|Publication number||US2575674 A|
|Publication date||Nov 20, 1951|
|Filing date||Mar 26, 1949|
|Priority date||Mar 26, 1949|
|Also published as||DE855368C|
|Publication number||US 2575674 A, US 2575674A, US-A-2575674, US2575674 A, US2575674A|
|Inventors||Harry C Miller|
|Original Assignee||Harry C Miller|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (21), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Nov. 20, 1951 H. c. MILLER 2,575,574
PERMUTA'TION LOCK' Filed March 2e,k 1949 f s sheets-sheet 1 big/Milla Nov. 20,519,511., H. c. MILLER PERMUTATION-LOCK 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Mar-ch .26, 1949 n INVENTOR.
a/zlyjlillel' ATTORNEYS NOV. H.. Q MILLER 2,575,674
` PERMUTATION Locx Filed Marchv 26, 1949 3 Sheets-Sheet .'5
I N VEN TOR.
Patented Nov. 20, 1951 UNITE-D STAT-Es PAT-:ENT
-PERIYITATION LOCK Harri;1 '-0.1Miller, Fair-fai, Va.
ApplicationMarc'h 26, 19'49, 'Serial'Nm l83,5413
"-13 Claims. (C1.170-'129) This invention relates to improvements'in permutation locks, commonly referred to as combination locks.
Locksof the type commonly referred to as combination locks are, of course, verywell known. Also it is generally known that such locks depend for -their operation upon the alignment of .a plurality of elements in a preselected manner which permits the .operation of a bolt. 'These elements-are usuallyinthe form o'f discs, common- 'ly called tumblers., each of which is provided with a notch .or recess, calleda gate, the alignment lof thegate determining when the bolt .can be moved. 'It `is common for these `locks .to b e provided with three discs, .although more coul'd be used. .'I'hesecurityof such locks isdependen't upon the factthat the number of-orders or permutations of the possible .relative positions .of each disc .before all ofthe .gatescome into register, which gives the correct combination, is so large that the chances of thesenotches or gates being aligned by a person not familiar with .the combinationis so small vas to be negligible.
The tumblersare operated through 4meansbf a driver wheel which alsohas aspecial gate. .An element called a ffence extends transversely across the edges of all .of .the ftumblers and :is adapted to drop into the gates when all of the gates in the tumblers are Vin alignment and when the driver wheel is manipulated to permit the fence to drop. Conventionally, thefence is -held in such a position .that kit is slightly `spaced from the outer peripheries of all of .the tumblers. However, because of the difficulty in manufacture, it is almost impossible to manufacture all of the parts, including the tumblers, to such close tolerances that there will be the sameslight difference in the space between the outer edges of the dilerent tumblers and the `fence. Accordingly, by ,a
very carfeul manipulation of the driver wheel to a position such that the fence drops against .the edge of the highest tumbler, a skilled person can detect by feel-o1- by a very minute sound or click kwhen one of the gates is aligned with the vfence.
Then by continuing .to .manipulate the -driver wheel by means ofthe dial, thegatefof thenext highest tumbler `can be aligned with the -fence and, therefore, with the gate of the iirst tumbler and so on until the correct combinationis found and the security of thelock is broken. Accordgate the driver Wheel. Furthermore, the 'special -gate can be opened 'only when this Adriver wheel gate is substantiallyaligned-with the-fence. This'avoids the defect of lthe'prior `devices that the driver 'wheel cannot 'be 1 turned -suciently to manipulate the tumblers when the'ga'te is open. Also, in order to Ainsure that 'the tumblers carnnot be vibratedor walkedbyoscillatingthe driver wheel over its limited arc .of'movementfinterlocking means aregprovidednthe form ofserra'tions on the "fence and -ontheperipheries 10i tthe-tum blers so that `as soon gas the 'driver wheel gate is opened the `fence 'rests on -the Ytumblers, the serrations being linter-#engaged 'thereby manipulation 'oi'.the tumblers practicallyimpcs-f sible.
The Iprimary object ,or thepresentinvention is to providera combinationflockin which a'manipulation of the .dial will-not jgive any-indicationftf the position of thegates'in'anyof 'the'tumblers .Another Objectis `to provide a combinationlock with `a driver wheel having'means for `selectively f closing thelgateinthe 'driverwheel'and for per# mitting rotation or the driver wheel `only when the gate is closed sothatthefence isheId-away from theperipheries ofthe tumblers.
