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Publication numberUS2569367 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 25, 1951
Filing dateJan 8, 1946
Priority dateJan 8, 1946
Publication numberUS 2569367 A, US 2569367A, US-A-2569367, US2569367 A, US2569367A
InventorsBlickensderfer Philip S, Bradner Donald B, Stoddard Jr William B
Original AssigneeChampion Paper & Fibre Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Endless metal belt and method of making the same
US 2569367 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 25, 195] 2,569,367

ENDLESS METAL BELT AND METHOD 03 mm; THE SAME Filed Jan. 8. 1946 v B. BRADNER ETAL 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 t 1 mam m am mw .Mkn mama IDWP Sept. 25; 1951 '0. a BRADNER FI'AL 2,569,367 ENDLESS METAL BELT AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME I Filed Jan. 8, 1946 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 I?! I. I!

\\\\\\\\\ QED?!- 56 I mvzm'o M6 Mun- Ii 3 .2 EH3 BY wdffgulARNEY 7 v PL 1951 V D. B. BRADNER ET AL 7 2,569,367

ENDLESS METAL BELT AND METHOD OF MAK IIJG THE SAME- Filed Jan. '8, 1946 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 j V g g Z.

.localized heating in Patented Sept. 25, 1951 ENDLESS METAL BELT AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAIHE Donald B. Bradner, Washington, D. 0., and William B. Stoddard, Jr.. and Philip S. Blickensderfer, Hamilton, Ohio, assignors to The Champion Paper and Fibre Company;

Hamilton,

Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Application January 8, 1946, Serial No. 639,866

13 Claims.

1 1 This invention relates to endless bands or belts of metal and methods of making the same. It

has particular reference to endless belts for use in the manufacture of cast cellulosic, resinous, or other films, and of cast surfaced coated paper such as that described in Patent No. 1,719,166, dated July 2, 1929, to Bradner. It is herein disclosed as embodied in an endless belt of nickel (which metal possesses properties of strength, hardness, and .corrosion resistance which are particularly desirable in belts for these uses) and in a method of making the same.

In such casting processes it has heretofore been common practice to use rotating drums for the casting surface, notwithstanding certain inherent limitations possessed by the drums, which can be obviated by the use of endless belts. Efiorts have been made for a number of years to produce endless metal belts having satisfactory characteristics for this purpose, but so far as we are aware the method used have not served to produce belts having the corrosion resistance, hardness, straightness, flatness, or the degree of uniformity of thickness, strength, stiffness, and surface characteristics combined with the length and width required to render such belts practically useful in many of the aforesaid casting processes.

One of the principal defects in belts as heretofore manufactured for use as casting surfaces in processes of the character described above is that when they were made of metals having the properties required for a casting surface, the joint between the ends of the metal strip necessary to make an endless belt, produced at that point in the belt a difference in some property of the belt which resulted in an objectionable difference in the surface of the composition cast on the belt. In the above mentioned processes, particularly in the manufacture of cast surfaced coated paper, minute blemishes in the casting surface, and even minute departures from the intended plane of travel-of the casting surface such as result from variations in thickness, flexibility, or flatness of the'belt,- will produce manifest defects in the coated paper cast on the surface.

The belt of the present invention has a hard, smooth outer surface and is preferably formed throughout of metal electrolytically deposited in place, as herein set forth, and may be made substantially uniform in thickness, strength, and other physical properties, and in its surface characteristics, throughout its extent, substantially free from internal stresses suchas are caused by welding, brazing, etc., and free from any surface discontinuities due to the joining of the ends of a strip to give the belt an endless form. Such a belt may be produced by first electroforming a strip of metal, advan- 2 tageously nickel, on a rotating cylindrical cathode. If the surface of the cathode is hard, smooth, highly polished, and, properly prepared as hereinafter set forth, the surface of nickel strip formed thereon is characteristic of metallic surfaces formed on polished non-adhering cathodes and, if the deposition of nickel has been properly controlled as hereinafter set forth, has the hardness, smoothness, and brightness desired in casting surfaces. This surface is then preferably used as the outer or casting surface of the belt and may be used as formed or additionally polished as desired.

The ends of this strip are then trimmed abutted, and aligned, and temporarily but firmly fastened in the relative positions which they are to occupy in the finished belt. The abutted and firmly-held ends are electrolytically prepared and electrolytically welded together. The weldmetal is thereafter dressed down to the plane of the adjacent parts of the belt while the temporary fastening is still in place. The temporary fastening is then removed and the dressed-down side of the weld and the adJacent parts of the belt are temporarily and firmly fastened in'place for dressing down the other side of the weld. The other side of the weld is then dressed down to the plane of the corresponding side of the 'belt. This temporary fastening is removed and the solder or other fastening medium is cleaned from the surface of the belt. Finally the surface of the weld and, if desired, the entire casting surface is polished or otherwise treated to give the belt a uniform surface finish throughout its length.

The belt. of the present invention and the above-mentioned process by which such a belt may be produced, will be further described with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure l is a diagrammatic view showing an apparatus for electrolytically forming a continuous' metal strip of the desired width and thickness; 1

Figure 2 is a detail view apparatus shown in Figure 1;

Figure 3 is a plan view of a metal strip having the preferred type of alignment marking.

