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Publication numberUS2581505 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 8, 1952
Filing dateJan 26, 1948
Priority dateJan 26, 1948
Publication numberUS 2581505 A, US 2581505A, US-A-2581505, US2581505 A, US2581505A
InventorsWilliam S Wells
Original AssigneeDaisy Mfg Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Loading mechanism for pneumatic guns
US 2581505 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 8, 1952 5, WELLs 2,531,505

LOADING MECHANISM FOR PNEUMATIC GUNS Filed Jan. 26, 1948 Z'SHEETSSI'EET l IN V EN TOR. WM; MM 6. WELAS ATTORNEY Jan. 8, 1952 w. s. WELLS 2,581,505

LOADING MECHANISM FOR PNEUMATIC cums 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 Filed Jan. 26, 1948 Else; 5

- INVENTOR. W/Ld/A/M 5. M45445 5 55 32 BY Patented Jan. 8, 1952 iJNi'iEh stares PATENT GFFKE LOADING MECHANISM FORPNEUMATIC GUNS William S. Wells, Palo Alto; Calif;,:assigno1i to Baisy Manufacturing Company, Plymouth; Mich, a corporation of Michigan Application January 26, 1948; Serial N 0. 4,295

(01. Ins-51 3 Claims.- 1

This invention relates to pneumatic guns and refers more particularly'to improvements inload ing mechanism for transferring shot from they delivery end of a shot retaining magazine to the barrelrin advance of the shot positioning pin.

one of the objects of this invention is to pro vide a simple, compactly arranged mechanism responsive to withdrawalof the shot positioning pin from thevgun barrel to transfer shot from the delivery end of the magazine to the barrel in advance of the pin so that return movement of the latter into the barrel. advances the shot to its firing position in the barrel.

Another feature of this invention is to. provide a pneumatic gun having cocking mechanism and having means connecting the latter mechanism with the positioning pin in such a manner. that each time the gun is cocked, the firing pin is sue.- cessively advanced into and retracted from the gun barrel. Inasmuch as the loading mechanism is operated in response to movement of the positioning pin, it follows that operation of thegun requires merely manipulating the operating. means for the cocking mechanism, and as a re sult, operation of the gun is greatly simplified...

The foregoing as well as other objects willbe made-more apparent as-this description proceeds, especially when considered in connection with the accompanying drawing; wherein:

Figure 1 is a fragmentary perspective View of: a pneumatic gun having certain parts broken away for the-sake of clearness;

Figure 2 is a side elevational view partly in section of the gun shown in Figure. 1';

. Figure 3 is a sectional plan viewof a portion of the gun showing the various parts of the loading mechanism in one relative position;.

Figure 4 is a view similar to Figure-,3 showing the parts of the loading rmechanism in another relative position; V

Figure 5 is a sectional View taken substantially on the line 55 of Figure 2;

Figure 6 is a view similar to Figure 5 showing: the parts in another position; and

Figure 7 is a sectional view taken on the line l--1 of Figure 2. V g

For the purpose of illustration, the loading mechanism forming. the subject matter or this invention is shown in connection with a pneumatically operated pistol type gun, although it will be understood as this description proceeds that the loading mechanism may also be installed. on pneumatic g'uns'of the rifle type.

In general the pneumatic gun shown in. the drawings comprises a frame I!) and supporting structure ll connected together for relative slid k the structure 10'.

ing movement in opposite directions. As" shown wall of sufiicient width to provide ample clear ance for" the joint between tube"l3 and the ad-* jacent part of the supporting structure;

