US 2568595 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
P 18, 1951 R. R. ROHRER 2,568,595
DIAPER Filed June 4, 1949 HTTOIPNE) Patented Sept. 18, 1951 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE DIAPER Raymond B. Rohrer, Orwigsburg, Pa.
Application June 4, 1949, Serial No. 97,143
This invention relates to new and useful improvements in tubular knitted infants diapers, and, more particularly, the aim is to provide a novel and valuable such diaper which (by virtue of the final structure obtained at completion of the knitting operation, with said structure persisting and becoming especially pronounced following subsequent laundering of the diaper) provides a uniquely comfortable yet eificient diaper.
As is well-known, one function of a diaper is to afford a nether garment for an infant which as a whole is highly absorbent of urine, while another function of the diaper is dependably to sequestrate therein bowel discharges. At the same time, the diaper must have a strong tendency to hold its prevised shape or outline when opened flat, and must be applicable to the body of the infant, as by safety pins or the like, Without abdominal or other constriction anywhere.
According to the present invention, these desiderata are all attained. The diaper is knitted, as has previously been proposed, so as to be of the substantially rectangular two-ply kind, this attribute being obtained by flattening out the tubular knitted blank along a pair of substantially generally parallelly extending sides of the diaper Where, as is generally favored in a rectangular diaper, the latter is elongate, so as to have a crotch engaging portion substantially midway along its length. In the type of diaper just described, the improvements of the instant invention follow from the provision in the diaper of alternately arranged transverse bands, each such b d ru i all around the diaper blank, and
with the bands of one set thereof of less dense material-content than the bands in alternation therewith, and with the action of the tubular knitting machine, as it operates to establish one type of band or another, varying, so that not only are the bands of dissimilar density of materialcontent as just stated, but, further, and to provide features of major importance, the bands of less dense material-content are of greater length (that is, of greater dimension, in a direction transverse to the length of the diaper when the same is of elongate rectangular shape or outline as above) than the bands of denser materialcontent, and, at the same time, each of said bands of less dense material-content is characterized by transverse ruffles.
The variances in length (with that word used in the sense above parenthetically explained) between the two types of alternately placed bands, or, in other words, the variances in length of said bands in terms of their total extension circumferentially of the tubular knitted diaper blank, results in a diaper which, when folded as above along both of the aforesaid two lines of fold, is scalloped lengthwisely of said fold lines, with the crests of the scalloping at the opposite ends of the bands of less dense material-content and with the troughs of the scalloping at what appear to be the opposite ends of the bands of denser material-content; as the diaper, after being thus folded and spread flat, is elevationally viewed at either side.
A further feature of the invention is that, in order to obtain the said rufiles, in a diaper of standard and/or satisfactory size, the bands of less dense material-content are so present as to have a dimension, in the direction of length of the diaper when the latter is elongate, not exceeding a certain limit; which dimension will be below called the width of the band. Experiments have indicated that, in regard to the diaper after knitting but before laundering, with say the circumference of the knitted tubular blank approximately 14 along substantially the center line of a band of denser materialcontent, and with say the circumference of said blank approximately 15" along substantially the center-line of a band of less dense materialcontent, the width of a band of the last-named kind, should not materially exceed about 3%". (The change of shape of the diaper after laundering is such that then its length becomes 22", and the circumferential band dimensions just given change, respectively, from about 14%" to about 15 and from about 15" to about 16 with the result that the diaper becomes shorter and wider after laundering, and so, while still generally rectangular, approaches more to square outline than when knitted but not yet laundered.)
Still another feature of the invention is the inclusion in the diaper, not only of a plurality of bands of both types, but a pluraliy of the bands of less dense material-content which is greater than three, and which, apparently most desirably, is four or five or even more. Then, in a diaper blank having the dimensional characteristics above mentioned and which as above is about 27" long after knitting but before laundering, five of said bands of less dense materialcontent may be present, with (a) six of the other type of bands alternating therewith, with (b) the terminal bands of denser material-content of a width two or three times that of the average Width of all the bands of denser materialcontent, with between these terminal bands a collection of alternately arranged bands of the two types and of such relative widths and so relatively placed that the central band of less dense material-content is located for extension across the crotch, and with (01) across the stomach and also across the swell of the buttocks, a substantially horizontally extended two-tiered lattice-work, as it were; each of .these latticeworks incorporative of two of the bands of less dense material-content. As far as experience goes from the manufacture and sale to date of approximately 80,000 dozens of diapers of the present invention, by an embodiment of the present invention as hereinabove described, and with the various bands respectively of the widths hereinabove specified, the optimum ofsatisfaction to the user of the new diaper is had.
The interpolation of bands of less dense material-content between adjoining pairs of the bands of less dense material-content provides at the former bands what may be called gullies or channels, for constituting major collection instrumentalities relative to bowel discharges; while the troughs between the transverse rulliings of the bands of denser material-content provide auxiliary and numerous minor collection instrumentalities relative to said discharges.
In attaining the structure of the invention by the use of a standard tubular knitting machine, best results are obtained when the bands which are to be of denser material-content are plain rib knit, sometimes called one and one rib, and the bands which are to be of less dense material-content are half-cardingan knit, sometimes called Royal rib.
It is to be emphasized that the rufliing which is such an important feature of the instant invention cannot be obtained when a diaper blank is knitted on a tubular knitting machine and so knitted to provide alternately arranged bands of differing material-content, if the bands of less dense material-content result merely from what has been called purling or back stitching or looping, or from shortening the length of the Working strokes of parts of the knitting machine analogous to the shuttle which in weavin machines will give a more and more closer and tighter weave according as the throw of the shuttle is adjusted for greater and greater reduction of stroke.
