|Publication number||US2570662 A|
|Publication date||Oct 9, 1951|
|Filing date||May 17, 1950|
|Priority date||May 17, 1950|
|Publication number||US 2570662 A, US 2570662A, US-A-2570662, US2570662 A, US2570662A|
|Inventors||Gray Samuel P|
|Original Assignee||Gray Samuel P|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (22), Classifications (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 9, 1951 s. P; GRAY HANDCUFF LEG IRON, SHACKLE, AND LIKE Filed May 17, 1950 m m/ne.
Arron/5y Patented Oct. 9, 1 951 *HANDCUFFJLEG IRON. SHAGKILE -AND THE LIKE Samuel PL-Gray, "Forest Hills, N. Y. Application mm, 1950;"Serial No.1'6'2i4'14 vide articles of tHech'aracter mentioned, of novel -f.
and improvedco'nstructio'n, which if attempted to be picked, will suffer continuous reduction in cuff size and made successful picking impossible because cuff size would need be made considerably smallerthan the limb under shackle in most'compressed condition humanly bearable. A further object ofth'is invention is to provide novel and improved items of the nature set forth, which are reasonably'ch'eapto manufacture, easy to use and efilcient'in carrying out the purposes and functionsfor which they are designed.
Other objectsand advantages will beco'meapparentas thisdisclosure proceeds.
In the accompanying drawings forming-part 'of this'specification, similar characters-of -ref-= erence indicate corresponding parts in all 'the views. 7 n
Fig. 1 is a front view of an open handcuff or the like, embodying the teachings of this invention. -A front member is omitted from this view in order to expose the' lock mechanism housed in a space afforded by a spacer member between said front and a similar back member. The lock mechanism includes detents of various constructions for cooperation with a movable ratchet which is part of the cufi, and also means to lock various of the detents in ratchet-engagement position. 7 I v I v Fig. 2 is a similar View showing the cuff in closed condition. I p Fig. 3 is a side View of Fig. 1, fully assembled. Fig. 4 shows one of said detents and its keyoperated locking means, in position as they are in the assembly. 'Fig. 5 shows another detent as it is associated with said detent-locking device. Figs; 4 an'd'5 are front views. 7 Y Fig. 6 is a perspective view of still another detent included in this device. A i 7 is a perspective view of a key for operating the components of the locking mechanism toassume locked and unlocked condition.
H'Fig. 8 is a perspective view of the spacer'member mentioned.
Fig. 9 isa fragmentary section taken at lines 7 claims. (01-. some) means of rivetsr8 6! in a'n-y other suitablema'ne 'rier. This structu a'fiords an open-top chamher I 9 for'housing the look mechanism. Each-of 'said' plates extend above the 'to'p of said chainher and has an integral band; preferably arc'uate in shape, extending froln c ine sideofthe chaifniber 1-9, whereby the concave edge of Such bafid is nearest to said chamber. 'Ihese extending arcuate bands indicated-respectively by the nilm'era-ls l5 and |6', '.'re identical. Between them; at their fre endson "111 20, is pivotanynmuntea a flat'arouate band at an'ndof the latter St that said band 2l-is free to b'rotatedbetWfl said-bands Y l5" and I S. The-top edges of we arms [1 and l1""-oftl 1e U-shaped spacer'm'em ber IL- and asubstantial portion of "the convex surface of thebandi I c'cm'menc'ing from the free 'endof said bandz lie along the peri'meter of-a circle whose center'ds'theaikis-of the pin fll, or
nearly'so as possible, so that -'-the ratchet" teeth and zrrorm a ringer cufi-tos'hackle a limbbf "a prisoner, in which position of th'e bands, the toothedportion of band 2| spans" the arms of the spacer ILahdclbss the top" of" the chamber 1-9; However, quite anumber of said teeth '22 remain exposed "to enable"adjustme'ntto a smallercufi sizejof prescribed limit. The thicknessof the ratchet band 2l'is precisely"aspossible'the distafie between the plates [5"afi'd'IB. It isto be noted thatwh'n fl'i c'ii fi is 10sedfsaid-rathet band 2! lies'betwen said'platesabovethe chamber l9.
