US 2577879 A
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Dec. 11, 1951 w. P. DE s'rou'rz APPARATUS FOR TREATING LIQUIDS WITH RADIATION Filed Nov. 2, 1945 4 Sheets-Sheet l ii. 1L!
[In enter WILLIAM PA TRICK 0s J'raorz I) M Ms fi:
Dec. 11, I951 w. P. DE STOUTZ 2,577,879
APPARATUS FOR TREATING LIQUIDS WITH RADIATION Filed Nov. 2, 1945 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 m/VM foe Maw/v flwirm 05 5/002? Dec. 11, 1951 w. P. DE STOUTZ 2,577,879
APPARATUS FOR TREATING LIQUIDS WITH RADIATION Filed Nov. 2, 1945 4 Shets-Sheet 5 Fig.4.
Dec. 11, 1951 w. P. DE STOUTZ APPARATUS FOR TREATING LIQUIDS WITH RADIATION 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Nov. 2, 1945 IN V EN TOR. William Patrick de Siva ZZ BY WW JIGENIZS.
Patented Dec. 11, 1951 ()FFlCE APPARATUS FOR TREATING LIQUIDS WITH RADIATION William Patrick dc Stoutz, Lausanne, Switzerland Application November 2, 1945, Serial No. 626,278 In France October 24, 1944 Section 1, Public Law 690, August 8, 1946 Patent expires October 24, 1964 4 Claims.
The invention relates to apparatus for treating liquids with radiation, particularly for sterilizing and irradiating difi'erent liquid substances or liquids of different viscosities.
The treatment of liquids with thermic, infrared, ultraviolet or other radiation is usually carried out by circulating the liquids through tubes having w-alls permeable to the desired radiation. Wherever possible, capillary tubes are used to ensure that all portions of the circulating liquid come in contact with the Walls of the tubes and are eificiently subjected to the irradiation. The provision of capillary tubes makes it also possible to operate with high rates of flow so as to avoid overexposure of the treated liquids to the irradiation and to obtain at the same time, economical installations.
For the treatment of viscous liquids, capillary tubes are unsuitable because they would obstruct the free circulation of the liquid to be treated.
It will be noted that the rate of flow of a liquid to be irradiated through a given set of tubes of small diameter will be a function of the viscosity of the liquid. For this reason, irradiation devices of the type described are mostly suitable for the treatment of a particular liquid only and cannot be used without substantial modifications and adjustments for the treatment of liquids having a different viscosity.
It is a particular object of the invention to provide an apparatus which can readily be used for the irradiation of liquids having widely differing viscosity characteristics.
Another object of the invention is to provide such an apparatus in which the length of travel of the liquid through the irradiation zone is adjustable.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus wherein sets of radiation perm-eable tubes are readily replaceable by other sets of such tubes having difierent lengths anddiarneters.
Other objects and advantages will become apparent from a consideration of the specification and claims.
In order to accomplish the objects recited hereinabove, the novel apparatus consists of at least one pair of spaced collect rs for the liquid to'be irradiated; said collectors extend parallel and opposite to each ctherand are connected by a plurality of radiation permeable tubes in which the liquid is subjected to irradiation. Transverse partitions are provide in each collector in staggered relationship to corresponding partitions in the opposite collector; these partitions dividethe collectors compartments and prolong the length of travel of the liquid through the apparatus.
The distance between said opposite collectors is made adjustable so as to be able to accommodate therebetween sets of tubes of different dimensions, and means are provided in the inner walls of said collectors for tightly seating said tubes.
For a better understanding of the invention, reference is had to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. l is a vertical cross section of a collector showing the adjustable fluid-tight mounting of the tubes in the wall of the collector;
Fig. 2 is a front view of a portable installation according to the invention;
Fig. 3 is a side View of the same installation;
4 is a front view of the apparatus, parts broken away and parts shown in section;
Fig. 5 is a cross section thereof;
Fig. 6 is a horizontal section of the apparatus taken in the plane of the junction of the two parts forming the upper collector, one of said parts being partly taken away to show the partitions, and
Fig. 7 is a section through an apparatus according to the invention showing the flow of the liquid regulated by the partitions.
The apparatus of the invention consists of two parallel horizontally spaced collectors I and 2 which are connected by radiation permeable tubes 3, for instance of quartz.
The collectors are arranged in frames 58, which are secured by screws ill to supports 1 I, so as to form a rig-id unit (Fig. 4).