Another yobject jis )to provide -a combination lock in which .the driver Wheelcannotbe rotated to manipulate'thetumblers When'the driver .Wheel gate is open.
Another o bj ect vis lto lprovide a combinationjlocl in which 'the `driver wheel ,cannot be -rotated to' manipulate the .tumblers when 'the driver 'Wheel gate 'is open and having interlocking means `be tween `the tumblers ,and thejfenee to prevent'the walking of the ,tumblers when the driver wheel gate is open.
,A still Afurther..oblectis toprovide .an improved combination lookin whichithe Afence can be held in `spaced relation ito vthe Aouter edges of all ,0L
' the tumblers untilthegates iniallofthe tuniblers4 are broughtinto alignment.
.Another .Objectis .,tocvercome defects of prior combination ,locks .by .providing means which holds .theience -in slightly spaced relation with respect tothe edgesfof thetumblers, .which,meanscan only be .operated rwhen .the,gates.inthe vari- Other and further objects willbecome.lteadill'J apparent feller-.ning description when considered in connection. with the accompanying drawings, illustrating an embodiment of the invention, and in which:
Figure 1 is a vertical section on line I-i of Figure 2 of a loclrmade in accordance with the present invention;
Figure 2 is the vertical section of Figure l; and
Figure 3 is a Vpartial vertical section showing the parts of the lock in-a dierent position from that shown in Figure 2;
Figure 4 is a partial sectional view on line 4-4 of Figure 1;
Figure 5 is a partial sectional view on line 5'-5 of Figure 2;
Figurt 6 is a partial View showing a modified form of the gate closing means;
Figure 7 is a View similar to Figure 6 showing the modified driver wheel in a diierent position; and
Figure 8 is an exploded perspective view of the modied driver wheel and gate closing means.
Figures 9 to 11 inclusive, are partial views showing various positions of the key-operated gateclosing means and showing the relative positions of the fence; and y Figure l2 is a partial vertical section showing the engagement of the fence with one of the tumblers, near its gate.
The illustrative drawings show a conventional combination lock modied in such a manner as to permit the application of an embodiment of on line 2--2 the'present invention. The conventional lock.
comprises ...a casing I connected by a press t to a hollow sleeve 2 which projects through a door 3. In the casing a plurality of tumblers 6, 1 and 8 are rotatably mountedon a cylindrical boss integral with the casing, the boss being substantially co-extensive with the sleeve 2. Secured to the outer end of the sleeve 2 is a suitable escutcheon plate 9. The casing is secured to the door 3 by the sleeve 2 and suitable screws. Inside the sleeve 2 is a shaft II, the inner end of which has rotatably iixed thereto a driver wheel I2, the opposite end of the shaft Il having a dial I3 xed thereto. As will be more clearly explained hereinafter the dial and its hub constitute the means through which the tumblers 6, 1 and 8 of the combination lock are manipulated.
Each of the tumblers 6, 1 and 8 are of conventional construction and are divided in two parts, an inner part serving as a hub and an outer part having a suitable notch or gate 6a, 1a., and 8a, respectively, it being understood that all of the gates of the tumblers must be in proper alignment in order to operate the bolt of the lock. Conventional means are provided for changing the relative position between the hub portion and the outer portion of the tumblers for the purpose of changing the lock combination. Suitable xed washers having small detents which engage a recess 2a in the sleeve 2 are placed between the hubs of adjacent tumblers so that from the standpoint of mechanical friction each of the tumblers is completely isolated from the other. One of such washers is indicated at I6. Between one side of the washer and the next adjacent tumbler is a flyer I1 having an outwardly projecting detent I1a. The annular portion of the flyer I1 serves as a spacer while the outwardly projecting detent I1a serves as an element through which one of the tumblers is driven by a laterally projecting detent on the next adjacent tumbler. This construction just described in general is conventional and therefore further details are not considered necessary. l
The driver wheel I2 is screw-threadedly secured to the shaft I I and a suitable key 2I is provided to lock the driver wheel in non-rotatable position on the shaft I I. The driver wheel is provided with a lateral projection 22 which is adapted to engage the outwardly extending detent on the yer between it and the tumbler 8. It will be readily understood that when the dial I3 is rotated to rotate the driver wheel I2 that the projection 22 will drive the tumbler 8 and through the intermediate fiyer between the tumbler 8 and tumbler 1 the latter will be driven and so on, including the tumbler 6. It will also be well understood that the gates Ba, 1a and 8a of the respective tumblers may be brought to register with each other in the well known manner when the proper combination is obtained by turning the knob I3 rst to the right, lining up the gate in one tumbler, then to the left lining up the gate in the second tumbler, and then to the right again lining up the third tumbler, and so on, ir" a lock with more than three tumblers is used.