The floor ofchamber l9 ispreferablyflat, along which a bolt 23 may -slide. This bolt is for locking'in. place, the detent 26 which engages the ratchet band 2 j sai d detent being swingably mounted on a fixed pin;2l,'and maintaine din such engagementby the blade spring 28.
spring, constantly under stress. is of U form, whose bight is positioned about the fix'ed. pin 29, so that one afmthereof acts against the detent .26, and its other arm provided with an areuai band 28'', sets ressingiyin oneof'the notches 23' or zw'in' tnejtop'edge of the boltnieinbe'r Z3, Ailfixedpin 3'Ilsu'ite'dfo'r the"socket "31 of the ho11bW'-'ba;rre1 key 1| shown, is fiXed' in plate It and extends to the plane oftheouter surface of plate 15; through a suitable keyhole, not shown. It is desirable and known practice to make-the detent ZB and the poll- 23 0: several t'hinfiat 3 plates, in contact, but free of each other rather than in one thick piece, in order to minimize picking possibility. The bolt 23 is provided with the notch 23", while the detent 26 has a notch-like form at 26", in which mentioned notches, the key tooth 3|" may respectively engage to either shift the bolt 23, or swing the detent 26. The spacer member H, in an exposed portion thereof, may have a hole 24, for a short stout chain 25 to join "a pair of such handcuff devices.
The structure thus far specifically described in detail, is well known in the art and its operation and use is common knowledge. To'shackld'a limb of a prisoner, requires no key. The cufl" is maintained against opening, once it is closed about a limb, by engagement of the detent26 with the ratchet band 2|. Of course, ratchet band movement is free to decrease cuff size, unless the key is used to shift the bolt 23, so that tooth 3 prevents detent movement at tooth 34, v
In police and military experience, opportunity is not always available to accomplish double locking by the use of the key 3| to secure the detent 26 against movement. Reliance is had therefore solely on the engagement of the single detent 26, whether of one or more pieces, and the ratchet band 2 I, for lockingtheshackle in most instances. Security is rather speculative, because some deviation from precise fit, and such does occur, has permitted insertion of picking wires to swing the detent 26 out of engagement from the ratchet band 2|, with some, but not prohibitive discomforture to the prisoner. I In this regard, consider that the locking mechanism comprises only the detent 26, the ratchet band2| and the spring 28 effecting their engagement as in Fig. 2. 'Assume that the picking wire could be inserted from the right in Fig. 2, between the arm H" of the spacer member l1, and the teeth 22 of the ratchet band 2|, and thence into the chamber I9 until the end of said wire contacts the corner35 in detent 26. Such wire, not shown, could then be made to enter upwardly between the'teeth 36 and 31, and if stiff enough, such wire could then force disassociation of said detent and ratchet means, and the cufi thus opened. Space for such wire between said two teeth 36 and 31 is easily'a'iforded by a slight squeeze on'the cuff parts l5, lfi' and 2| towards one another for movement of the ratchet band 2| of less than the pitch of said teeth. Then again, if picking isattempted'from the left in Fig. 2, assume that the picking wire could be passed between arm l1 of the spacer member 11 and the teeth 22 of the'ratchet band 2|, and thence into the chamberv I9 until the end of the wire enters between the teeth 38 and 39, and if stiff enough such wire could force disassociation of the detent member 26 from the ratchet band 2 I, and the cuff be thus opened. At most, in such operation, the cuff will be closed by another two teeth to eifect this picking, which will not unduly harm the limb or cause theprisoner unbearable pain.
In the practice of this invention, I employ two additional detent means, specially positioned with respect to detent 26, and cooperating in'a manner as will be explained. These are denoted generally by the numerals 40 and 4| respectively.
Detent 40 has a tooth 42 for engagement with the ratchet band 2| in teeth of the latter which have passed beyond the teeth of detentv 26 when the cufi is set in closed condition, while detent 4| has a tooth 4| for engagement of the ratchet band 2| in the teeth thereof which have not as yet come in contact with those of detent 26 during the setting of the cuff in closed condition. Detent 40, swingably mounted on pin 21, is similar in body construction to the detent 26, to permit its downward swing by operation of the key 3|, and its locking by the bolt 23.
