US 2578814 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 18, 1951 P, KoLLsMAN K 2,578,814
DEVICE FOR HYFODERMIC INJECTIONS Filed Dec. 20. 1947 lli/nw.. KoLLsMn/v #rua/L" *9. n
AAL, ATTURNEY Patented Dec. 18, 1951 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE DEVICE Fon HYPODERMIC INJFc'rIoNs Paul Kollsman, New York, N. Y.
Application December 20, 1947, Serial No. 792,994
This invention relates to improvements in devices for hypodermic or intra-muscular injection of medicinal compositions.
' Among other features and improvements, this invention provides a novel and improved device which combines the functions of an ampule for storing a predetermined volume of a medicinal composition with the functions of an injection syringe so that the volume of medicinal fluid contained in the device may be directly injected into live tissue without previous transfer to a separate syringe.
The improved device is hereinafter sometimes referred to as an injector ampule and offers a great many advantages over conventional ampules and separate injection syringes, in that the device is always ready for immediate use, that the volume of fluid contained therein is of a pre-determined and accurate magnitude, and in that all its vital portions, for example its needle and its front end are maintained sterile up to the time of removal of factory applied seals; that is, up to the time of injection.
The novel injection syringe does away with the necessity of preparing, sterilizing and filling hypodermic syringes, an operation usually calling for considerable mechanical skill. It is so constructed as to insure sterility and freedom of the enclosed volume of fluid from gas or air bubbles. A sharp newneedle point is available for each injection, thus doing away with difficulties arising from worn or not well cared for injection syringes and their attachablev needles.
The invention provides many other advantages which will become apparent from a consideration of its structure and operation hereinafter described in greater detail.
Injector ampules are primarily designed for one-time use and are intended to be discarded after discharge cf their contentsA Since storage of a predetermined volume of a medicinal composition is a portion of the function of the injector ampule, it is, of course, necessary that the device be conveniently illable by the manufacturer, that it be tightly scalable and that it be able to withstand a considerable amount of careless handling and abusewithout impairment of its important functions and characteristics. Consisting of telescoping or collapsible parts and generally made of a non-shat terable plastic composition, it is constructed to withstand dropping without loss of sterility of'its important parts.
If a lled injection syringe or an injector ampule is dropped, extremely high pressures are 3 Claims. (Cl. 12S-.220)
temporarilyA set up within its fluid chamber. Tests conducted with lordinary injection syringes show that the pressures thus created are suiicient to blow o sealing plugs at the end of the needle and blow off or loosen needles frictionally attached to the syringe barrel by means of fittings or so-called adapters. As a result, not only fluid is lost, but the device is rendered non-sterile and its further use is objectionable. However, experience has shown that proper precautions are frequently disregarded by laymen or irresponsible personnel and that instead of discarding the device after dropping, loose parts are frequently reattached in spite of the fact that the device is no longer safe for use. Y
The present invention provides a device which for all practical purposes eliminates the aforementioned dangers. Itis so constructed that the injection needle can not be blown off or be lost or be removed and reattached, and it is so constructed that it is capable of withstanding high pressures if accidentally dropped or otherwise carelessly handled.
These and various other features, advantages and objects of the invention will appear more fully from the. detailed description which vfollows accompanied by drawings showing, for the purpose of illustration, preferred embodiments of the invention. .The invention also consists in certain new and original features of construction and combination of elements hereinafter set forth and claimed.
Although the features characteristic of this invention which are believed to be novel will be particularly pointed out in the claims appended hereto, the invention itself, its objects and advantages and the mannerin which it may be carried out may be better understood by referring to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings forming a part of this application in which:
Figure 1 is across-sectional side view of an injector ampule embodying the invention;
Figure 2 is a cross-sectional side view of a modied formrof injector ampule;
Figure 3 is a fractional cross-sectional side View of the needle and front end of a modified form of injector ampule similar to the form shown in Figure 2; and y Figure 4 is a cross-sectional side view of a further modied form of injector ampule of a construction similar to that shown in Figure 2.