The lock is provided with a bolt 23 which is adapted to slide in a suitable guide formed in the casing I, the bolt 23 being operated by a fencelever 24 pivotally attached thereto by a screw 26. A suitable spring 30 is'provided for the purpose of urging the fence-lever 24 toward the tumblers. The fence-lever 24 is provided with a laterally projecting arm, commonly referred to as a fence 21, which is adapted to engage the gates when the tumblers are in proper relative positions. The driver Wheel I2 is also provided with a special gate I2a, the shape of which is complemental to the shape of a depending boss 28 on the fencelever 24. The lower point of the boss 28 normally rides on the outer periphery of the driver wheel I2. The periphery of the driver wheel I 2 and the size of the boss 28 is such that the fence 21 is slightly spaced from the outer periphery of all of the tumblers. As is usual, the lock is provided With a suitable device to prevent tampering so that in the event that an attempt is made to drive the shaft I I inwardly toward the casing, the bolt 23 would be locked in position. To this end. a suitable element 3l having an end portion 3Ia which engages the outer face of the upper tumbler 8 is provided. The element .3| is pivoted on screw 33 and is provided with a curved end 3Ib which partially encircles a locking pin 34 when the parts of the lock are in normal position. The locking pin 34 is adapted to slide in a suitable guiding recess in the casing I and is provided with a C- shaped washer which engages a groove in the pin 34. One side of the washer engages the curved end portion 3Ib of the element 3l and a suitable spring 31 is provided for normally urging the pin 34 in upward position where it could engage a notch in the underside of bolt 23. It will be readily apparent that in the event the end 3Ia of the element 3| is moved, as when an unauthorized person attempted to disturb the parts of the lock, the element 3| would pivot around the screw -33 and its opposite end 3Ib would become disengaged from the washer 36, thereby permitting the spring 31 to urge the locking pin 34 into such a position as to engage the recess in the underside of the bolt 23 so that the latter could not be moved.
The construction described so far is conventional. The present inventional resides in the modification of the driver wheel I2 and certain other parts and the provision of a slide 43 Vwhich can be selectively controlled for closing the gate I2a in the driver wheel I2 so that a person not familiarwth the combination cannot manipuisqto'fthefcombination l ofthe lock. ":Io this end,
theoutside of .the 'driver'wheel--has Jaiiiired` thereto spaced Aguides I411 and 42. These :guides are undercut fas fait I'a and 42o-to Aprovide .mar- .inal edges Which-overlapfaslide M3. lThe-slide 43 comprises Jan-'arcuate portion 33a which has exactlythefsame radius as the 'remaining Lperipheral 'surface of fthe Ydriver 'wheel t2, 'itwo legs b and #13e Eand-asecon'd transverse portion 43d Jlziihg'ithe opposite vrends -of the legs. The inner Side if rleg 45431) provided Iv'ritlri :gear teeth M which are adapted to :mesh with 4`a -sxnall pinion 16 itc lconstitute a rackand -pini'on movement, -the rotation fof the pim'on 146 icontrollin'g the 'radial movement of the slide 4-3. The pinion 66 is xed tofa #shaft i41 "which -ex'tends through -a bore in tionalrconStruction-rotatablyimounted