Detent 4| may be a latch slidable in slot 44, longitudinally in arm H of the spacer member l1, and urged into engagement with the ratchet band 2|. by means of a stressed compression coil spring 45. This detent 4| has a pair of projecting elements 46 and 41, spaced longitudinally thereon, between which is the finger 48 extending from the detent 46 which lies in cut-out 49. The position of this finger between said elements 46 and is such, that the detent 4| can be shifted out ofengagement with the ratchet band 2 without either of said elements movingly touching the finger 4B, and the detent 40 can be moved out of engagement with said ratchet band 2|, without said finger movingly touching said elements 46 or 41. But dimensions are such that when detent 40 is swung by the key movement, such shifting of said detent 46 is suiiicient so that its finger'48 contacts element 41 and shifts detent 4| out of engagement with said ratchet band. When the cuff is closed, all three detents 4|, 26 and 40 will engage the ratchet band 2|.
Let us now consider fpicking this locking mechanism. Assume that a picking wire could be inserted from the right in Fig. 2, between the arm I1? of the spacermember |1,;and the, teeth 22 of the ratchet band 2|, and thence into the chamber l9 until the end of the said wire con,- tacts the side 56 of tooth42 of detent 46. Even if said wire would go up between the teeth 42 and 6|,if it were not stopped by edge 56 of tooth 42, said wire of necessity will become bent and even if it could be pushed to the teeth of the detent 26', such bent end of the picking wire could do nothing further to open detent 4|. Then again, if picking is attempted from the left in Fig,-= 2-, the picking wire saycan be inserted at 53 and the cuff closed a bit more so that said wire contact the straight edge 4|" of the detent or latch 4|, such wire will become bent, and say it does not bend, but actually pushes the detent 4| out of engagementwith the ratchet band 2l, the cuff size has thus become smaller by at least two teeth of 22. As the wire is pushed further, cufi size be comes smaller, and by the time the teeth of detent 26 are disengaged, cufi size has suffered another decrease of several teeth in size, Then to .overcome the engagement of detent 40, another decrease in cuff size must occur. The total resultingnecessary decreasein cuff size is so great that theshackled limbwould be crushed to .be contracted-to such resulting reduced cuff size. So though picking of the-lock mechanism mayebe theoretically possible, the shackled limb would have to 'be of sponge rubber nature, to be accomplished. It might be noted that if picking were attempted, the picking'wire would be stopped by the straight edge 4|" or 5!] respectively, so thateven attempts made witha wire inserted at each end of the" chamber |9;-would prove futile. Thev stiffnessof springs 28 and 45, .the precision fit of the parts, and thelimited dimension between plates l5 and. |;6 ,;besides the constructional incidents and relative-positionsof the three detents, would require much a stronger wire than is possible here for use.
It may here be noted that thedetents 40 and 4| may be or several separate thin plates or pi e e 639 t ersasrmenti n forth:
detent member 26, inorder-toavoid-successful picking by a thin blade-inserted between-the ratchetmember. 2| and one of the plates; t5; or IE on which arev mounted the locking mechanism. For if one of the vpieces composing .a detent member were disengagedfrom. the ratchet member, the remainder would continue in engagement and the shackle remain-closed.
lso to be -no-ted-,--that but. a single spring. 28 acts to maintain both detent members 26 and 40 in engagement with the ratchet member 2|, and although detent 26 becomes disengaged, the lessening of the angle between the arms of said spring would not be sufficient to release detent member 49 from its engagement from the ratchet member 2 i, because of the greater angle of swing required of detent member 46 to accomplish its release. Any other spring means would need be further stressed after release of detent member 26, to afford release of detent member 40, if such spring acts between the axis of swing of such detent members and the points on the ratchet member where such detent members respectively engage such ratchet member. Use of a single spring in the instance mentioned, not only makes for economy in assembly, but gives a stronger spring for both detent members 26 and 40, than would be possible if a separate spring were used for each. Also, bulkiness is avoided.