As contradistinguished from a diaper product such as discussed in the immediately preceding paragraph, the diaper of the instant invention,
after laundering, and even after repeated launderings, always pulls square, instead of what may inelegantly be termed cock-eyed, that is difficulty reformable to the rectangular from a naturally assumed shape resembling a somewhat distorted rhomboid.
When, by the present invention, the side scalloping along the diaper is included in the latter, and the bands of less dense material-content are transversely or laterally ruflied, all as above explained, what in effect if provided is a diaper which, while of high liquid absorption all over and having the sequestrative capabilities explained, is, in effect, so far as the girthing pressure on the infants body is concerned, a collection of horizontally extending spaced maximumly elastic bands; which, it will be understood, is an important factor in providing the uniquely comfortable diaper referred to terminally of the first paragraph of this specification.
The invention will be clearly understood, and
the various features thereof appreciated, from the following description of a now favored embodiment of the new diaper, and one widely commercially sold in large quantitie as above stated, as illustratively shown in the accompanying drawing; in which drawing- Fig. 1 is a plan View of the new diaper, after being knitted as above and after being folded along opposite sides thereof and spread flat, but before laundering.
Fig. 2 similarly shows said diaper, but after laundering.
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary transverse section, taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is a similar section, with this taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 illustrates on an enlarged scale the halfcardigan stitch hereinabove referred to as being used for the production of the bands of less dense material-content.
Referring to the drawing more'in detail, and by reference numerals, a diaper pursuant to the invention i shown as knitted as aforesaid so as to incorporate a plurality of alternately disposed transverse bands, of which the five bands lfia, Illb, lllc Hid and Hie are the bands of less dense material-content and the six bands Ha, llb, llc, lld, He and II) are the bands of denser material.
In the diaper illustrated, the six denser bands of the H series are as aforesaid established by a plain rib stitch; While the five less dense bands of the II) series are knitted half-cardigan, also as already stated.
The relative widthwise dimensions of these eleven bands, in terms of the diaper while being knitted, and consequently proportionally in terms of the diaper after being knitted and then laundered, are such that the central less dense band we is the widest of the bands of the 10 series, the next oppositely outlying two bands 10b and 10d, both of like width, are the next Wider of the bands of said 10 series, and the two bands lOa and We near the outer ends of the diaper, both of like width, are theleast wide of the bands of said 10 series; while, of the denser bands of the 11 series, the bands He and lid, both of-like Width, are of less width than the bands I lb and I le, this width about that of the less dense bands Illb and I00, and the two terminal denser bands Ha and Hf are of considerably greater width than any of the other bands.
Said terminal bands I la and H of a plain rib stitch, allow the diaper to be readily wrapped around the body of the infant, for securement, as by safety pins, in the usual Way.
Thehereinabove mentioned channels or gullies are along those bands of the 11 series which lie between a pair of bands of the 10 series.
The hereinabove mentioned bands of maximum longitudinal elastic stretch are the bands of the 10 series.
The rufiies set up transversely are designated l2. As sought to be indicated in Fig. 3 when taken in connection with Fig. 1, the ruffies l2, after knitting the diaper but before it is laundered, are
rather embryonic, but, once the diaper is laundered, they become markedly developed, as sought to be indicated in Figs. 2 and 4 They persist as thus prominently developed, regardless of how many times the diaper is laundered during its long life.
When the diaper is knitted to a length of about 27", as previously stated, there is, following the I laundering of the diaper, a shrinkage such as to reduce said length to about 22", with an accompanying increase in the Width of the diaper; these changes permanently reforming the diaper to a persistently retained truly generally rectangular outline which, although still elongate, represents an ideal approach to a square for being properly fitted to an infants body, comfortably, and yet without excess material and bunching, or constriction, anywhere.
As will be understood, all that has been stated hereinabove is merely illustrative and not in limitation of the invention except in connection with the appended claims, which are to be taken as the sole measurers of the scope of protection contemplated and as thus taken interpreted as broadly as is consistent with the prior art if any.
1. A diaper made of tubular knitted material having a general rectangular form of two thicknesses, said material having a plurality of circumferential bands of less dense material-content alternating with a plurality of bands of denser material-content, the knit of the bands of less dense material-content causing the establishment along the bands last-named of highly accentuated transverse rufiies upon laundering of the diaper, the diaper being generally elongate, the bands of denser material-content being of plain rib stitch and the bands of less dense material-content being of half-cardigan stitch.
2. A diaper as in claim 1, in which there are at least four of said denser bands.
3. A diaper as in claim 1, in which there is an odd number of said less dense bands so that one of said less dense bands is at the center of the length of the diaper, which latter is substantially rectangular.
4. A diaper as in claim 1, said less dense bands being of a width substantially not in excess of three and three-quarters inches when the diaper as knitted has an average circumferential dimension of approximately thirty inches.
5. A diaper as in claim 1, there being across each of the two end portions of the diaper a plurality of said bands of less dense material-content.
RAYMOND R. ROHRER.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 357,068 Dalby Feb. 1, 1887 391,005 Munsing Oct. 9, 1888 991,777 Goodman May 9, 1911 1,158,072 Niermeyer Oct. 26, 1915 2,000,073 Goas May 7, 1935 2,453,542 Sapin Nov. 9, 1948 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 482,438 Great Britain Mar. 29, 1938