In the following description and in the claims, various details will be identified by specific names for convenience. The names, however,
are intended to be generic in their application. Corresbondingr reference characters refer to corresponding parts in the several figures of the drawings.
In the drawings accompanying and forming part of this specification, certain specific disclosure of the invention is made for the purpose of explanation of broader aspects of the invention, but itis understood thatthe details may be modified in variousfrespects without departure from the principles of the invention and that the invention may be applied to other structures than.
the ones shown.
The subject matter of thisapplication isre'- lated to the subject matter of co-pendingapplications directed to devices of the general 'type disclosed herein.
Application Serial No. 792,991, filed December 20. 1947, discloses and claims a syringe in Iwhich the depth of insertion is 'automatically controlled and limited, and'in which stop means arey provided permitting measured partial discharge.n
Application Serial; No. 792,992, filed nDecember 20,4 194'?, discloses and claims a syringe designed for onetime use andl so' arranged that it cannot be reused. K
Application Serial No. 792,993, filed December 20, 1947, disclosesl and claims a tubular needle seal for a syringe which vprevents contamination of the needle and is blow-off vproof in that it will not blow olf if the syringe fluid is subjected'V to a sudden rise in pressure, for example by dropping the syringe;
Application Serial No.f'792',995, filed December 20, 1947, discloses and claims animproved form of non-creeping plunger seal.
The injector ampule shown in `Figure 1 comprises a barrel II within which Aa plunger lI2 is telescopically movable. The plunger I2 is tightly sealed with respect to the interior surface I3 of the barrel by 'a gasket I4 which rests in a groove I5 of the plunger and fricti'onally engages the interior surface I3 of the barrel.
The rear surface IS-of the iplunger forms a movable wall of the'chamber I'I adapted to contain and store a chargeY of medicinal iiu'id confined between the barrelLII andthe plunger I2.
A hollow injection Vneedle I8, preferably of substantially uniform outerdiameter, is mount` ed in the front .endJIS of theplunger I2 vand communicates' with the ch-amber'I'I through a hollow passage Z0 extending through'the plunger.
The barrel Il and the plunger' i2 are prefere ably made from a synthetic mcldable plastic of a type that will retain itsvshape within the range of temperatures which the device is used and stored, .but which will becomedeformed Vif subjected to sterilizing.temperatures of the order of the temperature of boiling-.waten struction discourages v:sterilizing` of the .syringe by the user for the purpose `of using it thesecond time,but does not prevent originalsterilizing.
by the manufacturer Iwhich. is preferably accomplished by exposing? the-.devicetoY a stream..of sterilizing -gas of Va temperature suiciently low as not to cause changes inthe dimension of the parts.
The use of a moldablef'plasticmakes it possible to imbedv the needle I8 in the frontend I9 of the plunger I2 by molding the plastic material around the needle so that ythe -needle is rmly`, by pressure; tightly and non-removably held-.within the plunger.
. Therear surface I6 of the lplunger is prefer,-
ably tapered to facilitate the expulsion of air or gas bubbles which collect at the entrance of the passage 20 if the device is held in a vertical position. Slight telescoping movement is then sucient to expel the bubble from the syringe. This is greatly facilitated by making the plunger I2 of a transparent clear plastic so that the passage of gas bubbles through the plunger can be observed. The passage 20 is preferably clear and transparent up to the end 2I of the needle so that gas bubbles can be observed to enter and pass through the needle I-B. In this manner absolute freedom from air and gas bubbles is positively insured.
The cylindrical body of the plunger, by reason of its transparency, acts as a cylindrical magnifying lens for the transparent passage portion 20 and makes the contents of that passage easily observable. This is a valuable feature of the illustrated construction making the device particularly suitedY for use' underV conditions where aspiration is desired as a pre-injection test to determine whether a blood vessel' was punctured by insertion ofthe needle. Slight withdrawal of vthe barrel II relatively to the plunger I2 causes a minutev quantity of body fluids to be drawn into the passage 20. The magnifying property of the plungerY makes it partie ularly easy to determine whether blood is contained in the body fluid.
