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Publication numberUS2582719 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 15, 1952
Filing dateFeb 1, 1950
Priority dateFeb 1, 1950
Publication numberUS 2582719 A, US 2582719A, US-A-2582719, US2582719 A, US2582719A
InventorsRamsey George H
Original AssigneeStandard Oil Dev Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Oil well formation tester
US 2582719 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 15, 1952 RAMSEY 2,582,719

OIL WELL FORMATION TESTER Filed Feb. 1, 1950 V 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 George. H. .Qamseg Snyenbor b s L U 7 (li uor-nag Jan. 15, 1952 RAMSEY 2,582,719

011. WELL FORMATION TESTER Filed Feb. 1, 1950 e Sheets-Sheet 2 .ip v 9 George, H.2amseg Csrzverzbor' bis Ctbborneg Jan. 15, 1952 RAMSEY 2,582,719

OIL WELL FORMATION TESTER Filed Feb. 1, 1950 6 Sheebs-Sheet :5

H H idm v $101 2a so 52 4.5

lfi '22 I l 19 h fi Obborneg Jan. 15, 1952 H. QAMSEVY on. WELL FORMATION TESTER 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Feb. 1, 1950 Q-eorge Ramses Urn/enter a 7 W4) CLbborn eg Jan. 15, 1952 RAMSEY 2,582,719

OIL WELL FORMATION TESTER Filed Feb. 1, 1950 6 Sheets-Sheet i 2 0 T 1 s? as 26 EA 1'? 2'22 is) '20 q WMMQZQLMI George H. Ramses Sun/gator 7 Clbbofnag I 1952 G. H. RAMSEIY 2,582,719

on. WELL FORMATION TESTER Filed Feb. 1, 1950 s Sheets-Sheet e George H. Ramseg Gavaabor 2x5 L01 (2 7 ('ltborrleg Patented Jan. 15, 1952 UNITED i George H; Ramsey; Tulszv, *Oklm, assign'or" to- Standard 'Oil Development Company, n corporation'of Delaware:

The" present "invention is concerned an improved device for secnringsamples'of rar mat'i'on fluids from a well bore. More specificallyis concerned with 'a' formation tester wherein a; shaped explosive charge is used try-expose afreshsurface of the, formation which is then" immediately covered by a rubber disc packer;

n'raking it possibletosecure a sample of the from the freshly" exposed formation iitl'i611tcontamination by armi g mud or other fliiid.

In conventional oil 'well' drilling' operations fluids-known as d'ri'l'lin'g' muds' are employed t aid 'incarrying awaynuttings' and also to maimtain' a hydrostatic h'e'a'd in the well to'preventtfie uncontrolled escapeofgases or" liquids from various formations enconnter'ed during" drilling.

G118 disadvantage-ofdrilling with a drilling Inlld is that the sampling 'of natural fluids occurring in Various formationsis thereby rendered difli cult; To" overcome this disadvantagevarfibus" pes of formation testers hare" been devised which are provided with means for reducing'th'e' hydrostatic'pre'ssure in the vicinity'-ofthe"forfi1a-= tionto'be tested and for establishing commfin1= cation between "the 'fomation and suitable co r'1-- duits or chambers-for "collectingtlie fiii'id salnfjl's It o'nebbject ofjthis "invention to providean apparatuswhich will; penetrat a desired area of a a formation, seal oifthe -area-r romeontamina=- ti oniby drilling mud and estab1ish"cbrriinunica t'i'o'n between the's'e'aied off area and a suitable sampling means, It is a more specific bjector theiinvention to'provide apparatus which win penetrate a formation by the force of an ex? plosiv'e' charge and which will immediately an" elastic seal over the freshly penetrated area,

formation fluids then being rawn from" the formation through" appropriate conduitimeans in theelastic seal. v

The invention" will be more'rea'dily' understood" from the ensding'de'scription and-from the draw=- in'gdrrwhich: Y

Figl -3isl view Of the pdr tib'li' 0f the device shown Fig. 2, imposition in the. bore hole. with? its .D'ar'ts set against the walls ofthe bore hole-prior to detonation of the explosive charge;