A pistol grip I5- of suitable, design is mounted on the frame adjacent therbreech end thereof and a trigger guard I6 is secured to theibottom oi theframe'iniadvance of. the grip. A trigger H is pivoted to the underside of the frame by apin l8. having its ax-is' extending perpendicular to. theplane of the pistol-enabling swinging, movement of the trigger in" said plane; The trigger has" a finger engaging part I292 extending into-v the guard I6, and. has an arm. 2.0: projecting: upwardly through registeringrslots in the bottom portions ofthe tubes l2 andl3. Asuitable spring 21 is provided for urging the trigger IT to the position shown in Figure 2 of, the drawings wherein the finger engaging part is in its forwardmost position; and wherein the arm 20 projects into the tube 13 for engagementwith -the cocking mechanism; I

In addition to the arm'zeon the trigger l'l,,the'

cocking mechanism comprises a plunger 2l-- and a coil spring 22; The plungerzl is-supported inthetube |'3- on the structure H and is formed with enlargements 23 and 24 at opposite ends thereof. The enlargements slidabl-y engage the inner wall of the tube l3 and the spring 22 is supported in the; tube I3 in advance of the plungerr The rear end-of the coil spring abuts the front enlargement 23 and. the front end of thespring abuts an adjusting screw 25 threaded 4 in the front end of the tube- I3.

When the gun is in its uncooked or inoperative position (Figure 2) the enlargement assumes a position rearwardly of the arm 21% and the upper end of the latter projects into the forward path of travel of the enlargement 23. The arrange.- ment is such that relativemovement of the frame It and structure I I' in a directionaway' from each other engages the'enlar'g'ement 23 with the arm 20 and swingsthe" latter downwardly, enabling the enlargement 23' to." pass forwardly over the arm. As soon as the enlargement 23"passes be yond the arm ZUithespringZl returnsthe armzll'to its projected position atthe rear side of the enlargement 23 and prevents return move-'- ment of the plunger 21- when the frame Ill-and structure I I" are relativelymoved back to-theirnormal'positions. Thusthe spring 22 is com pressed and the mechanism is held in a cocked position. The extent of relative movement of the frame i3 and structure U in directions away from each other is limited by a screw 26 threaded in a tapped hole formed in the frame and projecting into an elongated slot 21 formed in the bottom of the tube I2. slot engages the projecting end of the screw and acts as a stop to limit the extent of relative movement of the frame I!) and structure I in a direction away from each other.

As indicated above after the arm 20 on the trigger I1 is positioned at the rear side of the enlargement the frame It and structure I] are relatively moved to their normal positions. Upon relative movement of these parts to their normal positions, the enlargement 23 abuts the upper end of the arm 20, and the spring 22 is compressed or the gun is cocked. The spring 22 remains compressed until the arm 23 is forcibly disengaged from the enlargement by manipulating the trigger H. The frame I and structure II are releasably held in their normal position by a latch arm 28 pivoted intermediate the ends on the frame between the grip l and trigger guard H5. The rear end of the latch arm 28 projects through a slot 29 in the tube l2, and is urged by a spring 3| into engagement with a shoulder 30 on the bottom of the tube l3. The forwardly projectin end of the arm 28 is positioned for engagement by the adjacent portion of the operators hand in a manner such that a slight upward movement of the hand swings the arm 28 against the action of the spring 3| sufficiently to disengage the rear end of the arm 28 from the shoulder 30.

Supported at the breech end of the structure U is a block 32 having laterally spaced bores 33 and 34 extending longitudinally of the gun. The bore 33 forms the breech end of the gun barrel 35 and the bore 34 forms the breech end of the shot retaining magazine 36. The magazine 36 is in the form of a tube having the rear end removably sleeved in the front end of the bore 34 and having a clip 31 at the front end adapted to frictionally engage the barrel 35 adjacent the front end of the latter. As shown in Figure 6 of the drawings the barrel or bore 33 projects rearwardly beyond the delivery end of the bore 34 or manifold, and is formed with an opening 38 through the inner side of sufficient size to freely receive a shot 39. The opening 38 is connected to the delivery end of the magazine by a recess or pocket 40 formed in the top of the block 32 and having a length sufficient to accommodate one shot 39. In this connection attention is called to the fact that the shot are stored in the magazine in end to end relation, and are fed by gravity into the pocket 40 by elevating the forward end of the barrel.