Figure 4 is an elevational view of the reel on which the metal strip is wound for storing and handling.

Figure 5 is a fragmentary plan view showing the alignment of the ends of the strip preparatory to trimming and welding.

Figure 6 is an edge view of the ends to be joined, as fastened in their relative position in preparation for the welding operation.

Figure 7 is a sectional view of the electrolytic cell used for the welding operation, showing the parts to be joined in place in the cell.

of portions of the 'assaaer Figure 8 is a sectional view of the completed weld afterremoval from the cell but prior to removal of surplus weld metal.

Figure 9 is a view, partly in section, of one type of grinding device for removing the surplus weld metal.

Figure 10 is a sectional view'of the welded joint fastened in place for grinding excess metal from the reverse side of the weld. i

Figure 11 is a sectional view showing the finisbed weldjoining hfi ends of the metallic strip to form it into an endless belt.

Figure 12 is a perspective view showing the belt of the present invention with parts broken away, with the location of a weld indicated by v Formation of the strip The first step in the manufacture of the belt of the present invention is the formation of a suitable nickel strip from which the belt'may be formed. This is illustrated in Figures 1 and 2. A polished cylindrical cathode l is rotated-on its Journals 2, ataconstant, suitably slow speed, by conventional driving means, not shown. Before use, this 1 cathode, if made of steel containing considerable percentages of chromium, may advantageouslybe prepared by anodic cleaning and scrubbing in a hot solution of alkali, followed by rinsing with water, pickling withconcentrated nitric acid, and rinsing. This cathode is then partially submerged in a nickel plating bath.3 of suitable composition con ed in a tank 0. Anodes 5 are placed around this cathode. These anodes are enclosed in bags, not shown, in a properties specified for the deposit.

justments used for control are ordinarily to be 15' broken lines and with the supporting pulleys not made within the following approximate ranges: temperature, to 160 degrees 1'.; pH, 2.0 to 3.0; ratio of formate to total nickel content, 0.1 to 0.5; agitation from moderate to strong; and cathode current density, 30 to amperes per square foot. -'For example, a deposit of over 125,000 pounds per square inch tensile strength, with satisfactory hardness and ductility, can be obtained by djeposition at a current density of about 60 amperes persquare foot and a'temperature of about .dF. from a vigorously agitated solutionwherein the ratio of formate to total nickel is about 0.280 and-the pl-i about 2.70.

n greater hardnessand tensile strength are desired, they can be secured by making one or more of the followingadjustmentsz increasing the ratio ogormate to total nickel inthe bath,

known manner, and are preferably spaced subs'tanti'ally parallel to the cathode surface to substantially enclose the space adjacent said surface. A conduit 0 is provided for continuously introducing the plating solution at the bottom of this space. The solution flows from this space into the tank 4 through restricted areas near the ends of the cathode and washes out foreign matter which might interfere with the uniform deposition of metal on the cathode. An overflow I is provided in the tank I through which the solution is returned to a reservoir, not shown, from which it is recirculated by a pump not shown, and returned, after being suitably filtered, through conduit 6 to the spacebetween cathode i and anodes I.

As the cathode l rotates in the direction indicated by the arrow, nickel is continuously deposited thereon until, 'by suitable regulation of cathode speed and current density, it emerges from the surface of bath 3 at the time the electrodeposlted layer has reached the desired thickness. As rotation continues, the electrodeposited layer, the strip 2 l, is stripped from the oathode under a positively driven roll 8 andis passed to. a receiving reel 9 over one or more guide rollers if desired.

Nickel belts, in order to possess the greatest utility for the purposes described, should have a good degree of strength, hardne and ductility.

Tensile strength of at least 80,000 to 100,000

pounds per. square inch is desirable together with Vickers hardness of or more, and elongation of not less than about 4 to 8 per cent in two inches. Such deposits can be made from a of formate to total nickel, and degree of agita tion in the bath, and the current density used 'modifled Watts type of nickel plating bath conincreasing e value of the pH, decreasing the current density, and the degree of agitation. If, on the other' hand, greater ductility with lesser strength and hardness are deesired, they can be secured bymakingthe oppoin detail and specifically claimed-in the application of William BL Stoddard, Jr.. Serial No. 639,869, entitled "Electrodeposition of Nickel,"

filed concurrently herewith. now Patent No.

2,533,532, dated December 12, 1950.

As wider and thicker strips are formed and as the conditions of deposition are controlled to increase the strength and hardness of the deposit,

increasing difliculty is encountered with lack of flatness in the 'electroformed sheet. There is observed an increasing tendency for the strip to curl away from the surface which was in contact with the cathode, in a direction parallelto th length of the strip. There is also an increasing waviness of the edges due apparently to a greater length of the strip at the edges than .in the center. The apparent cause of these characteristic types of deformation has now been discovered in the rate .and varying direction (relative to the cathode surface) of shrinkage of metal in different parts of the strip. It

appears that the shrinkage is not deferred until the full thickness of. the deposit has been reached, but the earlier deposited metal apparently shrinks while more metal is being deposited thereon. The edges of the strip shrink towards the center or axis of the strip while the center shrinks towards the later deposited metal, 1. e.