In order to vary the length of time during which the liquids may be subjected to irradiation, the bundle of tubes 3 is divided into groups into which the liquid enters successively so as to travel therethrough in series and in alternately inverse directions. For this purpose, partitions or baffle plates 55 (Figs. 6 and 7) are provided in the collectors, whereby the partitions in one collector are disposed in staggered relationship to the partitions in the opposite collector. The partitions are, for instance, gasket-like discs and stationary or preferably mounted for longitudinal adjustment on rods 3, so as to be shiftable with light friction along the collectors. In this way, the path of the liquid through the installation may be adjusted in accordance with the nature of the particular liquid to be treated. The rods 58 are mounted as shown in Fig. 6 or may form part of plugs 58, closing one end of the collectors.
According to the embodiment of the invention shown by way of example in Fig. 7, three compartments are provided in each collector. As indicated by the arrows, the medium flows first from the top collector I to the bottom collector 2, through the first group of tubes, flows in the next group of tubes from the bottom to the top, and finally flows through the third group of tubes back to the bottom collector from which it is withdrawn.
Fig. 2 shows a similar installation where the liquid enters into the bottom collector and is withdrawn from the top collector.
In order to enable a ready access to the tubes and their replacement by other tubes, at least one of the collectors may be displaced or removed by loosening the screws IIJ. In addition, for instance the upper collector may be composed of two half shells which are detachably secured together by any suitable means, such as screws I2 or bolts passing through flanges I3 provided on each of said half shells on either side of the assembly plane (Figs. 1 and The collectors are provided with means enabling the seating of different tubes Which are calibrated for the optimum rate of flow of the liquid to be treated through the apparatus. As shown in Figs. 1 and 5, each of the collectors may have a longitudinal ridge 4 provided with ducts or passages 5. These ducts may be arranged in quincunxial order and on two parallel planes for each of the collectors I and 2. Each of the ducts 5 opens into a recess 6 provided with a resilient stuffing I, which has an axial passage 8 corresponding to the passage 5. Each of the passages 8 flares outwardly to form a tight seating for the frusto-conical ends of the tubes 3.
This arrangement makes it possible to connect the collectors with tubes of varying diameters and lengths while securing a fluid-tight seat of the truncated ends of said tubes in the stufiing boxes 1. On the other hand, the tubes may be readily removed and replaced by spacing the collectors farther apart.
The radiation source is, e. g.-, represented by mercury vapor lamps I5 secured by suitable fastening elements I4 to the flanges I3 of the collectors.
The Whole irradiating unit is enclosed in a housing I which is composed of symmetrical portions fitting into ferrules I1 secured to the collectors I and 2.
The walls of the housing I6 are shaped to act as reflectors for the radiation. The housing is preferably hermetically closed so that the inside may be put under a more or less high vacuum or filled with a suitable gas. This makes it necessary to provide for fluid-tight passages not only for the circulation of the liquid but also for the electric conductors for the mercury lamps. A fluid-tight electric connection between a source of electric current and the mercury vapor lamps is shown, by way of example, in Fig. 4. Plugs I9 extend axially through an insulating hood 25 provided on the wall of the housing It. These plugs I9 are inserted in sockets 2| carried individually by lead-in bushings 22 made of insulating material and fastened to the wall of a chamber containing an electric generator 23, for instance a transformer. The latter is, according to the embodiment shown in Fig. 3, located inside a housing 24 which carries and supports the housing I6. A vertical partition 25 separates the compartment 26 containing the transformer from an adjoining compartment 21 in which an electrically operated motor pump 28 and a reservoir 29 are installed together with a corresponding system of pipes.
The delivery end of the motor pump 28 is connected through a filter, a removable pipe 3| and a valve 32 with one end of the lower collector of the irradiation unit. The liquid to be irradiated is pumped through the groups of tubes 3 and leaves finally the unit from the top collector through a removable fitting and valve 33, and a pipe 34 to be collected in the reservoir 29, from which it passes over the connection 35 into the pump 28.
The liquid may then be pumped through a filter 31 and valve 38, which form part of a removable fitting, into the other end of the lower collector 2 and pass through the unit and the top collector I to a remcvabledelivery valve 39. By means of the valves 3233 and 38-39, or other controlling means, it is possible to circulate through the irradiating unit alternately either liquid coming from the pipe 40 through the filter 31 or liquid delivered by the pump 28 from the reservoir 29. The liquid contained in this reservoir may be either a cleansing agent for the tubes.3 or the fluid to be irradiated.