The shot entering the pocket 40 from the delivery end of the magazine is transferred laterally into the bore 33 through the Opening 38 by a transfer link 4| seated on the top of the block 32, and having the front end pivoted to the ,block by a headed pin 42 extending perpendicular to the barrel. Thus the rear end of the link 4| may swing in opposite directions in a horizontal plane. The side of the link 4| adjacent the magazine is provided with a rearwardly projecting extension 43 having a depending lug 44 extending into the pocket 40 through the top of the latter. The link 4| is normally retained in the position thereof shown in Figure 3 of the drawings wherein the lug 44 is positioned The rear end wall of the at the outer end of the pocket 43 to retain the shot delivered by the magazine in the pocket. The link 4| is held in the above position against the action of a hair pin spring 45 having one end anchored on the block at 43 and having the other end abutting a shoulder on the swinging end of the link. The intermediate portion of the spring is looped around the pivot pin 42 below the head on the latter. The construction is such that when the link 4| is released from its retaining means about to be described, the spring 45 acts to swing the link in a direction to engage the lug 44- with a shot 33 in the pocket 40 at the delivery end of the magazine and transfer the shot into the barrel or bore 33 through the opening 38.

The link 4| is held in the position thereof shown in Figure 3 of the drawing against the action of the spring 45 by a cam stop 41 projecting upwardly from a rod 48 slidably supported in a bore 49 formed in the block 32 in parallel relation to the bores 33 and 34. The bore is longitudinally slotted to receive the stop 41, and is positioned to enable engagement of the stop with the side edge of the link 4| opposite the lug 44 when the frame It) and structure U are in their normal positions shown in Figure l to 3 inclusive of the drawings. Thus swinging movement of the link 4| by the spring 45 from the position thereof shown in Figure 3 of the drawings in a direction to transfer shot from the delivery end of the magazine to the barrel is prevented by the stop 41.

The rear end of the rod 43 is connected to the upper end of a bridge part 59 positioned rearwardly beyond the block 32 and having the lower end anchored on the frame l0. Thus the rod 48 is moved with the frame l0 relative to the block 32 or link =4| upon relative movement of the frame l0 and structure U to cock the gun. Actually during relative movement of the frame l0 and structure U to cock the mechanism, the rod 48 is moved rearwardly in the bore 49 sufficiently to disengage the stop cam 4'! from the link 4| as shown in Figure 4 of the drawings. As soon as the stop 4'! releases the link the spring 45 acts to swing the link 4| in a direction to engage the lug 44 with a shot in the pocket 43 and to transfer the shot into the bore 33 through the opening 38. The extent of swin ing movement of the link 4| by the spring 45 is limited by a shoulder 5| formed on the block 32 in a position to engage the rear end of the extension 43 on the link 4|.

The edge of the link 4| engaged by the stop 41 is formed with a laterally inwardly curved cam surface 53 at the rear end of the link 4 In the position of the parts shown in Figure 4, the cam surface 53 is located by engagement of the extension 43 with the shoulder 5| in a position to engage the stop 41 as the frame in and structure II are relatively moved to their normal positions. As shown in Figure 4 of the drawings, the stop 41 engages the cam surface 53 and swings the link against the action of the spring 45 back to its normal position shown in Figure 3 of the drawings as the frame l0 and structure U are returned to their normal positions. It follows from the above that cocking the gun subsequent to firing the latter also automatically transfers a shot from the delivery end of the shot retaining magazine to the gun barrel.