towards the thinner section, in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the cathode. Shrinkage stresses and strains thusproduced are locked up within the metal and apparently constitute the primary cause of the deformations described. 7

When thewidth and thickness of the strip and its strength and hardness are such that these defects become troublesome, they may be largely overcome by controlling the rate and direction of shrinkage- For this purpose the construction 11- lustrated in Figure '2 has been found effective. The cathodeil isprotected from electrodeposition on its ends by insulation 10 on each end thereof. This, as 'shown in the figure, covers an area slightly smaller in diameter than' the cathode itself, exposing on each 1 d an annular area of cathode surface which iscontinuous with the cylindrical The adasoaaov Accordingly, downturned edges H are formed along each side of the strip 2|, which is thereby prevented from shrinking laterally while on the surface of the cathode and constrained to shrink only in a longitudinal direction. The shrinkage thus appears to be uniform in direction and amount across the entire width of the strip, thus substantially preventing the deformations described. Before the strip 2| can be wound into roll 9, the down-turned edges II should be removed, as by shear rolls II, to leave the strip smooth and flat.

It' has been found further that these downturned edges II can be held to a minimum by the provision of non-conducting bailles I2 (not shown in Figure 1) located in close proximity (e. g. not

over A; inch) to the ends of the cathode surface.

By extending them as illustrated in Figure 2, for a considerable distance (e. g. 2 inches or more) beyond the circumference of the cathode, .undue building up or thickening of the edges of strip 2| can be also be prevented.

If belts of considerable length are required so that it is necessary to repeatedly deposit nickel onto and strip the deposit from each part of the cathode surface, a serious sticking of the deposit to the cathode surface occurs with the usual chromium or chromium-containing cathodes such as those of stainless steel. As particularly described and claimed in a co-pending application, Serial No. 538,537, entitled Cathode" filed June 2, 1944, by William B. Stoddard, Jr., one of the present applicants, and now abandoned, these ,diillculties due to sticking may be obviated by the addition of molybdenum to the steel of which the cathodes are formed. Hard nickel deposi.s have been repeatedly made on and stripped from a cathode formed of the so-called 18-8 type of stainless steel to which from 1 to per cent of molybdenum has been added, for more than fifty times without damage due to sticking.

In order to form an endless belt which is satisfactory and will run true over properl aligned pulleys, it is essential that the ends of the strip be properly aligned prior to being joined. For the purpose of facilitating the alignment operation, it is desirable to have accurately located referenoemarks on the strip. We have found that such marks may be made in the exact locations desired at the time of formation of the-strip, if suitable marks are provided on the surface of the cathode. Extremely fine lines are advantageously engraved on the cathode surface. These appear on the electrodeposited strip as fine raised lines which are soon worn off, or may be readily polished ofl after they have served their purpose. One form of marking which we have found useful is illustrated in Figures 2, 3, and 5. Circumferential lines I! are scribed around the cathode near the location of the edges of the strip. These are crossed at preferably regular intervals by short lines l8 which are aligned across but do not extend across the surface. They are advantageously but not necessarily par- I or they may be overlapped as shown of the metal.v From the roll 24 the two ends of the strip are passed around a similar roll 25 and the double thickness of. belt is then wound around both rolls as shown in the figure. The rolls 24 and 25 are advantageously rotatably mounted on their respective axes 26 and 21 which are supported by cross bars 22 which in turn may be pivotally supported at 29 on a yoke 30 which is adapted to be carried by any suitable means such as I a hook 3| on an overhead crane or hoist. The surplus length of the metal strip 2| isadvan'gageously wound and stored on this reel during the operations of joining the ends as hereinafter described.

Y Aligning, trimming, and fastening the ends .The next step in the process is to trim and align the ends and fasten them in the relative positions whichthey are to occupy in the completed belt. The alignment may be accomplished in accordance with any of the known methods desired. It may, however, be advantageously and in general more accuratel accomplished with the,

the same distance apart, In either case, when I using reference marks 22, 23, the alignment or measurement is advantageously checked by means of a suitable microscope in a known manner in order to secure accuracy of alignment and consequently a truly,running belt.

The ends 2|A and H3 of strip 2| may be trimmed square before alignment as described, in Figure 5 during the alignment procedure described. In the latter case, the ends are then held firmly'in the aligned position by any suitable means. and both ends are cut through simultaneously as on line 33, thus automatically securing an accurate fitting together of the ends when the alignment is correct.

While the ends of the strip have been illustrated I and described as cut square, to make a joint which allelto the axis of the cathode. On the finished The strip 2|, if long, is advantageously han-' died b winding on a double reel as illustrated in Figure 4. The metal strip 2| is wrapped at its central portion around a roll 24 of such diameter that the stresses in the belt when bent to that curvature are materially below the elastic limit will extend across the belt atright angles thereto, this'is not necessary in the present invention. It mayv in some cases be desirable or convenient to cut the ends of the strip at acute angles with the axis of the strip. In such cases it is advantageous to cut the overlapping end simultaneously as indicated in Figure 5, except that the cut is made at an acute angle instead of square across on line 33.