inthe hub 6T 'the fdial |33-, is -i'xed :to fthe outer end of xthe lraftlu. As -clearly shown in Figure Tl, thebarrel d! the Llock I8 -is provided with a series l"of pins 5I of dfEerent lengths 'which are adapted to be aligned with a Isecond -pluralitylof pins S2-which are mounted in the radial recesses o'fthe hub of the jdial 13. The pins 52 -arespring loaded so that `they fare normally 'urged Ytoward the 'barrel o'fithe lock-'inthe usual fmanner. When the key 53 "is 'Jncitdnfthelbarrelpsomefof the pins152'will extend A#across -the -dividing line between the barrel and the inside of the v-hub 'to provide 'an nterlockbetweenthe 'barreland the hub-whereby th'eshaft 41 wllfbelccke'd with thevdial I3. -Ac cordingly, 1rotation fof the vldial vIl3 'will rotate the driver Wheel I 2 vvhlhih `turndrives' the 'tumbler's in the Pm'anner already described. Asfin rconventiona'l `cylimirical pin "tumbler 'ltype locks, 'the key2canfonly'he removed and inserted when the tunibler in-one position. lIn the immediate instance'lthe zero -positionfefithe -lock'is such that the pinion 416 will 4have unoved 'the slide 43 to rits radially outermost 'position where l`its outer arcuate -surface '43a -coincides 'with the outer periphery fof the driver'vvheel I2. This is clearly shown A1in Figure-13. Tt -willbe f-rea'dily seen that Whenthe s1ide-43is inthis position the gate I'Za isflos'ed and `thafen'ce I21' Ican' not ffall or he urged by the spring "30 intor fthe gates Vof the tumblers because sthe boss 21B-of 'the fence-lever -24 will 4be preventedby Ithe slide 4:3 from falling into its corresponding gate fin-the-driver'vvheel I-2. The slzepfit'hedriverlwheel I2 'and the `length of the boss 28 4issuch 'that the Vfence-lever-l2ll is held in such ia position 1that the -fence'21 cannot vtouch the tuinbl'ers unless'the slide -'Iltis dropped to 'open gate 112e. However, assuming -the gates of the tumblers are in registry, if now the key 53 is inserted in -the lock -48 and shaft 41 is rotated to manipulate the pinion :'46 to withdraw the 'slide $3'fradial1y inwardly as shown in Figure 12, the
' fence will enter .theigates so that the bolt 123 Scan be vwithdrawn by turning the driver wheel in a counter-clockwise :direction -as viewed in Figures 2-and3. From Figures land-'2 itwill be readily seen 'that thefcover -I'a of the casing'is provided with 4suitableus'tops to limit the rotation oi the driver'whe'el il`2. -As Fshown ran arcuateboss 6U is provided, "the edges 60a and 68h of which constitutefthe stops which'limit the rotationrof the driver Wheel whentheslide 43 is moved radially infsucha position'that 'theportion-il-d ofthe slide projects beyond .fthe router 'periphery ofthe driver wheel @M illtwill be seen that ivvhen the slide 43 is fin 'fthe withdrawn .position the driver wheel I21carm'0tbe lrotated sufficiently to .manipulate relative amount of limited rotation fthe :same
theftumblers. Howevergthellimitsof rotatoniare such as to- -permitisuicient rotation -of drivery f wheel I2to1withdraw boli-23.
It will be apparent vthat the pin-tumbler 'loek 48 `is -`notessential to the .present invention; 'the lock -48 merely ladds :a measure 4of isecurity -because the `slide control mechanism :cannot "be operated 'unless the shaft 1 .lis :unlocked from 'the hollow shraft -I I lOn lthe other hand, if ldesired, a :second combination -icould :be substituted for the pin-tumbler lock 18.