The shot introduced by the link 4| into the bore 33 through the opening 38 must be advanced in the barrel to its firing position or to a position int advaneei 'ot the 'pressure discharge port54' ShUWIi=.iI-1 FigllfBS-2 and:6 of th'edrawings. This ori the: pinassumes a position in the bore 33 rear- 5 Thus wardly" of the shot receiving opening 38. as the fra'me I and structure H are relatively movedto their normal positions, the shot previously transferred from the magazine through the: pocket 40 into the bore 33 in advance of the pi'n '55'ismoved forwardly by the pin 55 to a position thebarrelin advance of thepressu're discharge port 54.

When the pin 55 is-in its forwardmcst position iii the barrel, shot" in-the magazine is prevented from dropping intothe pocket 41 by a ing extending laterally outwardly from the pin- 55 anamovable through a slot 59'formed in the part of the' block which forms the rear side of the pocket. Thus, when the gun is held in an indined-position with the'muzzle end elevated, the pellets slide downwardly in the magazine and the lowermost pellet rests on the lug 51. When the action is'-manipulated to withdraw the pin 55,- e liig- 51 m'ov'es away from the delivery'end oft e magazine and allows the end pellet to drop into the pocket At the same time the extension-on the link 4! swings inwardly and transfers the pellet into the barrel in advance of the -piii-55. In actual operation it is found that the lug 51' not onlyserves to maintain the pellets in' the-'magazinewhen the action is closed but als'cr coactswiththe transfer link- M to disengage the forward end of the rearwardmost pellet from the skirt portion of the adjacent pellet without cleforming'the pellets.

In order to impart a neat and pleasing appearance-to the gun,- the block 32 and associated parts areconcealed by a cap 60 of sheet metal. Thecap' 65' is of inverted U-shape in cross section andi may be slipped over the block 52 in the mannenclearly shown in Figure 1 of the .draw- 11123. The opposite sides of the cap are frictionally or otherwise secured to the block 32 so asto-fbrma unit with the structure it.

The means for introducing air under pressure the barrel through the port 54 to propel the shot 39 through the barrel at the desired velocity forms no: part of this'inven'tion and need not be described in detail.v Briefly the structure H embodies? storage space 5! for air under pressure replenished as required by a suitable compressor (not shown) which may be a unit separate from the gun or embodied in the latter. In any-case the" rear. end' of the storage space has an outlet port 62 surrounded at the inner side of the space bya flat seat 63 and connected to theport- '54-by a passage 64. A valve member-65 is suitably supported for sliding movement in the storage space and is held against the seat 63 by the pressure of the air in the storage space assisted by a relatively weak positioning spring 66.

The valve member 65- is momentarily moved away from its seat to admit a limited quantity of ai'r under pressure to the discharge port 54 by aplunger' 51 slidably supported in the block 32 and having the front end abutting the valve member 65. The rear end of the plunger 61 abuts theupper end of a rock arm 68 having the lower end extending to a position at the rear end of'theitube' I3 adj'acentithe enlargement: 24; on th'erear end of the 'plung'er z I Therroektarm". is pivoted intermediate the ends 1 oni theirear end: of the block-' 32 bya pin :69 and. is normally urged by a relatively weak spring H1 in a directionitd' hold the plunger 61 against the valve member 6 5.

The above construction is' such. that the valve member is. normally held: against itsseat 63;; andthe enlargement 24 at the rear end of: the plunger. 21* is spaced forwardly from the lower:

end of the rock arm 68 when the sprin'g 22:

compressed or when the gun is cooked Thusmanipulation of the-trigger I"! releases the arm 20' on the trigger from. the: enlargement 23 and.