"Efgai and 5 are. sectionalelevationviews-pf the device. with: the parts inposi-tion forraising,

the name, out 1 of: the bore hole after 1 completion at its Towe define and for firing the zi-blds'i-Vdchafg eferring now specifically to- Figures 1' ana 2'; it' wi ll b'e seen that this device is upp-one a sub 2 which is" adapted t" he attached"to" end of a drill pipe I.- F te trie -lower nd' o'f'siib '2 :'1"s'-aa1'ri TeVe-3' r6 liedra and- I 3d jand shouldef' 5'. Rotatab su'iziported by shou-l 21 moreswiiwariiliby 1 arm-s15"; A "lrwiinjftuffi' .719 and I911 fid fela'seeylii'idr The oti'tn nd-of cylinder 9 is provided a cone shapedi'rece'ss 2B" surrounded hy a more or-less saucer-shaped flexible disc 55-. Conveni ently disc -2 {maybe Ina-(1e ofknatural s-yn-r thetic; rubber Fitted with'im opening 26 s cone-shaped :l imng of: {explosive material -2 1r.-, A; metal linerjBmay-be inserted-ralso -to cover the;

explosive charge. A frangible spacing and-scale;

ing cap 29 covers the opening 26 so as to leave an air space 36. The cap may conveniently be made of plastic material such as a molded phenol-aldehyde resin, cellulose acetate, or the like. Projections 29a on cap 29 are adapted to rest against the wall of the bore hole so as to give the proper standoff distance for the shaped explosivecharge 2 for maximum efiectiveness. These projections also keep the 'elastic packer disc 25 away from the walls of the borehole until after the explosive has been detonated, facilitating the blowing away of mud around the packer disc and also minimizing damage thereto by the explosion. Cone-shaped opening. 26 terminates at its apex in a detonator chamber 3l into which is fitted a detonating cap 32. The latter is connected to an electrical lead 33 through which an electrical charge may be sent to set off the detonator. Wire 33 is connected to switch 35' whose function will be discussed later.

vIf desired the movable parts of the device may. be protected against damage when tl'ie apparatus is being lowered into or raised out of the borehole by fastening to the apparatus a cylindrical jacket extending from sleeve 3 down to nose plug 8, the jacket being provided with suitable openings for springs H, piston shoulderv 38, cylinder 9. anddisc 25. In the interest of clarity this jacket is not shown in the drawing, but its construction is a simple matter.

It willbe seen from the foregoing description that the device of this invention may be lowered into a bore hole, after which the tripping mechanism associated with solenoid 23 may be actuated so as to set the disc shaped packer 25 adjacent the wall of the bore hole. This may be done by lowering through the-drill pipe an overshot which. will come into contact with overshot plug 4 in the interior of sub 2 and make electrical contact with contact wire 62. As described more fully in connection wtih Fig. 6, contact wire 62 is connected electrically through switch 35 to solenoid 23. After electricalcontact has been established with plug 4 an electrical current is sent down'through the cable on which the overshot is supported and armature 2| is actuated torelease cylinder 9 and piston Ill. The. position of the various parts after this has been done is-showni1'1 Fig.:3. It will be seen that sealing cap 29 now rests' agains t the wall of the bore hole Hll and that projection 48 on the end of piston l6, engages the bore holewall on the opposite side. Projecting ear 3'! on cylinder 9 has moved outwardly from switch 35 andthus permitted plunger 36 to move-outwardly. As discussed later in connection with Fig. 6 this movement of plunger 36 actuates switch 35 so that electrical contact is made between plug contact wire 62 and firing wire '33. Thus the sending of an additionalmined by the amount of explosive contained in the shaped charge. Thus, as depicted in Fig. 5, a hole {63 willbe blown out of the stratum I02 from which the desired test is to be made. The

explosion will also break the plastic sealing cap' 29 and permit packer 25 to set up against the wall of the bore hole. At the same time the explosion will drive drilling mud from between the wall of the bore hole and packer 25 so that the latter will 'seat readily; on the edges as an immediate after-effect of the explosion and will be held against the bore hole wall by mud pressure.

the walls-of the bore hole as already described.

Under a shock loading, however, immediately after the explosion, the piston and cylinder will .move only slightly because of the oil cushion.

It is convenient to provide a volume-expanding chamber 43 communicating with the interior of cylinder 9 through flexible oil resistant conduit 42 in order to provide for expansion and contraction of oil volume resulting from changes in piston rod displacement during movement.