The needle I8 is preferably made of substantially uniform outside diameter-*tov vpermit insertion of its entire exposed length `I into the tissue of the patient.- The depth of insertion is thus positively limited `bythe front surface 22A of the plunger Which-rests against the 'skin' of thepatient and acts as a stop.
In order to maintainthe housing of the injector syringe out of contact: with'the skin-'of thev patient immediately adjacent the shaft of the-needle I8, a cavity'23'is preferably formed in the front end of the syringe'housing.` The cavity 23 preferablyv has tapered side Walls 24 enabling pressure-tight insertion of a sealing cap 25 `of suitable construction and also permitting pressure tight application of a spout or nozzle 26 at the end of a filling duct 2T, as indicated in Figure 2.
Figure 2 illustrates a modified form of injector syringe comprising a barrel 30 within which a plunger y3I is telescopically movable. The plunger has an enlarged finger `operable grip portion 32 for convenient handling. A suitably constructed movable seal or membrane 33 which may be separate from the plunger 3|, is telescopically movable in the barrel 3|] and forms a seal for the fluid chamber 34 with respect to the plunger 3l.
An injection needle 35 is permanently mounted in the front end 36 of the barrel"39,"preferably by molding the injection needle into the plastic material of the barrel during its manufacture.
The bore of the needle 35 communicates with the chamber 34 through a passage 37 which is u preferably visible from the outside by making the barrel 3D of a clear transparent material.
The front end surface 38' of the chamber 34 is preferably taperedzto cause bubbles to collect at the entrance of the passage .33 for easy removal.
A cavity 39 preferably vhaving tapered. side walls 4D is formed inthe front end 3B ofr the barrel. This cavity serves the multiple purpose of maintaining the body of the injector syringe AOut of Contact with the skin of the patient im v I leads to va source of fluid shown).
mediately adjacent the needle35. the further purpose of receiving a sealing cap of suitable construction as indicated ats25 in Figure 1 and on a surface of extremely small area, that is,
the end of the needle. -In addition, a second seal is formed between the cap 26 and the front end of the housing. This seal is not only a pressure-tight seal, but also one which maintains the base of the needle sterile and protects the needle against contamination when the ,cap is being removed, it being apparent that only the protected sterile end portion of the cap slides along the shaft of the needle.
After removal of the sealing cap 25, the device is ready for use. It is preferably applied to the body of the patient by grasping it at the barrel I I providing a finger grip portion 28 or by grasping it at the finger grip surface 32 in the syringe illustrated in Figure 2. The needle I8 or 35, respectively, is placed on the patients skin and pressure is then exerted in the direction of the needle to force it into the body tissue.
In order to compel insertion of the needle at right angles to the skin of the patient, the length Z of the needle is preferably made less than the outside diameter of the housing member in which it is mounted.
Application and insertion of the needle does not cause any liquid to be discharged from the syringe because of initial friction of considerable magnitude between the wall of the chamber I'I or 34, with a seal I4 and 33, respectively. This friction is high While the plunger is at rest and by appropriate selection of the dimension of the seal with respect to the dimensions of the barrel is made to amount to a multiple of the force required for inserting the needle into body tissue to its full length.
As the front surface 22 or 38', respectively, of the syringe housing comes to rest `on the patients skin, the pressure exerted at the syringe is opposed by an equal pressure of the skin against the syringe with the result that the friction of the gasket is overcome and the liquid is expelled from the chamber I'I or 34, respectively, into the patients body tissue.
" Figure 3 illustrates a modification of the front end formation of a barrel in which a male sealing surface `4I is formed on a plug or base l42 inserted with a press fit into the front end rffemale sealing portion of an appropriately *shaped sealing plug or filling nozzle.
In the vform of injector syringe shown in Figure 3, the size of the plug or base 42 with respect to the front end surface 38' is so selected that the front end surface acts as a stop limiting the depth-to which the needle may be inserted Into body tissue.