The lock 48 4does,'hovvever,addiareal measure of security Abecause -the :stops on the casing I'a permit rotation of the-driver wheel `I2 .only over a :limited are, and .-should ione be -able :to 'pick the lock 118anddropftheslidef43,:the driver wheel I2 l'cannot be rotated sufficiently to manipulate the-tumblers. Thenin-orderto rotate the driver wheel `vl2 it is necessary to return the gate 'to original A.position and this `.will put the tumbler of lock -48 in sucha vposition that itwould again have to be picked in order v-to 'manipulate the tumblers 6, 1 and 8 and the slide 3 at the fsame time. v
A :modified lform oit -the slide foperating .'nech-V anism is shown in -Figures 4'6,"1-1and18. In this form a special driver 'wheelf12 having -the usual gate 80,is provided with laterally-disposedundercut guides 12a and 112D. `'The -undercut :guides are adapted to receive the sides ofra l'-slide '13, theigeneral outside shape of which 4is similari/a the slide 43, previously fdescribed. One lateral edgeof the slide -is provided with an elongated recess 13a which is adapted to `.permit limited relative movement with respect lto a lscrew A11i in the driver wheel 12. The purpose of thescrew. and slot arrangement 'iis to *prevent Athe :slide 'i3 'from becoming disassembled from the guides on the sides of 'the-driver wheel 12. The driver' wheel `12 'is provided with 'a recess 16 which .is adapted to be engaged by a l'spring pressed 'ball 11. A suitable recess 18 'in jthe Vlower end of the slide13 is adapted `to Vreceive 'a spring '19 tand the lloall 11. It willbe readily'apparent that :when the =slide 13 is assembled-under' the lateral fguides of the driver wheel 1-3 'the `spring '19 will press the ball 11 into the recess 16 `when theslide is in one position.
Itis important that 'the radii o'f 'the farcuate surfaces 13b and 13o of'the slide l'43 be exactly the same as the radius-of the outer surfaceof the driver wheel '12. This will be apparent in view df -th'e fact that-'the primary purpose of the lslide 13 is to close the gate 80 of the driver wheel12.
itis important that when the slide 1113 is in 'such position 'relative to the driver wheel 12 that 'the arcuate surfaces 13b and 13e be -inregistrywith the periphery of the driver Wheel 12 so 'there will :be 'no unevenness in the surface on which the 'boss 28 of the fence-lever 24 rides and so that the'position of the gate 8D will not be indicated in any manner by any manipulation "of the driver 'wheel 12. It is to beunderstoodthat the driver wheel`12 is provided with a lateral detent 22 through which the tumblers of the lock are to be operated in the manner previously mentioned. y
.As shown .in dottedoutline the cover for .the casingis provided with. inwardly .projecting ybosses which limit the rotational movement of the driver Wheel 1-2 whenlthe-slide 1:3 is'ina position so that the arcuate surface 13o projects beyond theouter :periphery'ofthe-.driver wheel 12. The
andere and for the same reasons as that described in connectionA with the first embodiment.
The construction of this modied form so far described is very similar to that of the previous form. The main dierence between the two forms is that in the modified form the slide controlling mechanism is better adapted to the movements of the conventional pin tumbler type lock where the tumbler must be turned substantially 360 between the key-inserting position and the unlocking position. The main advantage of the modified form is that there is a minimum of lost motion between the cam and the gate when it is in the most essential position.
To this end, the slide 13 is provided with an opening 83 of the peculiar shape shownin the drawings. This opening 83 is adapted to cooperate With the slide cam 84 which is xed to the end of the shaft 41 by means of a flattened area 41a and a complementary D-shaped hole 81 in the cam. The cam 84 is held on the end of the shaft 41 by means of the screw 88 which engages the end of the shaft. The opening 83 comprises an arcuate portion which extends between points 98 and 9|, the radius of this portion being substantially the same as the radius of the outer surface 84a of the cam 84. The center of this radius is coincident with the center of the arcuate surface 84a when the slide 13 is in the position shown in Figure 6. The shape of the opening immediately below the point 9| is more or less immaterial so long as it clears the arcuate surface 84h. The rectangular recess 92 is of sufcient extent in both dimensions as to accommodate the entrance of the tang portion 85 of the cam 84.
For an explanation of the operation of the slide controlling mechanism of the modied form, attention is invited to Figures 6 and 7, 9, l0 and 11. In Figure 6 the slide 13 is shown in the depressed position permitting the boss 28 to drop into the gate 88 in the driver wheel 12 and with the tang 85 of the cam slide 84 in the position shown, the pin tumbler lock 48 will be in such a position to permit the insertion and removal of the key. In Figure '1 the slide 13 is shown'in a position such that the arcuate surface 13b bridges the'v gate 88 so that the boss 28 holds the fence-lever 24 in the uppermost position with the fence 21 spaced from the outer periphery of the tumblers. When the slide 13 is in this position the driver wheel 12 can be rotated to all positions without the fence 21 dropping down on to the tumblers.