" p rmi s the sprin'g'tdthrow the plunger z t'rear' wardly in the tube' l3; Asthe enlargement 24? at the rear end of'thepl'unger 2 I approaches the rear end of the tube 13, it strikes against the lower'end of the arm 68' and suddenly swings: the latter in a clockwise direction. As a result the u per endof thearm is moved-"forwardly and applies a forward thrust on the plunger 67 sufficient to momentarily move the valve member65- ofi its seat. The'extent to which the valve member 65 moves away from its seat depends upon the pressure of the air" in the storage space re sisting movement of the valve member so thatv substantially'uniform air pressure is suppliedtoi the barrel for a given number of shots; I

Operation Assumingthat-the various parts of thegun are in their relative positions shown in Figure 2 of the drawings and that it is desired to cock the :gun', the operator grasps the grip I 5 in onehand in the usual manner and places theothe'r hand over the barrel portion. The hand engaged with: the grip- I5 is shifted upwardly slightly to swing the latch arm 28 against the action of the spring. 3| and release the rear end of the arm from the shoulder 30. Upon release of theilatch the frame H] on which the grip I5 is mounted and thestructure II are relatively moved in a direction away from each other until the upper end of the screw 26 engages the rear wall of the slot 21. During this relative movement the enlargement 23 on the plunger 2| passes over the arm 20* on thetrigger and the rod 48 as well as the pin 55 are retracted in their respective bores formed in the block- 32 on the structure H- As the stop 4] moves rearwardly with the rod 48 out of engagement with the link 4|, the latter is-swungi by the spring 45- to the position-shown in'Figure 4 of the drawings; and a shot. 39 is moved by the lug. 44 on the link into thebore33through the'open-- ing 38- to-a position'in the barrel in advance of the pin 55. It will, of course, beunderstood that the gun is tipped: upwardly just prior tothe cocking operation to permit a shot 39 from the: delivery end of the bore 34' to enter the pocket 40" at the inner side of the lug 44 depending from the swinging end of. the link.

Upon completion of thenabove operation. the frame I0 and structure II' are relatively moved. ina direction toward each: other. As the above parts" are returned to their normal positione the enlargementa'buts. the arm 20 on the trigger IT;

and thespring 22 is compressed. Also the latch arm 28 is swung by the spring 3| to a position. wherein the rear end of the arm engages the shoulder 3!! to latch the frame l0 and structure II in 'theirnormal positions. It will further be noted that during return movement of the parts the pin '55 advances the shot 39 in the breach end of the gun barrel to a position in advance of the pressure port 54, and at the same time, the stop 47 engages the cam surface 53 on the rear end of the link 4| to return the latter to its normal position shown in Figure 3 of the drawings.

The shot 39 positioned in the above manner may be fired by swinging the arm IS on the trigger I1 rearwardly in the usual manner. This action releases the arm from the enlargement 23 and permits the spring 22 to throw the plunger 2| rearwardly against the lower end of the rock arm 68. As a result, the upper end of the rock arm is thrust forwardly against the plunger 67 and the valve member 65 is displaced from its seat to admit air under pressure into the gun barrel at the rear end of the shot 39 in the barrel.

What I claim as my invention is:

1. Loading mechanism for a pneumatic gun comprising supporting structure, a barrel on said structure having provision at the breech end for receiving shot, a shot retaining magazine on the structure at one side of the barrel, a shot receiving pocket connecting the breech end of the magazine with the barrel and open at the top; including a link pivoted at its front end on the supporting structure for swinging movement about an axis perpendicular to the barrel and magazine, means at the swinging end of the link extending into the pocket through the open top of the latter and adapted to assume a position in the pocket laterally outwardly from the delivery end of the magazine to enable shot from the magazine to enter the pocket at the inner side of said means, spring means for urging the swinging end of the link in a direction to transfer shot from the delivery end of the magazine into registry with the barrel, a pin movable into the'breech end of the barrel from a position rearwardly of the pocket to advance shot for wardly in the barrel, a member movably supported on said structure and connected with the pin, a cam surface on the swinging end of the link, said member being engageable with said cam surface in the forwardmost position of the pin to hold the link in the positionaforesaid thereof against the action of the spring means, said cam surface being contoured to permit inward swinging movement of the link by the spring means to transfer shot from the magazine to the barrel in response to withdrawal of the pin from the barrel.