The form of injector ampule shown in Figure 4.is similar in all respects to the construction shown in Figure 2, except for the detailed construction of the plunger 3| whose seal I 4' rests in a groove I 5 so that the plunger 3| may be slightly withdrawn in order to draw aV small quantity of body lluids into the transparent pas- -sage 31 for the purpose of testing whether insertion of the needle 35 caused injury to a blood vessel. The cylindrical front portion 3|" acts as a magnifying lens for the passage 3'I sothat its contents can be conveniently observed.
Y l The invention thus provides a simple and highly useful device for the storage and injec- Ition of predetermined volumes of medicinal composition. It is inexpensive to manufacture `by modern mass production methods, is simple to fill and convenient to operate. It eliminates many of the prevailing disadvantages inherent in the practice of sterilizing, and filling conventional iniection syringes from ampules. Devices embodying the present invention are particularly suited for application by the patient himself. If used on a professional scale by doctors and nurses, a considerable saving in time is experienced.
Obviously, the present invention is not restricted to the particular embodiments herein disclosed. Numerous modifications, additions, omissions, substitutions and various other changes may be made without departure from the spirit and the essence of the invention as set forth in the appended claims. Such changes will suggest themselves to persons familiar with the disclosure of this invention and do not involve a departure from the spirit and the teachings of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. A combination ampule and injection syringe for storing and iniecting a predetermined volume of medicinal fluid, comprising, a barrel member; a plunger member telescopically movable in said barrel member and forming a variable volume chamber therewith adapted to contain a charge of medicinal fluid at least one of said members` being of cylindrical shape and made of a clear transparent plastic; and an injection needle of substantially uniform outer diameter irreplaceably imbedded in the front of said one member, said one member having a cylindrical passage into which said needle extends, the length of the needle portion imbedded in said one member being less than the length of said passage, said passage appearing optically magnified through the body of said one member, said one member further having a funnel-shaped mouth portion at the end of said passage towards said chamber for guiding bubbles in the chamber into said passage when the syringe is held in a substantially vertical position.
2. A combination ampule and injection syringe for storing and injecting a predetermined volume of medicinal fluid, comprising, a barrel member; a plunger member telescopically movable in said barrel member and forming a variable volume chamber therewith adapted to contain a charge of medicinal fluid; an injection needle of substantially uniform outer diameter irreplaceably imbedded in the front end of one of said members, said last named member having a substantially flat front surface and a cavity sairrsaids frnntsuifa'ce surroundingthei baseao .the aneedle,xsaid'f.cavity preuentng .contactr ofi i said one member with the skin of the patientdmmediatelyr adj acent: the needle.
5:3; combination ampuler and injection; syringe for 'storing` and injectingM aY predetermined volume of medicinal fluid, comprising; a 1barrel zmember; aplunger: member telescopically :movffable in saidbarrelfmember and'forminga varianderV volume.V chamber: therewith radapted to: con- -tain?'afichargenofwmedicinalvuid; an injection v`needle fof: substantially 'uniform outerdiameter :irreplaceablyf imbedded in the: front. end off one of said members; 'the free-length of.- theneedle protruding therefrom being less than; the outside y.diameter-of said: oner-member,-. said lastsnamed member :having a at frontl surfacef and a Ycavity Rim-said front z surface surrounding. the: base; of A1 thefneedle, saidcavity'- preventing contact. of asaid: onefmember with the.` skins of thevpatient. `rimmediately adjacent ther needle.
J8 REFERENCES. CITED UNITEDSTATES PATENTS Number ,Name Date 1,499,952 Spahlinger Ju1yf1,.1'924 1,694,767 Cook Dec.:11, 1928 1,848,711 Hall Mar.-8^,` 1932 2,379,160- =Kennison June-26;,'1'945 2,388-3323 lHenderson Nov. 6, 1945 .2,408,323 Lockhart .Sept. 24,;1946
FOREIGN' PATENTS Number Country f Date 403,397 Germany Oct/1,` 19.24 632,883
Germany July 15, 1936