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Publication numberUS257867 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 16, 1882
Filing dateMar 21, 1882
Publication numberUS 257867 A, US 257867A, US-A-257867, US257867 A, US257867A
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 257867 A
Abstract  available in
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



No. 257,867. Patented May 1 6, 1882.

MW; E0 5 Jllllllll lI/I/lI/l/l ERS. FhohvLilhugrnphor. Washington, 11 c.


James '0'. HENDRICKS, on mnrAnAPoLrs, INDIANA.


PEOIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 257,867, dated May 16, 1882. I

' Application filed March 21, 1882. (No model.)

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, JAMES C. HENDRICKS, of the city of Indianapolis, county of Marion, and State of 1ndiana,have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Fire-Escapes, of which the following is a specification.

The object of my said invention is to provide a safe and effectual means of escape from buildings in case of fire, which shall be capable of being readily put in condition for use from the inside of the building by the occupants, but which shall not alford a means of ingress from the outside, except when purposely put in that condition. This object is accomplished by providing a ladder, attaching the same permanently to the wall of the building, and inclosingthe same by a door or doors which shall be capable of being at once opened from the insideof the building by a person upon'any of the floors thereof where it is desirable that there should be such accommodations.

Referring to the accompanying drawings, which are made a part hereof, and on which similar letters of reference indicate similar parts, Figure 1 is a perspective view ofa building provided with two of my improved fireescapes, one being shown in its ordinary or closed condition and the other open and ready for use; Fig. 2, a front elevation of the same; Fig. 3, a vertical section thereof on the dotted linez z; Fig. 4, an enlarged section on the same dotted line; Fig. 5, a horizontal section on the dotted line 3 y, and Fig. 6 a crosssection of a spring-hinge which is applicable to use in this invention.

In said drawings, the portions marked A B represent the sides of the ladder; O, the rungs; D, the inclosing door or doors E, the hinges thereto; F, a vertical rod for operating the fastenings to said door or doors; G, a handle or lever by which said rod may be operated from the inside of the building, and H a stipplemental ladder by which the roof can be reached. p 1

The sides A B and rungs O of theladderare similar to those of ordinary ladders. The sides are intended to be bolted securely to the wall of the building, so that the ladder will be able to sustain any load placed thereon.

The door D is formed, as shown, to inclose the ladder from bottom to top. It should be The hinges E serve the ordinary purpose of hinges in connecting the door D to the ladderside B. They are preferably spring-hinges, so that when the door is released it will fly open and thus remain, thus avoiding the possibility of its interfering with the use of the ladder. These hinges are shown in the drawings as being of that variety which has a coiled spring, 6, around the pintle; but any form of spring or weight attachment which will throw the door open when unfastened and thus hold it would be an equivalent for the form shown, so far as this invention is concerned.

The rod F is a. vertical rod inside the ladder-rungs, next the wall of the building, and is provided with a suitable catch or catches to engage'with that or those on the door ordoors D. It is adapted to maintain its engagement with said catches by its own weight, and to be disengaged by the.operation of one of the bandles or levers Gr. I

The handles or levers G maybe simplyrods rigidly secured to the rod F and projecting through the building to the inside, but are preferably in the form of a lever and pivoted, as at g. 3:

In order to get onto or off from the roof, I provide a short ladder, H, and attach itto the roof, preferably by hinge-like attachments It, which permit it to be thrown back in the position shown by the dotted line in 3 when not in use. This, being thrown down, engages with the (preferably spring) catch I, and thus forms a sateand reliable continuation of the lower ladder.

If desired, there may be afiremanslock upon this device, whereby firemen, being provided with a special instrument or key for that purpose, may be able to operate the rod F, and so unfasten the doors from the outside. This will not usually be found necessary, however, in. my opinion.

The operation of my said invention is as follows: The ladder is secured to the side of the building and closed, as shown in Fig.1. There being no means of opening the same from the outside, burglars or others cannot make use of the same to enter the building. When a fire occurs, however, by simply operating one of the handles or levers G (one of Which should be on every floor) the catches on the door are disengaged, the door flies open, and persons on any of the floors can escape onto the ladder through the windows in the same manner that i they could onto any other ladder, and down the ladder to the ground. It is desirable to attach a handle, a, tothe sideof the ladder, or to the window-frame alongside of each window, in order that persons unaccustomed to descending ladders may have a sure hold while climbing from the window to the ladder.

There should be posted upon the wall, near each lever or handle for operating this device, a printed notice setting forth the existence of the device, describing its construction, and giving instructions for its operation and use.

Having thus fully described my said invention, what I claim as new, and desire to' secure by Letters Patent, is-

1. A fire-escape for buildings, consisting of a common ladder attached permanently to the -and a rod, F, provided with handles or levers extending to the inside of the building',whereby said catch mechanism can-be operated from any one of, several floors to release said door, substantially as set forth.

3. The combination, with a building, of a fire-escape consisting of a ladder, a door or doors therefor, mounted on spring-hinges, and mechanism,substantially as described, for fastening and releasing said door or doors, all substantially asset forth.

4. The combination, withan inclosed fire-escape ladder, as specified, of a supplemental roof-ladder, H, which is adapted to be thrown back or let down, substantially as described, and for the purposes specified.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal, at Indianapolis, Indiana, this 16th day of March, A. D. 1882.


In presence of- (J. BRADFORD, Ones. L. THURBER.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4881619 *Oct 25, 1988Nov 21, 1989Coutier IndustrieDevice for barring access to the top of a vertical tubular duct
Cooperative ClassificationE04F11/06, E06C9/08