when screwing and unscrewing the joint, power means supported by one of said housings and driving connections between the power means and the other housing for effecting relative rotation of the housings to rotate said separate pipe sections relative to one another;

2. A self-powered tongs assembly for making and breaking threaded joints of'drilling pipes and drilling rods, particularly for drilling oil wells, comprising a vertically adjustable base plate provided with a central aperture concentrio with the pipe string, two cylindrical housings rotatably supported by said plate and arranged one above the other so as to rotate with respect to one another, an annular member disposed concentrically inside each of said housings and rotating therewith, a crown arranged to rotate freely with respect to each of said housings, a set of arms pivoted on said annular member and provided at their inner ends with jaws pivoted thereon to engage separate sections of the pipe at opposite sides of the joint respectively, control links each pivoted on said crown and on one of the jaw-carrying arms to tighten both jaw sets on said separate pipe sections upon relative rotation of the crown and annular member, guiding means for allowing the vertical displacement of one of the annular members together with the corresponding control crown with respect to their cylindrical housing to follow the relative vertical displacement of the respective pipe sections when screwing and unscrewing the joint, power means supported by one of said housings and driving connections for rotation of the second housing by said power means to rotate said separate pipe sections relative to one another.

3. A self-powered tongs assembly for making and breaking threaded joints of drilling pipes and drilling rods, particularly for drilling oil wells, comprising a vertically adjustable base plate provided with a central aperture concentrio with the pipe string, fluid pressure means for raising and lowering said base plate, two cylindrical housings rotatably supported by said plate and arranged one above the other so as to rotate with respect to one another, an annular member disposed inside each of said housings and rotating therewith, a crown arranged to rotate freely with respect to each of said hous ings, a set of arms pivoted at spaced points on said annular member and provided at their inner ends with jaws pivoted thereon to engage two separate pipe sections at opposite sides of the joints respectively, control links each pivoted on said crown and on one of the jaw-carrying arms, means for rotating each crown to tighten both jaw sets onthe pipe at both sides of the joint respectively, guiding means for allowing the vertical displacement of one of the annular members together with the corresponding control crown with respect to their cylindrical housing to follow the relative vertical displacements of said pipe sections when screwing and unscrewing the joint, power means supported by one of said housings and driving connections for rotation of the second housing by said power means to rotate said separate pipe sections relative to one another.

4. A self-powered tongs assembly for making and breaking threaded joints of drilling pipes and drilling rods, particularly for drilling oil wells, comprising a vertically adjustable base plate provided with a central aperture concentric with the pipe string, a first cylindrical housing rotatably supported by said base plate, -a rotatable crown within said housing, means for immobilizing said crown with respect to the base plate, an annular member arranged above said crown and arranged to rotate with the housing, a second cylindrical housing rotatably arranged above the first, vertical guides provided on the inner face of said upper housing, an annular member provided with portions engaging the guides of the housing, means for vertically displacing said annular member with respect to its housing, a freely rotatable crown arranged in said housing above the said annular member, a set of arms pivoted at spaced points on each of said annular members and provided at their inner ends with jaws pivoted thereon, a set of control links to engage two separate pipe sections at opposite sides of the joint respectively, pivoted on each of the freely rotating crowns and on the corresponding jaw-carrying arms, means for rotating each crown for tightening both jaw sets on the separate sections of the pipe at opposite sides of the joint respectively, power means supported by the lower housing and driving connections for rotation of the upper housing by said power means to rotate said separate pipe sections in opposite directions while the relative vertical displacement of said sections caused by the screwing and unscrewing of the joint is permitted by said vertical guides between the upper housing and annular member.

5. A self-powered tongs assembly for making and breaking threaded joints of drilling pipes and drilling rods, particularly for drilling oil wells, comprising a vertically adjustable base plate provided with a central aperture concentric with the pipe string, a first cylindrical nous"- ing rotatably supported by said base plate, a freely rotating crown within said housing, spring-pressed balls provided on the base plate and cooperating with depressions provided in said crown for immobilizing same with respect to the base plate, an annular member arranged above said crown and rotatable with the housing, a second cylindrical housing rotatably arranged above the first, vertical grooves provided on the inner face of said upper housing, an annular member provided with outer vertical ribs engaging the grooves of the housing, vertical slots provided in said upper housing, radial pins fixed to the annular member and projecting out through said slots, an outer ring supported by said upper housing and rotating freely thereon, the edges of said ring being sloped to form a cam cooperating with the pins fixed to the annular member for raising and lowering said annular member within the housing, a freely rotatabl'e crown arranged in said housing above the said annular member, a set of arms pivoted on each of said annular members and provided at their inner ends with jaws pivoted thereon to engage two separate pipe sections at opposite sides of the joint respectively, a set of control links pivoted on each of the freely rotating crowns and on the corresponding jaw-carrying arms, means for rotating each crown for tightening both jaw sets on the said two separate pipe sections, power means supported by the lower housing and driving connections for rotation of the upper housing by said power means to rotate said separate pipe sections in opposite directions, while the resulting vertical displacement thereof caused by the screwing and unscrewing of the joint is permitted by said groove and rib connection provided between the upper housing and the annular member associated therewith.