The progressive positions of the tang 85 in operating the slide 13 to open the gate 80 are shown in Figures 9, and l1. Going back to Figures 6 and 7 it will be noted that in Figure 6 the slide 13 is in the lowermost position uncovering the gate 88 and the tang 85 is in the upper position. When the tang is in this position the pin tumbler of the lock 48 will be in such a position that the key can be inserted and removed.
` It will be noted that the slide cam 84 can be rotated in a clockwise direction and when the cam is rotated approximately ninety7 degrees the lower edge of the arcuate surface 84h will engage the underside of the notch 92 and the slide 13 will move toward the closed position. Continued rotation of the slide cam 84 in the clockwise direction, as shown in Figures 9 and l0, will cause the edge of the tang 85 to thereafter engage the underside of the notch 92 so that continued rotation will cause the slide to move toward the 8 surface 84a3just clears the corner edge of the notch 92. Atthis pointztheslide .13 will be in the gate-closing position and the ball 11. will snap into the recess 16., thus holding the slide 13` in that position. 'I'he pin tumbler can be rotated further until the lower edge of the surface 84h engages the lower recess in the opening 8.3. It will be readily understood that when the tang 85 is rotated in counter-clockwise direction that the tang will engage the lower side of the notch 92 to move the slide to the lowermost position and the spring pressed ball will engage the driver wheel 12 thereby applying suiicient friction to hold the slide in the position so that the surface 13e projects beyond the periphery of the driver wheel 12.
. When the slide 13 is in the latter position the sides of the slide will engage the edges of arcuate bosses 92 and 93 which are carried on the lock casing in the manner previously described. The purpose for limiting the rotation of the driver wheel is the same as that mentioned in connection with the previous embodiment. y
In order to assure that the tumblers cannot be walked around by oscillating the driver wheel 12 through the limited arc permitted by the stop mechanism, the outer periphery of the tumblers are provided with continuous serrations |00 which are adapted to be engaged by a series of complemental serrations |01 on the underside of the fence 21. When the slide closes the gate in the driver wheel the boss 28 will prevent the fence from engaging the outer periphery of the tumblers and for purposes of illustration in the practical embodiment of the invention the fence 21 will be sepaced about one-thirty-second of an inchfrom the outer edge of the serrations in the tumblers. As will be very clear from Figures 9 and 10, the outer periphery of the driver Wheel 12 is provided with a relieved area 15 extending between the edge of the gate 88 and the slide 13.A 'I'he purpose of this relieved area is to provide clearance between the boss. 28 and the driver;
wheel 12 when the slide 13 is in the withdrawn position. Although the dimension is not absolutely critical in a practical embodiment of the invention the construction is designed so that there will be a clearance of about one-sixty-` fourth of an inchbetween the boss 28 and the relieved area of the driver Wheel periphery. It will be seen from this that no manipulation of the driver wheel 12 will make it possible to walk the tumblers in an attempt to open the lock. The engagement between the serrations on the fence 21 and the peripheries of the tumblers will insure that the tumblers cannot be rotated by any..
Figure 12 illustrates the manner in which the seen that when the slide closes the gate thefence 21 will be spaced from the tumblers and.
when the slide 13 is dropped so that the fence rests on the tumblers the boss 28 cannot touch the edge of the gate 88 in the driver wheel 12. The depth of the serrations is greater than the normal manufacturers tolerance in the tumblers so that regardless of whether or not the gate-closing slide is used it would be extremely difficult to locate* position shown in Figures 7 and 11 until the 1| the gatesinthe tumblers by any k1ndofmanipu It W111- the inventive concept.
9 lation. of the driverl Wheel. It will be noted from Figure` 12 that' inj view of the inclined surfaces on the laterali edgesvoflthef gate and'gon the; fence itfw'ouidf be extremely dimcuitftonote any difference in feel or any minute click' unless the fence can. drop all theway into thegates ofthe tumblers and, ofcourse, this can happen only when all of the tumbler gates are in registry.
It is to be understood that'the embodiment of the invention shown in Figures 1 to 5 inclusive is identical in operation and in general construction with that ofthe part of the invention shown in the remaining figures except for the mechanism which operates the slide 413 of the r'st embodiment and the slide 12 of the second embodiment. In other words, the driver wheel l2; of the rst embodiment is provided with a relieved 'area l5 which corresponds to the' relieved area 15 apparent from the above description that if desired a manually releasable mechanical connection could be provided between the hub of. theA dial- I'3 and the shaft 41 Without utilizing: a lock 48. For instance, a dog clutch could be provided so that normally' the shaft' 41 would rotate with Lthe dial I3, the dog` clutch being manually releasable so that the shaft 4'1 could be rotated independently ofthe shaft I'I- for the purpose of controlling the position of the gate.
