US 2571057 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 9, 1951 R. PATTERSON SHINGLE AND SHINGLE COVERING 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 21, 1947 FIG I 4 lNVENTOR ROBERT PATTERSON FIG. 3
ATTORNEY Oct. 9, 1951 R. PATTERSON SHINGLE AND SHINGLE COVERING Filed July 21, 1947 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR ROBERT PATTERSON ATTORNEY Oct. 9, 1951 R. PATTERSON SHINGLE AND SHINGLE COVERING Filed July 21, 1947 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 FlG. 7
INVENTOR ROBERT PATTERSON ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 9, 1951 SHINGLE AND SHINGLE COVERING Robert Patterson, Memphis, Tenn assignor to Multi Shingle Corporation, Memphis, Tenn., a
corporation of Tennessee Application July 21, 1947, Serial No.-762,363
7 Claims. (01. 108-7) The present invention relates to shingles and shingle coverings for application as roof or side coverings of building.
In a prior application for patent, issued as Patent No. 2,228,362 on January 14, 1941, I disclosed a shingle covering composed of individual shingles having a comparatively rigid base portion of insulating material and an outer covering of flexible roofing material and wherein the base portion served to support and reinforce the flexible covering material and acted to prevent the exposed parts of the flexible covering from curling or raising in the wind.
In distinction, the present improvement is directed to a general purpose, economical and light weight shingle construction consisting of a uniformly thin section, flexible roofing material which is capable of ready use and application in a strip form. It is further concerned with a shingle of the indicated character and in which the application thereof as roof or side coverings of buildings may be carried out in a variety of ways to impart selectively different outward appearances. These shingles are accordingly considerably less bulky, are of a comparatively light weight and easy to handle character, and do not require the rigid base for support and reinforcement, as was disclosed in the above mentioned Patent 2,228,362.
It is therefore, an important object of the present invention to provide a shingle of the indicated character which is economical to manufacture, may be formed from a variety of suitable materials and can be selectively applied as a roof or side covering to impart differing appearances.
It is also an object to provide an improved shingle having a characteristic and standardized basic form which will enable its economical and rapid production in multiple or elongate strips, and enable its rapid and accurate assembly in parallel courses with the individual shingles uniformly positioned in either one of two ways.
More specifically, the present invention consists in the shingle covering and in the form and combination of individual shingles hereafter described and claimed, particular reference bein directed to the accompanying drawing wherein:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of my improved shingle illustrating its basic form of construction;
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the improved shingle in its elongate strip form;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary side elevation of a roof or side wall having the shingles positioned thereon in one of the selective assembly arrangements;
Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional elevation on the line 44 in Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary side elevation of g a modified shingle covering assembly;
Fig. 6 is a transverse sectional elevation on line 6-6 of Fig. 5;
Fig. 7 is a perspective view of a strip shingle suitable for use as a side wall covering, and
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary assembly view of the shingles illustrated in Fig. 7.
With particular reference to the drawing, I have shownin Fig. 1, the improved shingle in its simplest, characteristic form at A. The shingle may be formed from any of the commere cially obtainable materials, or asbestos and glass materials, or prepared slate material. Aside from the material to be employed, this shingle A is suitably cut or shaped to provide a relatively thin-section body I havin oppositely extending wings 2 and an extended body portion forming a tab 3. Each of the wings 2 has a lug portion l located on the outer margin and extending downwardly from the upper edge thereof for a short distance to form a notch or marginal step in the wing, this notch being extended to the lower edge of the wing. It will be noted that the lower edge of each wing 2 is flush with the margin of the body I, and that the tab 3 projects beyond the upper aligned edges of these wings 2 at the opposite margin of the body I. In the interest of simplicity and selective application of the shingle, it is preferred that the width of the tab 3 be substantially equal to twice the width of each wing 2 as measured along the upper edge of the latter and including the lug 4. It is also preferred to have the length of each of the notches substantially equal to the length of the tab 3 as the latter is measured from the aligned upper margins of the wings 2.
Fig. 2 illustrates the present shingle in its strip form B wherein a plurality of distinct body sections 5 are integrally connected. In this strip form, each body section 5 is substantially identical with the form of the shingle A in Fig. 1.
- Accordingly the body sections 5 of the strip shingle B, each include oppositely directed wings 5 having lugs l, and a body extension or tab portion 8. The lugs 1 between adjacent shingle body sections 5 are integrally formed to connect the respective sections. In the manufacture of the multi-section shingle B, one longitudinal margin of the strip material is notched or slotted at 9 (Fig. 2) to define and distinctly identify the body sections 5, while the opposite longitudinal margin is cut or formed to provide the spaced tabs 8 at zones between or staggered relative to swam 3 the notches 9. Thus the lugs 1 form bridging portions at the respective notches and maintain the body sections in connected relation.