After aligning and trimming, the ends MA and 2|B to be joined are temporarily but rigidly fastened in the relative positions which they are to occupy in the finished belt. They may be thus held in any desired manner but are advantageously'soldered or otherwise cemented flat onto a relative rigid metallic block or bar 3| shown in Figure 6. Bar 4| has flat portions 42, 42 which are carefully formed in the same plane and are separated by a' wide fiat Vgroove 44. The extremities of the ends 2|A and 2|B of the metal strip 2| are bent downwardly into the V groove, the depth of which is sufficient that the upper surfaces of said extremities lie definitely below the level of the lower surface of the :coplanar amass-r portions of the ends {IA and H3 soldered to the fiat surfaces 42, 42. The soldering is advantageously accomplished by interposing a reticular member such as wire cloth with the solder at 45 between the ends MA, 2 IB, and the surface of the block 4!, holding the parts in position. fusing the solder, and then holding the parts together under high pressure until the solder has solidified. This process is described in greater detail and specifically claimed in the co-pending application of William B. Stoddard, Jr., for patent Serial No. 639,868 entitled Soldering Method for Positioning Strip Material" filed concurrently herewith, now Patent No. 2,530,552, dated November 21, 1950.

In order that the welded joint and adjacent parts of the strip may be smooth and flat and l 55.1'heopeningingasket56isslightlywidei' than the V trough 41, exposinga short length of the fiat surface of the belt at each side of the trough 4I. The corners of the window 55 are advantageously, bevelled as shown at 51 so thatthe wall overhangs the edges of the exposed area of the beltin order to prevent excessive building up or "tracing" of the electrolytically deposited free from distortion, it is necessary that the sol- V dering operation be carefully done: The strip should be heated evenly for some distance back from each of the ends. The difference of temperature-per u'nit distance through the metal should not be allowed to rise at any point to a degree which would cause permanent distortion. Properties andvdimensions of such hard nickel strips may become permanently altered at temperatures over about 350 to 400 F., so, to maintain uniformity throughout, the entire strip may be heattreated at the soldering temperature, or this may be held below the above limit. If this is desired, a solder or other cementing medium of suitably low melting point should therefore be used. Further, any material strains, particularly compressive strains, in the strip when it is soldered in place for welding, should be avoided. Care should therefore be taken to see that ends HA and 2IB Welding the ends together After the ends 2 IA and MB have been soldered firmly and accurately on the block 4|. the space between the ends at the bottom of the V is cleaned of foreign matter and filled with an electrically metal at the edges of the weld. Inlet 52 is advantageously placed so that-incoming solution sweeps across the surface of trough 41. An outlet 53 is advantageously'provided in the bottom so that solutions and sediment can readily be drained andfiushed from the cell.

, With the cell set up as described, the surface I of the belt exposed through window 55 must be further prepared so that the weld metal electrolytically deposited thereon will adhere with a strength substantially equal to the strength of the metal itself in spite of the presence of any solder which may have been used at 46. In the case of a nickel belt this preparation may be accomplished as follows: For this purpose the preferred treatment is that fully described and claimed in a co-pending concurrently filed application Serial No. 639.870 entitled "Method of Forming a Strongly Adherent Electro Deposit," now Patent No. 2,533,533, dated December 12,

1950. For the. accomplishment of this process the cell is filled with a concentrated (not over percent water) solution of sulphuric andv phosphoric acids, wherein the volume of sulphuric acid is advantageously from 2 to 3 times that of the phosphoric acid. The metallic surface of trough 41 exposed through window 55is made anode, while a lead or nickel cathode is used at 54. A potential somewhat over 6 volts, e. g. about 7.5 volts, is used for not less than about 3 minutes. If this is followed by treatment at about 3 volts for 3 more minutes, the nickel surface will be covered with a reddish brown deposit where it is prepared for reception of an adherent deposit, indicating that the preparation hasbeen accomplished. The acid is then removed from the cell, the surface and cell are thoroughly rinsed. a nickelan'ode is placed at 54, the cell is filled with nickel plating solution, and nickel conducting filler 46 such as solder or a non-metallic conductor as for example a phenol formaldehyde varnish containing sufflcient graphite to give it the desired conductivity. Care should be taken that the surface ofthe filling 45 be free from pits, cracks, and holes, and that there be no cracks, crevices, or surface irregularities left where it joins the metal of the belt 2|, so that the wide, flat, V-shaped trough 41, for the reception of weld metal, is provided with a continuous electrically conducting surface:

The surface of the strip 2| in and immediately adjacent the trough 41 is then made an electrode by which this may be accomplished is illustrated inFigure '7. The cell used is formed in-a tank 5| made of non-conducting substance such as laminated phenol formaldehyde resin, having an inlet at one end and an outlet at the other end. An electrode 54 is located in the cell as hereinafter described, and a window 55 is provided in the opposite wall. With an interposed gasket 55 of rubber or the like, the trough 41 formed by the bent ends IIA and MB soldered onto bar 4|. is clamped against the wall of cell 5| at the window with weld metal as indicated by broken line 4! in Figure 7. If the belt is desired to have substantialh' uniform physical properties throughout the weld and the strip itself, the plating solution and the conditions of deposition advantageously duplicate, as closely as possible, the solution and conditions used in electroforming the strip.