From the foregoingdescription it will be seen that the present invention provides an improvemen-t in combination locks which greatly adds to the security thereof and which is very inexpensive to manufacture. Although the invention has been describedV in' considerable detail, it will be. apparentto those skilled in the art that many variations are possible without' departing from It is therefore desired that the inventionnot be'- limited except insofar as ismade necessary by the' appended claims.
What is claimed is:
l.. A combination lock comprising selectively adjustable tumblers. each having a peripheral recess, a bolt,` a spindle having fixed thereto a driver wheel for adjusting' said tumblers, a lever pivotally connected to said bolt, said lever having a laterally extending fence adapted to lie transversely across the faces of the peripheries of said tumblers and said lever also having a portion adapted to lie over and engage the periphery of said driver wheel, said driver wheel havinga peripheral recess adapted to receive said portion of said lever to perm-it said fence to engage said tumbler recesses when the latter are adjusted to register with said fence for moving said bolt and interlock means normally preventing said fence from engaging said tumbler rer cesses during adjustment of the latter having actuating means selectively operative'following adjustment of said tumbler recesses into registry for rendering said interlock means inoperative to prevent interengagement of said fence and tumbler recesses. A
2. A combination lock comprising a plurality of selectively adjustable tumblers each having a I6 peripheral recess, a bolt, spindle means having fixed thereto a driver wheel for adjusting said tumblers and lfor-actuating said bolt,v alever pivotally connected Ato, said .bolt and having tumbler-engaging fence and a driver wheel-engaging' portion, said driver Wheel having a peripheral recess adapted to receive said wheel-engaging portion of said lever when saidf recesses in said tumblers are adjusted to register with said fence, and means movably mounted on said driver wheel and intercoupled with said spindle means to be actuated therethrough for selectively bridging said peripheral recess said driver Wheel during adjustment-of said tumblers;
3. The combination as setforth claim 2, in which said bridging means is movable radially of said driverwheel. Y
4. The combination as set forth in claim 2, together with means for limiting rotation of said driver wheel when said lever is engaged in said recess in said' driverY Wheel.
51 A combination lock comprising selectively adjustable tumbler wheels each having a recess in the periphery thereof, a bolt, spindle means having affixed thereto a driver wheel provided with a peripheral recess for adjusting said tumbler' wheels and. for actuating said bolt, a lever pivotally connected to said bolt and engageable with said driver wheel for actuating said bolt when said recessesl in said tumbler wheels are adjusted to register with said fence, and meansy movably mounted on said driver wheel and intercoupled with said spindle meansl to: be actuated therethrough for' selectively barring engagement of said lever with the peripheral recess of said driver' wheel. duringv adjustment of said tumbler Wheels andactuated through said intercoupling on registry of' said tumbler wheels to permit said lever to engage said driver wheel' peripheral recess.
6. The.v combination asset forth in claim 5r and means for limiting rotational movement of. said driver wheel. when said lever is engaged in. said recess in. said driver wheel.
7. A combination lock. comprising.- selectively adjustable tumblers .each having a peripheral recess, a bolt, a. lever pivotedto said` bolt, spindleY means provided withy means for adjustingsaid wheels and for engaging saidflever. in one position for moving said bolt, said lever having a laterally extending; fence adapted to` lie transversely otthe peripheries of said tumblers andv adapted toengage the recesses insaid tumblers when thalatter are in registry and. interlock means intercoupled through said spindle means normally preventing said fence from engaging said tumbler recesses during adjustment of the latter to establish the combination and actuated through said spindle means following alignment of said tumbler recesses to render the interlock means inoperative to bar interengagement of said tumbler recesses and fence.
