US 2572714 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 23, 1951 1. M. FUNDERBURG, JR 2,572,714
ARTIFICIAL DENTURE 2 SHEETS-SHEET 1 Filed May 16, 1950 INVENTOR [5A A c M.- FUNDERBURG, JR.
BY 9w 5 ATTORNEY Oct. 23, 1951 l. M. FUNDERBURG, JR
lii'lllll Patented Oct. 23, 1951 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 16 Claims. (01. rag-s This invention relates to artificial dentures. of the semi-permanent type and, more particularly,. to apparatus for fastening; three or more artificial teeth on, a jawbone.
The object of this invention is to provide a. mounting wherebyartificial, teeth are mechanically and directly supported on the jawbone. Another object is to provide a mounting for artificial; teeth, wherein the work-load on a tooth, or an interconnected: group of teeth, is distributed over a relatively large area of jawbone.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a multiple mounting for artificial teeth which, by dental surgery, can be permanently attached to the jawbone in readiness to receive the teeth to be supported on it, and which can be left in place for inspection, and during preliminary healing of the jawbone and gum without danger of misalignment of the parts which support the various teeth.
In accordance with this invention it. is further proposed to provide a base plate for p rmanent attachment to the jawbone, as by screws, or other means, and with upstanding posts. at various locations for adequate support in a unit of, for instance, three artificial teeth, the first and third teeth having downwardly disposed sockets so as to fit. down over the posts, with the second one extending bridge-like between. It is a particular object that the teeth fitting down over the post transmit their vertical loads via cushions to the posts; that the teeth intermediate the posts be supported between the ones fitting over the posts. In the arrangement outlined above, it is intended to provide in one embodiment of the invention, a locking mechanism accessible, with ordinary dental tools, from the inner side of the teeth but which, without positive and deliberate actuation, cannot be unlocked, as by accidental engagement in brushing, or by chewing tough or stickyfoods. In keeping With these objects, it is intended that the mechanism for locking the teeth on the posts be mechanically independent of the load-bearing elements, the locking mechanism serving only to prevent accidental removal of the teeth from their'supporting posts.
In a second embodiment of the invention, it. i intended to provide, a spring-ring detent engaging, in a blocking manner, within cooperating an nular grooves; on the supporting;- posts and tooth; sockets.
These and other objects will be apparent from the; following specification and drawing, in which;
Fig. 1 is a vertical cross section taken longitudinally through the middle, of one embodiment of. the invention;
Fig. 2 is, a, transverse cross-section along the line 2-2 of Fig. 1', looking in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 3 is a. horizontal crossrsection taken along theline 3- 3 of Fig. 1;;
Fig. 4 is a vertical cross section similar to Fig. l but showing a second; embodiment of the invention; and
Fig. 5' is a, plan view of the, Spring snap ring utilized in the Fig. 4- embodiment...
Referring now to the drawings in which like reference numerals denote similar elements, the first embodiment of the invention. is disclosed as applied to a unit of three artificial teeth 2... 4. and 6 respectively and, with the further assumption that these are lower teeth, itbeing understood that more than. three, teeth may be embodied in a unit in which, in some cases might constitute, an artificial denture for the entire lower set. The denture is, appliedv directly to the jawbone, a section of which is diagrammatically illustrated at 8' after having first removed all traces of former teeth.
The portion, of the. denture permanently attached to jawbone 8 includes the elongate base In formed preferably of stainless steel or other non-corrosive or non-reactive material which, in the illustrated embodiment, is. a flat strip |-2- secured directly to the jawbone screws l4 passing through. countersunk screw holes [6, it being understood that the teeth 2, 4 and a are not attached when; base I0 is installed. Integrally united with strip l2 were shown a pair of spaced adjacent cylindrical posts l8 and 20, each having a flat top 22 and a notch 24 in the side facing the adjacent post. Notches 24. are each of a downwardly andoutwardl-y' inclined face 26 terminating, at the top, in a horizontal shoulder 28. After base l0, which comprises strip l2. and postsl8 and 20 has been installed, the teeth themselves may then be mounted.
The bodies of the teeth are suitably molded of known plastic materials which, in most of their outer configuration, conform inshape, color, and tint with corresponding natural teeth which they replace and, of course, are. shaped to. cooperate with opposing natural or artificial teeth. The material of each, of, the end teeth 2 and 5 is molded around and integrally united with a stainlesssteel. lining sleeve 30v shaped and dimensioned to, slide closely over the appropriate supporting post I8. or 211.