"This method of electrolytic welding and the welded structures produced thereby are fully described and specifically claimed in our co-pend ing concurrently filed application Serial No. 639,867 entitled Joining. Metal Parts." Accordingly no claim is herein made to said welded structure or welding process separate and apart from the novel endless belt herein described and claimed as an article of manufacture having a characteristic" form and distinctive properties,

and from the method of making the same.

Dressing down the weld I When an adequate thickness of weld metal has been deposited as indicated at 48 in Figures 7 and 8, the bar 4| carrying the welded structure I be dressed down to the level of the adjacent portions of the surface of the belt. This maybe accomplished by hand or by any type of mecha- .find it convenient to use the device described in the'co-pending applicationfor patent Serial No. 639,872, entitled Grinding Device" filed concurrently herewith, now Patent No. 2,479,095, dated August 16, 1949. As therein more fully described. a considerable section of the belt 2| oneach side of the weld 48 is supported on an extremely rigid and plane surfaced base plate 6| which is notched at 62 to receive the bar ll sup-' porting the weld. The grinding device 63 itself is mounted on a carriage Bl which is arranged to operate on tracks 65 which are adapted to rest on the belt 2| where it is supported onsaid base plate 6| and to be clamped to the base plate and thus hold the belt firmly thereon. when so clamped, the tracks guide the grinding device in a plane path accurately parallel to the surface of said base plate. Means 66 are also provided.

for adjusting the bar II to which the belt adjacent the weld is soldered, to bring the belt surface adjacent the weld accurately into parallelism with the plane of travel of the grinding device and positively hold it in that position until the grinding operation is completed. By means of conventional driving mechanism, not shown, and cross feed device 61 and vertical feed it, the

grinding device is caused to traverse the entire area of the weld l8 and remove all weld metal lying abovethe plane of the adjacent surfaces of belt 2| as indicated by the broken line in Figure 8.

When the protruding weld metal has been ground on and. the surface is accurately in the plane of the adjacent belt surface the belt 2| is removed from the block or bar ll on which the ends were fastened for the welding and grinding operations. In case the ends HA and IIB, joined by welding, have been bent out of the plane of the adjacent parts of the belt as illustrated in Figures 6, 7, and 8, there is a protrusion from the reverse surface'of the belt, which must also be removed. For this purpose, the freshly ground surface of the belt can be fastened to a flat surfaced block or bar H" (see Figure 10), advantageously by soldering with a reticular member interposed at 12 as described. The protruding metal can then be ground on to the plane of the adjacent belt surface as indicated by the broken line in Figure 10. This also may be conveniently accomplished by use of the grinding device illustrated in Figure 9 and described in connection therewith.

After grinding is completed and the welded portion of the belt has substantially. the same thickness throughout as has the belt itself, as illustrated in Figure 11, the ground portion may be polished or given any other finish to corre-' spend with the adjacent belt surface, or the entire surface of the belt, including the weld, may be given any type of finish desired.

If the preparation of the surface to receive the weld metal has been properly carried out, as described, the weld metal will be bonded to the base metal with a bond which is substantially equal in strength and other physical properties to both the weld metal and the metal of the 'belt.' If, further, the conditions of electrodepositicn of the strip and of the'weid metal desirable that the protruding parts of the weld v joiningthe ends ofthe strip have been similarly 7 controlled to give'deposits of the same physical properties, the structure will be substantially homogeneous throughout the strip and the weld metal. The weld'metal ll having been electrodeposited on the inclined sides of trough 41 (Figum 6, '7, and 8) possesses a structure which is correspondingly inclined to the structure of the metal in the other parts of the belt which, as

hereinbefore described, was deposited on a surface parallel to the final surface of the belt.

In addition to this difference in orientation of structure, there may be other differences of structure due to such differences as may have existed between the deposition of the weld metal and that of the strip, in respect to composition, temperature, concentration, and purity of the electrolytic bath, the rate and conditions of deposition, etc. However, if the process has been carefully carried out in accordance with the foregoing instructions, any differences in structure which may exist between the metal of v the strip and that of the joint will be too small to be identified except by metallographic study,

but under certain conditions may be manifested ,as a slight difler'ence in reflection of light from the surface when viewed at certain angles, which it is thought may be due to differences in crystal orientation.

It will be noted that in the drawings" (Figures 8, 10, and 11) where the belt and weld are shown in section, the section lining of the weld metal is in a different direction from that of the belt metal Joined thereby, in order to indicate the location of the weld metal. i No lines are drawn, however, to separate weld metal from the welded parts because the structure is substantially homogeneous throughout and such lines would be misleading.