6. A self-powered tongs assembly for making and breaking threaded joints of drilling pipes and drilling rods, particularly for drilling oil wells, comprising a vertically adjustable base plate provided with a central aperture concentrio with the pipe string, a first cylindrical housing rotatably supported by said base plate, a freely rotating crown within said housing, spring-pressed balls provided on the base plate and cooperating with depressions provided in said crown for immobilizing same with respect to the base plate, an annular member arranged above said crown and rotatable with the housing, a second cylindrical housing rotatably arranged above the first, vertical grooves provided on the inner face of said upper housing, an annular member provided with outer vertical ribs engaging the grooves of the housing, vertical slots provided in said upper housing, radial pins fixed to the annular member and projecting out through said slots, an outer ring supported by said upper housing and rotating freely thereon, the edges of said ring being sloped to form a cam cooperat ing with the pins fixed to the annular member for raising and lowering said annular member within the housing, a freely rotatable crown arranged in said housing above the said annular member, a set of arms pivoted on each of said annular members and provided at their inner ends with jaws pivoted thereon to engage two separate pipe sections at opposite sides of the joint respectively, a set of control links pivoted on each of the freely rotating crowns and. on the corresponding jaw-carrying arms, handles on each crown for tightening both jaw sets on the said separate pipe sections, three groups of two motors having horizontal shafts and supported by the lower housing, three worms driven by the three motor groups respectively, and a toothed crown fixed to the lower part of the upper hous ing and meshing with said worms whereby a relative rotation of the housings and the respec:- tive separate pipe sections is obtained to make and break the joint, while the resulting relative vertical displacement of said pipe sections is per mitted by the said groove and rib connection between the upper housing and the associate annular member.

VLADIMIR EDELBERG.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,185,962 Anderson Jr. June 6, 1916 1,401,405 Hole Dec. 27, 1921 1,600,477 Knight Sept. 21, 1925 2,181,641 Hicks Nov. 28, 1939 2,263,267 Franklin Nov. 18, 1941 2,317,306 Smith Apr. 20, 1943 2,332,685 Auld et a1. Oct. 26, 1943 2,453,369 Grable et a1. rrrrrr Nov. 9, 1948

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1185962 *Aug 7, 1915Jun 6, 1916James Anderson JrPipe-laying machine.
US1401405 *May 23, 1921Dec 27, 1921Hole Morris CPipe-screwing machine
US1600477 *Jan 31, 1925Sep 21, 1926Knight Willis MerleSafety clutch
US2181641 *Aug 15, 1938Nov 28, 1939Hicks Harold CRotary drilling machine and pipe tongs
US2263267 *Jun 22, 1940Nov 18, 1941Shell DevTubing joint breaker
US2317306 *Jun 22, 1940Apr 20, 1943Smith James ERotary drilling rig
US2332685 *Apr 25, 1941Oct 26, 1943Phillips Petroleum CoTubing make-up device
US2453369 *May 15, 1945Nov 9, 1948Grable Donovan BPipe tongs
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2646966 *Dec 11, 1951Jul 28, 1953Lindberg Glenn APower-operated wrench
US2668689 *Nov 7, 1947Feb 9, 1954C & C Tool CorpAutomatic power tongs
US2795985 *Mar 9, 1955Jun 18, 1957Stanton Ironworks Co LtdJoints in pipes
US2933961 *Oct 28, 1957Apr 26, 1960Adams Orville APower operated pipe wrench
US3019680 *Apr 27, 1959Feb 6, 1962Daugherty Henry JJaw operating structure for pipe wrench
US3041901 *May 16, 1960Jul 3, 1962Dowty Rotol LtdMake-up and break-out mechanism for drill pipe joints
US3131586 *May 11, 1960May 5, 1964Hart Wilson JohnMechanism for making up and breaking out screw threaded joints of drill stem and pipe
US3302496 *Oct 23, 1964Feb 7, 1967F N R D LtdPower-operated wrench
US6318199 *Jan 18, 2000Nov 20, 2001David A. BuckLoad equalizing power tong gear train
US7281451Mar 5, 2004Oct 16, 2007Weatherford/Lamb, Inc.Tong
US7506564Mar 15, 2005Mar 24, 2009Weatherford/Lamb, Inc.Gripping system for a tong
WO2004079148A2 *Mar 5, 2004Sep 16, 2004Beckinghausen Joerg E SchulzeTong
Classifications
U.S. Classification81/57.16, 81/57.35, 29/240, 81/57
International ClassificationE21B19/00, E21B19/16
Cooperative ClassificationE21B19/164
European ClassificationE21B19/16B4