It will be seen that after the explosive has been detonated, opening 26. will be in direct communication with production passage 45 which connects with production control valve 50 through a flexible production-tube 46. Thus after packer 25 has been set against the formation, fluids present in the formation will be permitted to flow through tube 46, valve 56 and conduit 55 into the interior of sub 2 and the empty drill pipe I. When it is desired to complete the test and stop the now of formation fluids, valve 50 may be turned so as to shut off communication between tube 46 and conduit 55 and to establish communication betwe'en'tube 46 and pressure-equalizing port 56 so that drilling mud will flow through tube 46 intothe explosion hole, equalizing mud pressure.

is apparent that rotation of drill pipe I while piston "l6 and cylinder 9 engage the Walls of the bore hole will cause valve 50 .to turn. At the 'same time cam sleeve 3 will turn relative to sleeve 6,

presenting cam faces I3awhich will move spring positioners I2 on their pivots and thus urge springs II and I2 inwardly as shown in Figure 4. This in turn will slide iston l0 and cylinder 9 inwardly as shown in Fig. 5..

Cam faces l3a are placed .from cam faces 13 about the circumference of sleeve 3 and valve 56- isdesigned to establish communication between tube 46 and either port 56 or conduit 55 for every 905 rotation of valve part 50a relative to valve part 5%. Thusv rotation of sub'2 relative to.

mandrel. 6 through 90 will actuate valve 56 and spring positioners l2. 7

A schematic diagram of an electrical circuit. and associated elements for actuating solenoid 23 and fordetonating the explosive charge is shown inFig. 6..- Overshot 59 lowered on single con-. ductor cable 66 engages overshot plug 4 so that.

the electrical contact is made between the conductorin cable, 60 and contact 62 through contact springs'fil. Y .Lead wire 63 connects plug contact 62 to one side of contact points 64 and 64a. atv

switch 35.. When plunger 36 is held in against thejpressu're of spring 65 by projection 31 elec-. trical contact is established between lead 63 and lead 61 so that an electrical impulse sent down.

throughjcable '60 will be sent through coil 68. in solenoid 23 and will thus raise armature 2|. Movement of projection 31 away from switch 35 asa result of releasing cylinder 9 by the solenoid action as previously described will permit spring 65 to move contact element 66 to contact points 64a so that electrical contact will then be established between lead 63 and lead 33. When an additional electrical impulse is now sent down through cable 60, current will be conducted to detonating cap 32. In each case the return side of the circuit is established through the supporting structure and the drill pipe as a ground. It will be readily apparent that the need for switch 35 can be avoided by employing multiple conductor cable rather than single conductor cable and using separate circuits for actuating solenoid 23 and for setting off detonating cap 32.

It is not intended that this invention be limited by the specific embodiments thereof described in the foregoing specification, for it is evident that many modifications thereof can be made by persons skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the following claims.

What is claimed is:

1. Improved device for testing for the presence of fluids in a formation transversed-by a borehole, comprising a body adapted to be lowered into the borehole and provided with a hollow portion adapted to receive a sample of fluid, a cylinder slidably supported in a horiozntal position by said body, said cylinder having an open end, a closed end, and a recess on the exterior of the closed end, a piston slidably fitted within the open end of said cylinder, a shaped explosive charge placed within said recess, a frangible cap covering said recess, a flexible disc attached to the closed end of said cylinder and provided with a central opening communicating with said recess, spring means urging said piston and said cylinder outwardly from said body toward the walls of the borehole, releasable latching means normally opposing said outward movement of said piston and said cylinder, and conduit means connecting said recess with said hollow portion of said body.

2. Improved device for testing for the presence of fluids in a formation traversed by a borehole, comprising a body attachable to the lower portion of a drill pipe and provided with a central hollow portion communicating with the interior of said drill pipe, an elongated mandrel rotatably supported below said body, a cylinder slidably fitted in a horizontal position in said mandrel, said cylinder having an open end and a closed end, and being provided with a cone-shaped recess on the exterior of the closed end, a piston slidably fitted within the open end of said cylinder, a shaped explosive charge fitted within said exterior recess in said cylinder, a frangible cap covering said recess, a flexible disc having an opening in its center and attached at said central opening to the closed end of said cylinder with its central opening adjacent said recess, a plurality of flat spring members one of which is attached at its lower end to the closed end of said cylinder and another 01' which is attached at its lower end to the outer end of said piston, said springs being pivotally attached at their upper ends to said mandrel, means adapted to turn said springs on their pivots to a first position in which said springs urge said piston and said cylinder outwardly from said body toward the walls 01'' the borehole and to a second position in which said springs urge said piston and said cylinder inwardly away from said walls, releasable latching means normally opposing said outward movement of said cylinder and said piston, and flexible conduit means connecting said recess with said central hollow portion of said body.