It is thus seen that the belt 2|, illustrated in Figure 12, produced in accordance with the preferred form of the present invention as described, is substantially straight and fiat and will run truly over properly aligned pulleys. It is of substantially uniform thickness, hardness, strength, stiffness, and other physicalproperties, throughout. It is substantially free from intemal stresses such as are caused in fusion welding, brazing, etc. bylocalized or uneven heating. Because the metal of the belt has all been electrodeposited in place, the belt is more uniform in thickness than are commercially rolled or drawn strips. The structure is substantially homogneous throughout, and it does not exhibit the marked "grain characteristic of rolled or drawn metals. The outer surface is hard and bright and exhibits the characteristics of a metal surface electroformed on a polished non-adhering cathode. If the belt is to be used in the manufacture of cast films or of cast surfaced coated paper, it is given a uniform surface finish, most often a high polish, .and usually on the outer surface, which finish is unmarred by the presence of a joint in the metal. The location of a weld is indicated in Figure 12 by broken lines, which however only indicate the location, no corresponding lines being actually present on the surface, although sometimes elec- Example The following example, taken from actual practice, will serve to illustrate the process de- 11 i scribed: for forming the strip there was provided a rotating cylindrical cathode about 4 feet, in

diameter and slightly over 6, feet long. composedof an- 18-8 type of stainless steel with added molybdenum, the analysis of which as given by the maker was: Carbon 0.10 max., manganese 2.00 max silicon 0.75 max chromium 18.00-20.00, nickel 14.00 max., molybdenum 2.00-3.00. Near each end of this cathode a fine circumferential line was lightly engraved into the polished cylindrical surface. These lines were crossed at regular intervals by short-lines approximately parallel to the axis of the cylinder and aligned but not extending across the surface of the cathode. The cathode was prepared as described, and a layer of nickel approximately 0.010 inch thick was continuously, deposited thereon from a modified Watts type of bath of substantially the following composition:

I Grams per liter Nickel sulphate ('THzO) 185 Nickel chloride (625:) 45 Nickel formate (ZHzO) 30 Boric acid 30 at a pH of between 2.5 and 2.6, and temperature of 140 F. A moderate degree of agitation. was

. used, and the current density was maintained stripped from the cathode as it reached the de-' sired thickness, and the process was continued indefinitely. A piece 150 feet long was cut from the resulting strip and wound on a double reel as described. The ends were trimmed oil in accordance with the cross lines transferred to the strip from the cathode, and the trimmedends were then abutted. With the aid of a microscope the longitudinal lines at the edges of the opposed ends were aligned and the cross lines measured and the angularity of the opposed ends of the strip adjusted until adjacent cross lines on the opposite edges were separated by the same distance. Using the precautions described, the opposed ends were then soldered down on a block withan interposed layer of wire :loth and with the ends bent down into a V- \haped groove in the block so that at the joint he upper surfaces were below the plane of the cwer surfaces of the unbent portions, and the pace between the ends was filled with solder dered to a fiat block with interposed wire cloth as shown in Figure lO. This was placed in the grinding device as shown in Figure 9 and the excess nickel ground down to the level of the belt surface, making-the joint appear as in Figure, 11. the belt appeared as illustrated in Figure 12. The finished belt was substantially straight and flat, approximately 6 feet in width, and 0.010 inch in thickness, and so faras detected did not vary from this thickness by more, than 0.00025 inch, .plus or minus. So far as could be determined, the physical properties were uniform throughout both belt and "weld metal, and the location of the weld could only be determined by careful examination. The belt was straight and'ran true over carefully aligned pulleys. It

was found to form an excellent casting surface for use in the production of cast surfaced coated p n v Nickel belts, as described, have been found to have, an especial utility as casting surfaces in the manufacture of certain types of cast surfaced coated paper, and constitute a preferred type of casting surface for this purpose.

While'the invention is especially adapted. to, and has been described as embodied in; the formation of nickel belts, iron, nickel, cobalt, and

. commercially pure nickel, since various impu- I it as illustrated in Figurefi. An electroytic cell was formed around the parts in a manner similar to that illustrated in Figure 7.- The :lectrolytic preparation of the ends, and the elecout as described. The electroplating'solution alloys of two or more of these metals behave much alike in this process, which can also be used without fundamental change to form belts of other metals. It will be understood, however, by those skilled in the art that the preparation and electrodepositionprocesses should then be adapted to the specific metal being used.

Although it is not essential, it is ordinarily desirable that the weld metal be of the same composition as that of the strip as the homogeneity of the structure and the uniformity of the surface are thereby improved.

The term metal as used in the present specification andclaims is to be understood as referring to those materials which are metals in the metallurgical sense and not to those which are metals in the chemical sense only.

By the term"nickel" it is not meant to restrict the composition to chemically or even rities or alloying elements may be present, sometimes to a considerable extent, without impairthe utility of the device. The use of cobalt as an alloying element is, it has been found, fre quently advantageous in facilitating the electrodeposition. "Nickel belts" therefore are to be understood to be belts which are composed largely of nickel or which owe their physical characteristics largely to this'metal.

.1. Electrolytic methodof making an endless nickel belt of substantially uniform thickness and physical properties throughout, which comused was analagous to that used in the formation of the metal strip and the conditions of electrodeposition were similarly controlled to pries: electrolytically forming a strip of nickel on a continuously moving cathodic surface having reference marks engraved thereon, said electrolytically formed strip having reference marks formed integral therewith by electrolytic 'deposition over said marks on thesurface of said cathode; trimming, abutting,'and aligning the ends of said strip in accordance with said reference marksthereon; displacing he extremities of said ends completely from t e planeof the adjacent portions of said stripby a slight bending of said strip near its ends; temporarily but firmly fastening said ends in said abutted.

aligned, and in part displaced position, to a rel- The outersurface was then polished andl3 atively rigid member; filling the space between said ends flush with their surfaces, with electrically conducting material; then, ,while said ends are so fastened, electrolytically preparing the surfaces thereof so that nickel electrode-' posited thereon will be strongly adherent thereto.