A pad 3.l formed of rubber or similar resilient material, is. engaged between the top end oi each post. l8 or 20. and the closed inner end of lining sleeve, 30, so as to cushion the. forces operating which the plastic tooth metal may be molded.
After working parts described below have been inserted, the half tube 38 may be connected to half tube 36 by screw 40 passing through ears 4! on the half tubes. Half tube 36 may include, in its preassembly also, two pairs of oppositely working spring fingers 42 riveted as at 44 to half tube 36 so as toconstitute guides for the detents described below; In the middle'of half tube 36 there is also permanently aflixed a bushing 46 for rotatably supporting the end of a stub shaft 60 which extends outwardly through an opening 48 in half tube 39. v
Laterally movable within tube 34 are a pair of elongate detents 52, 54, each of which has an inclined or wedge shaped outer end for fitting in a notch 24 and a reduced inner end 51 having therethrough a transverse pintle hole. Stub shaft 60 rotatably supported in bushing 46 and opening 48 has on opposite sides a set of crank elements in the form of ears 62 pivoted to the reduced inner ends 51 to detent 52 by pintles 64. In order to prevent accidental dislodgement of shaft 60 there is provided a stop collar 56 and to facilitate manual turning, preferably with a screw driver, of shaft 60 a slot 68 is cut in the end which extends exteriorly in the unit. Rubber gaskets 50 afiixed in the ends of tube 34 seal off the tube against ingress of saliva and limit transfer of bacteria.
After base H] has been permanently installed, the unit of teeth 2 and 6 is readied for installation by rotating shaft 60 so as to retract detents 52 and 54 inwardly, there being enough play in the fit of the various parts so as to permit the small angular movement of the outer ends of the detents. Thereupon the unit is fitted down with sleeves 3B sliding over posts [3 and and, when the unit is fitted on shaft 60 it is rotated by in serting screw driver in slot 68 and turning so as to extend detent 54 and 52 laterally into notches 24. The tops of the detents willengage between shoulder 28 in each instance to prevent any withdrawing vertically of the unit while slopes 24 and 56 on'the notch and detent respectively provide slight inward camming of the detents during the cushioned downward movement of the teeth on the posts. springs 42 tend to return the detents to their horizontal position shown in Fig. 1 wherein they are fully extended. Obviously the denture may be removed simply by again rotating shaft 60 so as to retract the detents.
The embodiment illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5 is basically similar to that previously described in that teeth 2', 4', 6' are removably supported on posts I8, 20.
As do their counterparts in the previous em-.
bodiment, posts [8, 20' are integral with a stainless steel base ID secured by screws Hi to jawbone 8 so as to constitute a permanent fixture. Also similarly, teeth 2' and 4' are provided with cylindrical stainless steel liners 36' which fit down over posts [8, 20' and between the tops of whiqh base, artificial tooth means having sockets spaced lie rubber pads 3|. However, in this instance tooth 4 is solid, being formed around ametal re-enforcing bar integrally secured at its ends 8| as by welding to stainless steel liners 30.
As shown in Fig. 4, teeth 2' and 4' are removably afiixed on posts 3', 20 by a snap-on connection. Liners 3B are each provided with an outwardly extending groove 82, while posts I8, 20' are also provided with circumferential grooves 83. A split spring ring 84, of substantially the same cross-section as post groove 83 engages therein when compressed, ring 84 being biased so as normally to expand to slightly larger diameter than the post about which it is engaged so that the outer portion thereof lies in sleeve groove 82. It is thus apparent that rings 84 can be slightly compressed into post grooves 83, when the teeth are installed and when they are in the position shown in Fig. 4, rings 82 will snap outwardly so as to prevent removal of the teeth by any but of course, spring back to their normal expanded condition. The pulling forces necessary to cam rings 84 inwardly for removing the teeth are far in excess of those encountered in normal chew-, ing, but well within the range of those exertible by digital manipulation. It is apparent also that this embodiment of the invention is usable for a unit of one or two teeth, as well as for three or more.
The invention detailed above is not limited to the specific structure embodied'for purposes of illustration but is intended to cover all modifications and equivalents within the scope of the fol-'- lowing claims.