A strip of material suitably cut in the manner described and providing a continuous length of connected shingle body sections 5 may be later reduced to the three-section form as shown at B, or the single form as at A. The form B will then have its free ends provided with the free lugs I and the half-notches 9. Moreover, the three-section shingle B is very desirable from the point of view of weight, handling ease, and economy of manufacture, and may be carried as a stock item to eliminate the need for stocking several styles of shingles as generally prevails now. It is also advantageous as the shingles can be made in continuous lengths with adjacent strips reversely paired such that the tabs of one intermesh with the tabs of the other. Thus, as finally formed, 'the shingle strips will have a total width between opposite longitudinal margins which greater than the combined length of a notch and a tab portion by an amount suflicient to form the lugs I.
One application of the improved multi-tab shingle strip B is shown in Figs. 3 and 4 in connection with a fragmentary portion of a roof or wall surface I2 which is to be covered thereby. The surface I2 is usually provided with a margin 13 from which the laying of the shingle strips is started with the application of a suitable starting layer of covering material I4 to underlie and fill in the respective slots 9 of the first course of shingles B. The first course of shingles B are positioned with the tabs 8 directed upwardly and 'are secured by suitable elements I5 either engaging in prepared openings I5 or initially driven into position at about the location of such openin'gs I5. In this manner shingle body sections 5 or one strip are located in lateral continuity with similar shingle body sections of the next adjacent strip throughout the length of one shingle course. The next overlying and parallel course of shingle strips are .positioned with the respective tabs 8 positioned between and in laterally ofi-set or upwardly extended relation with respect to the tabs 8 of the first course. Thus,-each body section 5 of the overlying shingles will be in -lapping relation with two adjacent body sections 5 of the lower course of shingles. A rapid and'accurate alignment and laying of the lap- :ping course of shingle strips will obtain by utilizing adjacent tabs 8 of the under course as guides for locating the upper tabs 8, the extent of overlap being easily governed by registration of the upper margins of the body wings 6 with the upper margins of the spaced tabs 8 lying therebelow. Securing elements I5 may then be applied to hold the second course of shingles in place. This same procedure is to be repeated for each succeeding course of shingles until the surface I2 is fully covered.
The shingle assembly shown in Fig. 3 is made to appear as any conventional shingle covering, but it will be at once apparent that the present shingles, when taken individually, have substantially less material than conventional, fully body shingles. However, a fully equivalent protective covering is provided by the improved shingles when laid in accordance with the above outlined procedure. The result is that the shingles -A or shingle strips B require approximately 19 to 22 percent less material than equivalent shingles of the conventional form, and the reduction in the weight thereof is proportionately in favor of the improved shingles. These latter shingles have the further advantage in that the disposition of the tabs 8 and slots 9 between body wings 6 will allow for some misalignment of an overlying course relative to an alignment underlying course without impairing the protective covering afforded thereby or upsetting the outward appearance thereof.
A modified application of the improved multi tab shingle strips B is shown in Figs. 5 and 6, wherein a fragmentary surface area I6 is covered thereby. The lower margin I! of this surface I6 is used as a guide for aligning the starting course of covering material I8. The first course of shingle B are applied with the tabs 8 directed downwardly in the manner shown. The
next adjacent, parallel course of shingles B is arranged with its downwardly directed tabs 8 lying between and in a laterally oif-set relation to the tabs 8 of the first course. Moreover, the upper tabs are positioned for marginally registering with the margins of the Wings 8 so as to cover the slots 9 thereof as well as the securing elements I5 for holding the shingles in place. In this case the completed shingle covering imparts the appearance of vertically elongate blocks arranged in diagonally staggered rows. The rapid and accurate laying of each succeeding course of shingles B is greatly facilitated by the visual guidance afiorded by the spaced tabs 8 of the last adjacent course.
It will be observed in Figs. 3 and 5 that the reversability of the shingles of the character shown at B produces distinctoutward designs of coverings which is not possible of the prior shingles. The further new result obtained with a shingle of the form shown resides in the self-aligning character of the shingles, as a result of the provision of tabs and spaces which coact for improving the accuracy and speed of laying the shingles. The notches in the margin opposite the tabs, not only produce a design effect when the shingles are laid according to Fig, 3, but serve as safety guides for denoting the areas in which the shingle securing elements or nails are to be "located. This is important as it determines the securing of adjacent shingle courses at the same time, and places the nails inan area fully covered by the overlying courses of shingles.