' and electrolytically depositing nickel on and'between said ends to form an electrolytic weld uniting them, controlling the deposition both of the nickel in the strip and of that joining the ends thereof, to yield deposits of substantially the samephysical properties; and thereafter mechanically removing surplus weld metal until the joint has substantially the same thickness asand lies in the same plane with the adjoining parts of the belt. I

2. Method of making a wholly electrodeposited endless flexible metal belt which is substantially free'from wavy edges and from a tendency to curl, which comprises: progressively forming-a metal strip byelectrolytic deposition or, a metallic cathode; constraining the shrinkage to take place longitudinally of the strip by depositing the metal simulta-neuosly across the entire width of the cylindrical surface of the cathode and a short distance over each edge thereof onto the adjacent end surface of the cylindrical cathode; progressively removing the strip from the cathode as it reaches the desired thickness; removing the downturned edges from the strip; trimming and abutting opposite ends of the strip; forming a trough with gently sloping sides for the reception of weld metal'where said ends are abutted; firmly fixing the portions of said strip in and adjacent said trough in the relative positions they are to occupy in the finished belt; preparing the metal of said strips where exposed in and adjacent said trough, for the reception of a strongly adherent electrodeposit; and electrolytically depositing weld metal in said trough until said trough is at least completely filled.

3. Method of making an endless flexible metal belt of substantially uniform thickness and strength and substantially free from distorting stresses within the metal throughout its extent, which comprises: progressively forming a metal strip by electrolytic deposition on a metallic cathode; constraining the shrinkage to take place longitudinally of the strip by depositing the metal simultaneously across the entire width of the cylindrical surface of the cathode and a short distance over' each edge thereof onto the adjacent end surface of the cylindrical cathode; progressively removing the strip from the cathode as it reaches the desired thickness; removing the downturned edges from the strip; trimming opposite ends of the strip at the same angle with the strip; abutting the trimmed ends:

forming a trough with gently sloping sides for the reception of weld metal where said ends are abutted; holding the portions of said strip in and adjacent said trough under a slight lateral tension; preparing the metal of said strips, where exposed in and adjacent said trough, for the reception of a strongly adherent electrodeposit; electrolytically depositing weld metal in said trough until said trough is at least completely filled while the parts are held under said lateral tension; and then releasingsaid parts.

4..Electrolytic method of forming, an endless metal belt, which comprises: progressively forming a metal strip by electrolytic deposition on a moving cathodic surface in which reference marksare engraved; continuously removing the deposit as it reaches the desired thickness, said 14 deposit having raised reference marks formed by deposition in the engraved marks in the cathodic surface; trimming, abutting, and aligning the ends of said strip in accordance with said reference marks; forming a trough with gently slop.- ing sides formed of the metal of the strip, for the reception of weld metal, where said ends are abutted; firmly fixing the portions of said strip in and adjacent to said trough, in the relative positions they are to occupy in the finished belt; providing in said trough a smooth continuous uninterrupted electrically conducting surface on and between said ends; preparing the metal of said strip, where exposed in and adjacent said trou'gh, for the reception of a strongly adherent electrodeposit; and electrolytimoving non-adhering cathodic surface under conditions of deposition adapted to give a deposit of the desired physical properties; trimming the ends of said strip; bringing said ends together in opposed relationship; forming a trough for the reception of weld metal by slightly bending the strip near its ends to displace the ends completely from the plane of the belt; filling the space between said ends outside the plane of, and flush with the surface of the bent-down ends of, said belt, across its full width, with electrically conducting material; holding the ends of the strip firmly in this position; preparing the surface of the metal of said strip on and adjacent the sides of said trough, for 'the wreception of a strongly adherent electrodeposit;

and electrolytically depositing weld metal in said trough, while the ends are so held, until it isat least up to the upper surface of the strip; said electrolytic deposition being carried out under conditions which substantiallyduplicate the conditions of deposition of the strip, whereby the properties of the strip and the weld metal will be substantially the same.

6:'Electrolytic method of making an endless nickel belt, which comprises: progressively forming a nickel strip by electrolytic deposition on a polished, moving, non-adhering cathodic surface from a bath and under condition of deposition adapted to yield a deposit having a ten sile strength of more than 80,000 pounds per square inch; trimming the ends of said strip;

abutting said trimmed ends; forming a trough for the reception of weld metal by slightly bending the strip near its ends, to displace the ends completely from the plane of the belt; filling the space between said ends outside the plane of, and flush with the surface of the bent-down ends of, said belt, across its full width, with electrically conducting material; holding the ends firmly in this position by soldering them onto a more rigid member; preparing the sur- Iace of the nickel strip in and adjacent said trough for the reception of a strongly adherent nickel electrodeposit, said preparation comprising treatment as anode in a bath of concentrated sulphuric and phosphoric acid; electrolytically depositing nickel in said trough While the ends are so soldered in place, until the trough is at least completely filled, said electrolytic deposition being carried out from a bath and under conditions substantially the same as those used in the deposition of the strip so that both strip and weld metal will be substantially identical in composition and properties.