1. An artificial denture comprising a strip of metal, means for attaching said strip to a jawbone, spaced upstanding posts integral with said strip, said posts having recesses in the side walls thereof, a unit of at least three artificial teeth comprising end teeth and a center tooth integrally united with one another, said end teeth each having a downwardly facing, generally ver-- tical socket extending substantially axially therein dimensioned for engagement over said posts, said end teeth having opposed upwardly and downwardly facing interior surfaces vertically spaced from one another and extending laterally outward from said sockets and yieldable detent means engaged in the recesses in said posts and said interior surfaces.
2. In the combination claimed in claim 1, resilient pads engaged between the top ends of said posts and the inner ends of said sockets and vertically separating the same.
3. An artificial denture comprising a base, plurality of spaced, upstanding posts on said from one another and fitting over said posts and. a hollow passage extending laterally between said sockets, and latch means in said hollow pas-- sage, said latch means including laterally movable detents retractably extensible into said;
sockets for engagement w th aid posts.
4. The combination claimed in claim 3, said sockets having closed inner ends overlying the upper ends of said posts, and resilient cushions engaged between the upper ends of said posts and the closed inner ends of said sockets.
5. The combination claimed in claim 3, and operating means extending externally of said tooth means for moving said detents laterally.
6. The combination claimed in claim 3, said base comprising an elongate strip of metal, and means for securing said strip to the jawbone of a user.
7. The combination claimed in claim 3, said artificial tooth means being of moldable plastic material integrally united over metallic liners defining said sockets and passage.
8. The combination claimed-in claim 3, said posts having notches in the sides thereof for receiving said detents.
9. An artificial denture comprising a generally fiat strip of metal having screw holes therein for attachment to a jawbone, at least a pair of spaced, upstanding posts integral with said base, said posts each having a notch in the side thereof with said notches facing one another, a unit of at least three artificial teeth comprising end teeth and a center tooth integrally united to one another, said end teeth having a downwardly facing, generally vertical socket therein spaced and dimensioned for engagement over said posts, said unit having a generally horizontal passage extending laterally between said sockets, a shaft rotatably mounted in said center tooth and extending transversely of said passage, oppositely disposed crank arms fixed on said shaft, and detents comprising elongate elements having inner ends pivoted to said crank arms and outer ends retractably engageable, upon rotation of said shaft, into and out of said notches.
10. The combination claimed in claim 9, said end teeth having cylindrical, open-bottom metallic liners surrounding said sockets and having openings therein respectively registering with said notches.
11. The combination claimed in claim 10, said passage having a cylindrical metallic liner, the ends of the last-mentioned liner being integrally united with the liners surrounding said sockets.
12. An artificial denture comprising a generally fiat strip of metal having screw holes therein for attachment to a jawbone, at least a pair of spaced upstanding posts integral with said strip, said posts each having a circumferential groove in the side wall thereof, a unit of at least three artificial teeth comprising end teeth and a center tooth integrally united to one another, said end teeth each having a downwardly facing, generally vertical socket therein dimensioned for engagement over said posts, said sockets each having an annular groove therein, said grooves lying opposite the circumferential grooves on said posts when said teeth are normally engaged thereon, and detents comprising spring rings engaged in said grooves for yieldably blocking relative movement between said sockets and said posts.
13. The combination claimed in claim 12, said spring ring being split and biased towards expansion, the circumferential grooves in said posts being dimensioned for encompassing said rings substantially in their entireties when said rings are compressed inwardly.
14. The combination claimed in claim 8, said end teeth having cylindrical, open-bottom metallic liners surrounding said sockets.
15. The combination claimed in claim 13, said passage having a cylindrical metallic liner, the center teeth having a metallic re-enforcing bar integrally united with said liners.
16. An artificial denture comprising a generally flat strip of metal, means for attaching said strip flatwise to a jawbone, an upstanding post integral with said strip, said post having a circumferential groove therein, an artificial tooth having a downwardly facing socket therein for close fitting engagement over said post, said socket having a groove in the inner periphery thereof, said sdcket, post, and grooves being so arranged with respect to one another that said grooves lie opposite one another when said tooth is engaged in a working position on said post, and a split spring ring engaged in said grooves for holding said tooth in position on said post.
ISAAC M. FUNDERBURG, JR.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 583,565 Carr June 1, 1897 832,528 Bennett Oct. 2, 1906 1,193,329 Withycombe Aug. 1, 1916 1,324,476 Supplee Dec. 9, 1919 1,621,702 Yantis Mar. 22, 1927 1,976,085 Neurohr Oct. 9, 1934