8. A combination lock comprising selectively adjustable tumblers each having a peripheral recess, a bolt, a spindle having fixed thereto a driver wheel for adjusting said tumblers, a lever plvotally connected to said bolt, said lever having a laterally extending fence adapted to lie transversely of the peripheries of said tumbers and said lever also having a portion to lie over and engage the periphery of said driver wheel, said driver wheel having an annular peripheral portion and a relieved portion provided with a recess adapted to receive said portion of said lever to permit said fence to engage said tumbler rec es'ses when the latter are adjusted to register with said fence for moving saidvbolt, the peripheries of said tumblersfbeing provided-with a continuous series of serrations and said fence being provided with serrations adaptedv to engage the serrations on said tumblers, the relationship of the annular peripheral portion of said driver wheel and said portion on said lever being such that when said portion engages said annular portion of said Wheel the serrations on said fence will be disengaged from the serrations on said tumblers, said relieved portion being so proportioned as to permit engagement between said serrations on said fence and said tumblers while said portion on said lever clears said relieved portion. A
9. A combination lock comprisingaplurality of Aselectivelyadjustable tumblers each having a peripheral recess, a bolt, a hollow spindle having -lfixed thereto a driver wheel for adjusting said tumblers and for actuating said bolt, a lever pivotally connected to said bolt and having a tumbler `engaging fence and a driver wheel engage ing portion, said driver wheel havinga .peripheral recess adapted to receive said wheel engaging portion when said -recesses in said tumblers are adjusted to register with said fence, a shaft extending through said spindle and means operably associated with said shaft for selectively bridging said peripheral recess in said driver wheel.
10. A combination lock comprising a plurality of selectively adjustable tumblers each having a peripheral recess, a bolt, a hollow spindle having iixed thereto a driver wheel for adjusting said tumblers and for actuating said bolt, a lever pivotally connected to said bolt and having a tumbler engaging fence and a driver wheel engaging portion, said driver wheel having a peripheral recess adapted to receive said wheel engaging portion when said recesses in saidtumblers are adjusted to register with said fence, said driver wheel having a bridging slide movable radially oi.'
said wheel, said slide having an arcuate surface adapted to bridge said peripheral recess in said driver wheel, a shaft extending through said hollow spindle and means operably associated between said shaft and said slide for moving the` latter radially of said wheel.
1l.-A combination lock comprising a casing adapted to be attached to a door, said lock comprising selectively adjustable tumblers each having a peripheral recess, a locking bolt, a spindle projecting from said casing and adapted to extend through said door, the outer end of said spindle having secured thereto a manually operable dial, the other end of said spindle hav-` ing nxed thereto a driver wheel for adjusting said tumblers and foractuating said bolt, a lever pivotally connected to said bolt and having a tumbler engaging fence and a driver wheel engaging portion, said driver wheel having a peripheral recess adapted to receive said wheel engaging portion of said lever when said recesses in said tumblers are adjusted to register with said fence, means for selectively bridging said peripheral recess in said driver Wheel, a shaft extending through said spindle and operably associated with said means for selectively bridging said recess in said driver wheel. l
-12. A combination as set forth in claim 11,.p1us means forl locking said y shaft to` said hollow spindle.
13. A combination lock comprising a casing adapted to be attached to a door, said lock comprising selectively adjustable tumblers eachhaving a peripheral recess, a locking bolt, a spindle projecting from said casing and adapted to extend through said door, the outer end of said spindle having secured thereto a manually operable dial, the other end of said spindle having fixed thereto a driver wheel for adjusting said tumblers and for actuating said bolt, a lever pivotally connected to said bolt and having a tumbler engaging fence and a driver wheel engaging portion, said driver wheel having a peripheral recess adapted to receive said wheel engaging portion of said lever when said recesses in said tumblers are adjusted to register with said fence, said driver wheel having a slide movable radially of said driver wheel, saidslide having an arcuate portion of the same radius as the outer periphery of said driver wheel and adapted to bridge said recess in said driver wheel when in one position, a shaft extending through said spindle, means operably associated between said shaft and said slide for causing radial movement thereof and locked means for xing said shaft for selectively xing said shaft for rotation with said spindle. HARRY C. MILLER.
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|U.S. Classification||70/284, 70/323, 70/303.00A, 70/333.00R|
|International Classification||E05B37/00, E05B37/08|
|Cooperative Classification||E05B37/0031, E05B37/08|
|European Classification||E05B37/00C, E05B37/08|