7. An endless flexible metal belt adapted for use in the manufacture of, cast surfaced coated paper and similar operations, characterized .by' a substantial uniformity. of thickness and of physical properties throughout its extent, said belt comprising at least one strip of metal and at least one weld which is composed of metal which is in contact with the strip metal along interfaces which extendcompletely' through, and are slightlyand oppositely inclined to the surface of, the belt; the metallographic structure of the metalof said strip being characteristic of metal electrolytically deposited on a cathode substantially parallel to the surface of said strip, and the metallographic structure of the metal 16 tudinally of the strip, by depositing the metal simultaneously across the entire width of the cylindrical surface of the cathode and, downward for a short distance over the edges there of said weld being characteristic of metal electrolytically deposited on and between said inciined interfaces.

8. The belt of claim 7 wherein. at each interface between weld metal and strip metal, the metallographic structure of the strip metal is characteristic of metal electrolytically deposited on a cathode substantially parallel to that interface.

a. The belt of claim 7 in which both strip metal and weld metal are chosen from the class consisting of iron, nickel, cobalt, and alloys consisting of at least two of these metals. I

10. The belt of claim 7 in which both strip metal and weld metal are nickel and the belt has at allparts, including the weld, a tensile strength of at least 80,000 pounds per square the deposited metal to take place longitudinallyof the strip by locking the deposit, as it is formed, over the edges of the cathode surface,

said locking being accomplished by protectingthe cathode from electrodeposition over a major portion of each end, by insulation which covers an area slightly smaller in diameter' than the cathode itself and exposing on each end a narrow annular area of cathode surface which is continuous with the cylindrical surface on which the metal is electroformed, then depositing the metal simultaneously across the entire width of the cylindrical surface of the cathode and downward for a short distance over the edges of the cathode onto and over the adjacent portions of said exposed annular areas on the end surfaces thereof.

12. Method of making an endless nickel belt 2 of substantially uniform thickness and freedom from distorting stresses and substantially uniform strength, in excess of 80,000 pounds per square inch, throughout its entire length, which comprises: progressively forming a metal strip by electrolytic deposition on a rotating cylindrical cathode from a modified Watts type bath having a 1311 between 2.0 and 3.5 and containing formate ions to the extent of 0.1 to 0.5 times the total nickel in the bath, under conditions adapted to yield a deposit having a tensile strength of over 80,000 pounds per square inch; reducing the tendency of wide flat strips elec- V troi'ormed under such conditions, to curl and develop wavyedges, by constraining the shrinkage of the deposited metal to take place longiof; progressively stripping the deposit from the cathode as it reaches the required thickness: trimming the downturncd edges from the strip;

trimming, abutting, and aligning the opposite ends of the strip; forming a trough for the reception of weld metal where said ends are fabutted; electrolytically depositing weld metal in said trough from a bath and under conditions substantially the same as those used in forming said strip; and mechanically dressing down the weld to the thickness of the strip..

13. Method of making an endless metal belt, which comprises: electroforming a metal strip on a rotating cylindrical cathode; constraining the shrinkage of the deposit to take place longitudinally of the strip; said constraint being accomplished by. providing on each end of the cathode an insulated area s ightly smaller in diameter than the cathode itself, and exposingon each enda narrow annular area of the cathode surface which area is continuous with the cylindrical surface on which the strip is electroformed, and then depositing the metal simultaneously across the entirewidth of the cylindrical surface of the cathode and over each edge onto the adjacent portion of the exposed annular area; progressively removing the strip from the rotating cathode as the strip reaches the 4 required thickness; and trimming the downturned edges from the strip.

DONALD B. BRADNER. WlLLIAM B. s'ronnann, JR. PHILIP s. BHCKENSDERFER...

nmanncas crrn'n The following references are of record in the Number Name Date 880,484 Edison Feb. 25. 1908 901,115 Metten Oct. 13, 1906 1,442,437 Mather Jan. 16, 1923 r 1,555,840 Hanley Oct. 6. 1925 1,567,079 Porzel Dec. 29, 1925 1,674,941 Bart June 26,1928 1,710,258 Hume Apr. 23. 1929 1,790,738 Andren Feb. 3, 1931 1,906,376 Holmes May 2, 1933 1,956,233 Braun Apr. 24, 1934 2,026,718 Weisbert et a1. Jan. 7, 1936. 2,083,527 Bierer June 8, 1937 2,333,567 Helmore 1 Nov. 2. 1943 2,334,699 Faust Nov. 23, 1943 2,370,108 Pike Feb. 20, 1945 2,429,119 Bloomfield Oct. 14, 1947 2,429,902 Sternfels' Oct. 28,1947

FOREIGN PA EN S Number- Country Date 6,061 Great Britain 1904 359,386 -Great.Britain Jan. 20, 1906 61,411 Sweden Feb. 12,1925 258,694 Italy May 26, 1928 OTHER REFERENCES Journal of the Electrodepositors Technical Society.

Vol. 88 1945) of Transactions of the Electrochemical Society.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification425/471, 474/254, 425/297, 425/112, 204/212, 425/223, 474/272, 204/281, 205/77, 204/272, 264/219, 425/169, 204/224.00R
International ClassificationC25D1/04
Cooperative ClassificationC25D1/04
European ClassificationC25D1/04