In Fig. 7 I have illustrated a modified shingle stripC which is generally preferred for use as a building side wall covering. In this form of shingle the elongate shingle body 20 is formed at one longitudinal margin with tabs 21 which are substantially symmetrically located and are identical astogsize and spacing with the tabs 8 of the shingle B shown in Fig. 2. That is each of the tabs are dimensionally similar as measured longitudinally and transversely, and the distance between each tab is similar to the longitudinal dimension thereof. The body end or wing portion :20 projecting beyond each end tab 8 measures substantially one-half that of the spacing between the tabs 21. The opposite margin how- 'ever i left unsl'otted or plain such that in assembly (Fig. 8) the shingle covering affords an outward finished appearance-of continuous lon-:- gitudinal strips with the tabs 2I underlying the next adjacent shingles and secured to the wall structure Z Z'by means of the securing elements 15 engaging in "prepared opening -I5 or driven into place upon assembly. In an assembly of this character which imparts the characteristic ship lap appearance "to the building side wall, the starting course of shingles C is secured over a suitable starting strip 23 so that the end abu't 51 merit between the respective shingles may have a protective under layer of a waterproof material. This modified shingle C possessesall of the advantages of the shingle B and also requires one less operation in its manufacture.
The selective application of the present form of shingle covering is of great advantage where, with one form of shingle, the side wall covering on a building may be made to differ from that of the roof covering. Furthermore, it is economically better practice to be able to mass produce a few shingles having substantially a standard form and use these shingles in a variety of applications, than to produce a great number of single purpose shingles specifically limited to a given application. The first mentioned form of shingles, and the ones here preferred, may be manufactured in quantity and at low cost, as compared with the manufacture of a large number of single purpose shingles which has heretofore prevailed. Moreover, a considerable saving in material can be achieved with shingles of the type here described, and the weight reduction of the same is also a factor of useful consideration tending to make the shingles universally adaptable.
The foregoing detailed description relates to a presently preferred form and character of shingle and shingle covering and to certain selective applications thereof for roof and side wall coverings of a building, but it should be clearly understood that certain modifications and variation may come within the intended spirit of the invention and without restricting the same to the precise details shown herein, except as may be limited by the scope of the appended claims.
What I claim is:
1. A shingle consisting of an elongate body of roofing material formed with a plurality of spaced notches opening from one longitudinal margin and a plurality of spaced tabs in the opposite longitudinal margin, with the notches and tabs located in longitudinally staggered and symmetrical relation, the width of the shingle being greater than the combined length of a notch and tab to provide a connective width of body material bridging each notch and the corresponding space between adjacent tabs, the area of each tab and each intervening space being substantially equal, and each of the opposite free ends of the shingle being similarly formed with a half-notch and a lug, the connective width of material and the end lugs forming shingle areas for the location of shingle nails with the notches forming locating guides therefor.
2. A shingle consisting of an elongate body of roofing material formed with a plurality of spaced tabs in one longitudinal margin, the area of each tab and each space being substantially equal, the shingle body being also formed with a plurality of spaced notches in the opposite longitudinal margin, the length of each notch being substantially equal to the length of each tab and the width of the shingle being greater than the combined length of a tab and a notch to provide a connective area bridging the notches, the notches being located oppositely of the spaces between adjacent tabs to form a longitudinally staggered and symmetrical relationship of tabs and notches, and the shingle being formed with opposite end wing portions, each having its free end provided with a half-notch and a lug, the lugs being spaced outwardly of adjacent tabs a distance substantially equal to one-half the tab 6; width, the length of said half-notches being sub stantially equal to the length of said notches,
whereby there is provided, in said lugs and connective area bridging said notches, a continuous.
shingle area for the location of shingle securing elements with the notches and half-notches serving a locating guides therefor. i
3. A shingle covering composed of a plurality of similar shingles laid in parallel, overlapping courses, with the shingles of each course positioned in endwise abutment, each of the shingles in the covering being constituted of an elongate body of a prepared covering material, in which the body is formed with a plurality of tabs spaced along one margin and a plurality of notches spaced along the opposite margin in symmetrically and staggered relation with said tabs, the width of the shingle body being greater than the combined length of a tab and a notch, as the latter are measured across the width of the body, such that a continuous longitudinal connective area is provided bridging said notches and spaces between said tabs, the shingles in the covering being positioned with the tabs similarly directed so that the spaced tabs in one course of shingles serve to align theshingles in the next course with the tabs thereof directed to lie between and in relatively off-set relation, the notches in the shingles of said next course being thereby brought into positions indicating a zone of the connective area of each shingle which is overlying the said one course of shingles and in which zone the adjacent courses of shingles may be nailed toether.