3. Device as defined by claim 2 including an oil-tight seal fitted in the open end of said cylinder about the body of said piston and an expandable oil chamber communicating with the interior of said cylinder, said piston being provided with a head having a pressure equalizing port.

4. Device as defined by claim 2 in which said means adapted to turn said springs comprises a sleeve depending from said body and surrounding the upper portion of said mandrel, said sleeve being provided with two pairs of diametrically opposed cam faces engageable with the upper portions of said springs and spaced circumferentially apart, one pair of cam faces being pitched to turn said springs in a direction urging outward movement of said piston and said cylinder and the other pair of cam faces being pitched to turn said springs in a direction urging said inward movement of said piston and cylinder.

5. Device as defined by claim 2 including a solenoid-actuated armature for operating said releasable latching means, and electrical circuit means for furnishing current to said solenoid and to a detonator for said explosive charge.

6. Device defined by claim 2 including a twoway valve in the line of flow between said flexible conduit means and said central hollow portion of said body and means adapted to turn said valve from a first position to a second position upon rotation of said body relative to said mandrel by a predetermined amount, said valve being provided with a port adapted to contact fluid in the bore hole exterior of the device, said valve establishing in said first position a path of fluid com munication between said flexible conduit and said central hollow portion of the body and in said second position blocking said last-named path of communication and establishing fluid communication between said port and said flexible conduit.

GEORGE H. RAMSEY.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,303,727 Douglas Dec. 1, 1942 2,509,608 Penfield May 30, 1950

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2303727 *Jun 10, 1941Dec 1, 1942Douglas Leslie AMeans for testing underground strata for the fluid content thereof
US2509608 *Apr 28, 1947May 30, 1950Shell DevFormation tester
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2740477 *Oct 29, 1951Apr 3, 1956Monaghan Richard JApparatus for obtaining fluid samples from subterranean formations
US2743781 *Aug 25, 1952May 1, 1956Guiberson CorpHydraulic anchor tool
US2903070 *Sep 23, 1955Sep 8, 1959Schlumberger Well Surv CorpApparatus for investigating earth formations
US2903071 *Sep 23, 1955Sep 8, 1959Schlumberger Well Surv CorpApparatus for investigating earth formations
US2915123 *Aug 17, 1955Dec 1, 1959Schlumberger Well Surv CorpFormation fluid samplers
US2939532 *Jan 26, 1955Jun 7, 1960Geores IncWell apparatus for well formation testing
US3011554 *Jan 23, 1956Dec 5, 1961Schlumberger Well Surv CorpApparatus for investigating earth formations
US3018730 *Jul 29, 1953Jan 30, 1962Pgac Dev CompanyPerforating guns
US3067679 *Oct 8, 1954Dec 11, 1962Halliburton CoWell perforating assembly and perforating unit therefor
US3071072 *Aug 11, 1954Jan 1, 1963Pgac Dev CompanyPerforating apparatus
US3104712 *Aug 12, 1959Sep 24, 1963 Formation fluid testing and sampling apparatus
US3147807 *Jun 3, 1959Sep 8, 1964Schlumberger Well Surv CorpFormation tester
US3153449 *Mar 30, 1960Oct 20, 1964Schlumberger Well Surv CorpMethod and apparatus for completing a well
US3169578 *Jul 16, 1962Feb 16, 1965Schlumberger Weil Surveying CoFormation testers
US3295615 *Oct 22, 1965Jan 3, 1967Schlumberger Well Surv CorpFormation-testing apparatus
US3318393 *Apr 7, 1964May 9, 1967Halliburton CoFormation treatment
US3424243 *Aug 11, 1966Jan 28, 1969Lawrence Doyle MFormation injecting and testing apparatus for wells
US4158388 *Jun 20, 1977Jun 19, 1979Pengo Industries, Inc.Method of and apparatus for squeeze cementing in boreholes
US5092056 *Sep 8, 1989Mar 3, 1992Halliburton Logging Services, Inc.Reversed leaf spring energizing system for wellbore caliper arms
US5238062 *Apr 21, 1992Aug 24, 1993Weatherford/Lamb, Inc.Centralizer for centring drilling and casing pipes and centralizing arrangement including said centralizer
Classifications
U.S. Classification166/63, 166/241.5, 166/214, 166/212, 166/100, 166/317
International ClassificationE21B49/10, E21B49/00
Cooperative ClassificationE21B49/10
European ClassificationE21B49/10