2. Loading mechanism for a pneumatic gun comprising supporting structure, a barrel on said structure having an opening in the inner side at the breech end of sufficient size to freely receive shot, a shot retaining magazine on the structure at one side of the barrel and having the delivery end thereof adjacent the shot receiving opening in the barrel, a pocket extending transversely of the structure in a position to connect the delivery end of the magazine to the shot receiving opening and open at the top; including a link pivoted at its front end on the supporting structure at the top of the barrel and magazine for swinging movement about an axis perpendicular to the barrel, a depending part at the swinging end of the link extending into the pocket through the open top of the latter and adapted to assume a position in the pocket laterally outwardly from the delivery end of the magazine, spring means for urging the swinging end of the link in a direction to move said part inwardly in the pocket and transfer shot from the delivery end of the magazine into registry with the shot receiving opening in said barrel, a pin slidably mounted in the supporting structure and movable forwardly into the barrel for advancing shot along the barrel and adapted to be withdrawn from the barrel to a position wherein the front end of the pin is located rearwardly of the shot receiving opening in the barrel, a stop movably supported on said structure and connected with the pin for engaging the link in the forwardmost position of the pin to hold the link in the position aforesaid thereof against the action of the spring -means, and a cam surface on the swinging end of the link engageable with the stop upon withdrawal of the pin to permit inward swinging movement of thelink by the spring means-and engageable with the stop upon forward movement of the pin to swing the link outwardly against the action of the spring means to the position aforesaid thereof.

3. Loading mechanism for a pneumatic gun comprising supporting structure, a barrel on said structure having provision at the breech end for receiving shot, a shot retaining magazine on thestructure at one side of the barrel, a pocket at the rear end of the magazine for receiving shot delivered by the magazine and extending laterally to the barrel, a unit supported for sliding movement relative to the supporting structure fore and aft of the barrel, 9, link provided at its front end on the supporting structure at the top of the barrel and magazine for swinging move ment about an axis perpendicular to the barrel, a part on the swinging end of the link normally located in an inoperative position in the pocket at the outer side of the delivery end of the magazine, spring means for urging the swinging end of the link in a direction to move said part inwardly through the pocket to transfer shot from the delivery end of the magazine into registry with the barrel, means responsive to relative movement of said unit and structure in one direction to permit swinging movement of the link by the spring means in a direction to transfer shot from the pocket into the barrel and responsive to relative movement of said unit and structure in the opposite direction to return the link to the inoperative position aforesaid, a pin slidably mounted in said supporting structure for movement forwardly into the barrel so as to advance shot along the barrel, as well as movement rearwardly in the barrel to a position wherein the front end of the pin is located rearwardly of the shot receiving opening in the barrel, and stop means connected with said pin for closing the pocket at the rear end of the magazine when the pin is in its forwardmost position and for opening the pocket when the pin is in its rear, position so as to permit shot to be transferred from the magazine to the barrel, as set forthaforesaid.

WILLIAM S. WELLS.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Brewer June 1, i943;

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2940438 *Jul 30, 1957Jun 14, 1960Crosman Arms Company IncMagazine gun
US2982550 *Jul 8, 1958May 2, 1961Francis Nicholas BRifle pellet
US3119384 *Feb 16, 1959Jan 28, 1964Crosman Arms Company IncGas powered gun
US4834059 *Mar 16, 1988May 30, 1989Ljn Toys, Ltd.Air gun with safety features
US5605140 *Jan 19, 1995Feb 25, 1997Tonka CorporationToy gun with concealed secondary barrel
US6860258Mar 11, 2003Mar 1, 2005Kenneth R. FarrellPaintball loader
Classifications
U.S. Classification124/51.1, 124/66, 42/6
International ClassificationF41A9/12, F41A9/00, F41B11/00, F41B11/02
Cooperative ClassificationF41B11/51, F41A9/12
European ClassificationF41B11/51, F41A9/12