As indicated hereinabove, this fluid may be circulated in a closed circuit several times for irradiation in the tubes 3. The arrangement may also be used to incorporate a gas into the fluid to be irradiated. In this case, the pump 8 serves not only to pump the liquid but also to distribute the gas therein. The pump may also be operated as a water jet air pump to produce a desired vacuum in the housing I6.
An electric heater supplied by the conductors 4| (Fig. 2) may be provided to heat the liquid contained in the reservoir 29.
As shown in Figs. 2 and 3, the apparatus may be arranged in the form of a portable irradiation unit by providing the housing 24 with removable, automatically dirigible casters which are equipped with looking brakes and respective control levers 43. Finally, protecting means may be provided in connection with the manipulation of the electric elements of the installation. The drive and control elements are mounted in the upper wall of the housing 24 whereby the lateral parts 0! this wall on each side 01' the housing l6 are arranged as switch boards; said elements are protected by covers 44-45 and 46 which are hingedly connected to the switch boards and provided with a locking device. This device is composed of two parallel bolts 48, 49, passing through ribs 41 and coupled by a cross-bar 50; the bolts are subjected to the action of a spring 5| which has the tendency of urging the same to the left-hand side (Fig. 5). The corresponding left-hand ends of these bolts are adapted to engage cams 52 mounted upon the axes of articulation for the covers 44, 45, which protect, on the one hand, the switches for starting the motor pump 28 and for turning on the heating element for the reservoir, and on the other hand, the control means for the electric circuits. The right-hand end of the bolt 48 is adapted to engage and disengage an opening 53 in the cover 46 for locking and unlocking said cover. This cover controls the access to the transformer 23. It will be noted that this access to the transformer by opening the cover 46 is possible only when the left-hand covers 44, are closed, and vice versa.. .J'
The several means and arrangements described are given merely by way of example, and it will be understood that details of the apparatus are susceptible of various modifications without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. An apparatus for treating liquids with radiation comprising at least one pair of spaced collectors extending parallel and opposite to each other, a plurality of parallel tubes connecting said collectors, means to irradiate liquid passing through said tubes, and at least one transverse partition in each of said collectors dividing the collectors in compartments, the partitions in one collector being disposed in staggered relationship to the partitions of the opposite collector, thereby prolonging the length of travel of the liquid through the apparatus.
2. An apparatus as defined in claim 1 wherein the transverse partitions of the collectors are displaceable in longitudinal direction.
3. An apparatus for treating liquids with radiation comprising in a closed housing at least one pair of spaced collectors extending parallel and opposite to each other, a plurality of replaceable radiation permeable cylindrical tubes connecting said collectors, means for tightly seating tubes of different dimensions in the inner walls of said collectors, means for adjusting the distance between said collectors in accordance with the length of said tubes, longitudinally adjustable transverse partitions in said collectors dividin the collectors into compartments, the partitions in one collector being disposed in staggered relationship to the partitions of the other collector, and irradiating means so arranged as to direct the radiation substantially upon said tubes.
4. An apparatus for treating liquids with radiation comprising in a closed housing at least one pair of spaced collectors extending parallel and opposite to each other, a plurality of replaceable radiation permeable cylindrical tubes with frustoconical ends connecting said collectors, resilient gaskets in the inner walls of said collectors presenting a tight seating for said frustoconical ends of tubes of difierent diameters, means for adjusting the distance between said collectors in accordance with the length of said tubes, longitudinally adjustable transverse partitions in said collectors dividing the collectors into compartments, the partitions in one collector being disposed in staggered relationship to the partitions of the other collector, and irradiating means so arranged as to direct the radiation substantially upon said tubes.
WILLIAM PATRICK 1m STOUTZ.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,056,619 Armstrong Mar. 18, 1913 1,145,140 Henri et al. July 6, 1915 1,339,675 Snelling May 11, 1920 1,591,174 Mailey July 6, 1926 1,918,081 Blochowiak July 11, 1933 2,060,865 Henszey Nov. 17, 1936 2,175,682 Chafiee Oct. 10, 1939 2,298,124 Hartman Oct. 6, 1942 2,340,890 Lang et al. Feb. 8, 1944 OTHER REFERENCES Film Characteristics," H. H. Beck, Hanovia Chemical and Manufacturing Co., Newark, N. J and K. G. Weckel, University of Wisccnsin, Madison, Wis, pp. 1251-1254.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 28, No. 11.