This invention is capable of numerous forms and various applications without departing from the essential features herein disclosed. It is therefore intended and desired that the embodiment shown herein be deemed illustrative and not restrictive and that the patent shall cover all patentable novelty herein set forth; reference being had to the following claims rather than to the specific description herein to indicate the scope of this invention.
1. A handcuff, shackle or the like, including a ratchet member constituting part of a cuff, a lock-mounting member constituting the other part of the cuff; both said members being pivotally connected so that when one is moved with respect to the other, the size of the cuff is changed or the cuff is opened for the admission of a limb to be shackled thereby; the teeth of the ratchet member being arranged at its free end along an arc whose center is said pivot point, and lock mechanism carried on said mounting member, including two spring-loaded detent members adapted to engage the ratchet teeth when the cuff is closed, permitting free movement of the ratchet member to reduce cuff size and preventing movement of said ratchet member to increase cuff size; said two detent members being positioned so that one of them engages the ratchet member before the other does, upon movement of the ratchet member to close and reduce the size of the cuff, means on a particular one of said detent members, adapted to cooperate with a key whereby upon key movement in a given direction, said particular detent member is moved out of engagement from the ratchet member and cooperating means on both said detent members permitting each of said detent members independent movement for disengagement from the ratchet member without effecting one another except that upon movement of said particular detent member further away from the ratchet member by further operation of the key after said particular detent member is disengaged from said ratchet member, such cooperat- 111 means on the detent members will coact to more the second detent iner-miter out of engage ment from-the ratchet-member,- whereupon the said ratchet member is released for movement in both directions about the pivot point.
2. A device as defined in claim 1, wherein the two detent members are so positioned that when they both are in engagement. the ratchet member there is at least one unengaged tooth of said ratchet member between said detent memers.
3. A device as defined in claim 1, wherein the mentioned cooperating means on the two detent members comprises two spaced elements on one of said detent members and a third element extending from the other of said detent members into the space between said first two elements whereby on movement of either of the detent members back and forth, said third element will be in contact with each of the other elements respectively a predetermined period.
. 4. A device as defined in claim 1, wherein one of the detent members is swingably mounted and the other is slidably mounted on the mounting member.
5. A device as defined in claim 1, wherein the lock mechanism includes a third detent member which is spring-loaded and positioned to engage the ratchet member between the points of engagement of the other two detent members with the ratchet member; said third detent member having means adapted to cooperate with the key whereby upon movement of the key to cause release of the first two detent members from engagement with the ratchet member, the said third detent member is also released from such engagement with the ratchet member; said third detent member being so positioned that when all three detent members are in engagement with the ratchet member, there is at last one unengaged tooth of the ratchet member between every two detent members.
6. A device as defined in claim 5, wherein the said third detent member and one of the others are each swingably mounted and acted on by a single spring positioned to contact them at points between their axes of swin and the points where they respectively engage the ratchet member, whereupon disengagement of one such detent member from the ratchet member, the other detent member will remain in engagement with said ratchet member.
'7. A handcufi, shackle or the like, including a ratchet member constituting part of the cuff, a lock-mounting member constituting the other part of the cufi; both said members being pivotally connected so that when one is moved with respect to the other, the size of the cuff is changed or the cuff is opened for the admission of a limb to be shackled thereby; the teeth of the ratchet member being arranged at its free end alon an arc whose center is said pivot point, and lock mechanism carried on said mounting member, including two spring-loaded detent members adapted to engage the ratchet teeth when the cuff is closed, permitting free movement of the ratchet member to reduce cufi size and preventing movement of said ratchet member to increase cuff size; said two detent members, being individually movable in the same direction to disengage the ratchet member, and said two detent members being positioned so that one of them engages the ratchet member before the other does, upon movement of the ratchet member to close and reduce the size of the cuff, and when they both are in.
engagement with themtchet member, there isat least one unengaged tooth of said ratchet member Ni1mber between sald detent members. 1,572,262-
SAMUEL P. GRAY. 55 6 REFERENCES CITED 5 .1300342 'The following references are of record in the 'filebf'this patent: Number V UNITED STATES PATENTS Franoe May 24, 1927
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