4. A shingle covering consisting of a plurality of similar shingles laid in parallel courses with the shingles of each course in endwise abutment, each shingle of the covering being constituted of a covering material formed to provide a plurality of spaced tabs in one longitudinal margin and a plurality of spaced notches in the opposite margin, with the notches and tabs longitudinally staggered and symmetrically related, each tab and the intervening space being substantially similar in area, and the opposite end tabs each being located inwardly of the ends of the shingle to provide end wings having notched portions therein, said notches and notch portions having a length substantially equal to the length of a tab, the width of the shingle being greater than the combined length of a tab and notch to provide a connective area bridging said notches, and the shingles of each course having the tabs directed upwardly, the tabs of an underlying course of shingles serving to guide the laying of the overlying course of shingles into position with the margins of the intervening spaces flush with the outer margins of the underlying tabs, thereby bringing the connective areas of the overlying shingles into positions over the tabs of the underlying shingles so that said notches in the overlying shingles serve as guides for nailing the shingles of adjacent courses together.
5. A shingle covering consisting of a plurality of similar shingles laid in parallel courses with the shingles of each course positioned in endwise abutment, each shingle of the covering being formed to provide a plurality of spaced tabs in one longitudinal margin and a plurality of spaced notches in the opposite margin, with the notches and tabs located in longitudinally and symmetrically staggered relation, each of said tabs and the intervening spaces being substantially similar in area, and the opposite end tabs each being located inwardly of the adjacent end of the shingle provide an end space substantially oneasmcozz half the ar'ea et-a space between two adjacent tabs, said n'otches having a length substantially equal to the length -'of a tab, the width -:of the shingle being greater than the combined length of a 'tab and notch to provide a connective area bridging said notches, and the shingles :of each course having theirtabsidirecteddownwardly, the margins of the spaces between tabs of 'an underlying course of shingles guiding the tabs -"0f an overlying course of shingles into 'position'with the outer margins of the overlying tabs :fiush with the margins of the spaces between tabs of the underlying shingles, thereby bringing the connective areas of the overlyingshingles into positions over the underlying shingles and between-spaced notches therein-so thatsaid notches of the overl'ymg'xz'eurse of shingles serve as aligning guides for nailing the shingles of adjacent courses together.
"6. -A:shingle of the character described for reversible applica'ti'on consisting of a body having a plurality of uniformly spaced tabs along one longitudinal body mar-ginpand a plurality of uni- Iormly spaced-notches along the opposite longitudinal body rn'airgin, the body being extended at its opposite ends beyond an adl'acen't tab to provide end wings each having-a lug and-a notch portion, the-tabs and notches and notch portions being arranged inlongitudinallystaggered, substantially symmetrical relation to afford a uniform location o'f tabs-each in substantially centered relation to a pair of adjacent notches, said body having awidthgreater than the combined length of a notch and tab to provide a connective width-of body material bridgin'g each notch and the space between said tabs, said notches and tabs a'cting selectively for reverse application of said shingle toguidetheiocatingof shingle nails in the connective body area.
'1. A shingle of the character describedior reversible application consisting of an elongate body having a plurality of uniformly spaced tabs along on'elongitudinal body 'margin, and a plurality of uniformly spaced notches along the opposite Iongitudinal body margin, said notches being arranged in substantially centered relation opposite the spaces between said tabs and the notches defining 'therebetween shingle body sections located opposite the tabs, the width of the shingle body being greater than the combined length of a tab and a notch toprovide a connective width of body material bridging the notches and spaces between tabs, theopposite ends of the elongate body being extended beyond the adjacent tabs to provide body end wings, the reverse application or said shingle requiring a like number of shingles to 'cover equal areas and said notches and tabs acting selectively for reverse applications of said shingle to guide the locating of shingle nails in the connective body area.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 891,501 Overbury "June 23, 1908 1,629,146 Busha Mayl'l, 1927 2,071,430 Reynolds Feb. 23, 1937 2,138,663 Miles Nov. 29, 1938 2,144,678 Goldschmidt, Sr. Jan. 24. 1939 2,228,362 Patterson Jan. 14, 1941