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Publication numberUS2582928 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 15, 1952
Filing dateOct 21, 1947
Priority dateOct 21, 1947
Publication numberUS 2582928 A, US 2582928A, US-A-2582928, US2582928 A, US2582928A
InventorsEdward D Dall
Original AssigneeHoudaille Hershey Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Door lock
US 2582928 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jar 1. 15, 1952 V E. b. DALL 2582,928

` DooR Locx Filed Oct. 21, 1947 4 Sheets-Sheet l Jan) 15, 1952 E. D. DAL .L

DOOR LOCK 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 21. 1947 Jan. 15, 1952 E. D. DALL 2,582,928

' DooR Loox Filed Oct. 21, 1947 4 shets-sheetv 3 EYE' 2777:?

E. D. DALL DOOR LOCK 4 sheets-snet 4 Filed Oct. 21, 1947 Patented Jan. 15, .1952

.DOOR LOOK 4'Edwar'rliD.'`D'all, Detroit, Mich.,l as'signor to Houdaille-Hershey Corporation, Detroit, Mich., 'a

oorporation of Michigan Application' October 21, 1947., Serial No. .7815079 (Cl. V'TO-*145) This invention re'lates 1'to door L`latches, 'particularly for use on automobile doors.

The present invention provides a'door latc'h structure having a latch release mechanism operable from the outside of the door and looking means 'for preventing release of the lat'ch 'from the outside. 'In many types of 'latc'hes such locking mea-ns interposes a vpositive'block to the actuation of the outside 'handle so `'thatthe handle 'may not be moved 'at "all when the door is locked. i-Iowever, according to the present invention the looking means 'is so constructed and operat'es fin such a manner that when the door lis looked by means of a key -or by some- 'oth'ei' mechanism from 'the inside of the door the outside handle may be moved freely without, however, having any latch relea'sing eiiect.

One advantage which is inherent 'in such .a 'lock structure is that if a-n 'automobile Ythief should place a pipe over .the outside handle'to rotate it with great force in 'the expecta'tion of breaking the lock, no such result 'will happen with the present invention :as the outside :handle will move 'freely; whereas if the outside handle Were held blocked by the key 'operated looking mechanism, the outside handle might then be employed to exert such force upon 'the latch release mechanism as to break it.

Accordingly, one of the objects 'of the inventio'n is to provide an automobile door latch mechanism having key controlled means for rendering the outside h'andle inefiective to release the latch.

Another object of the inv'ention vis to provide an automobile Vdoor latch mechanism having key controlled means for rendering the outside han'dle inefiective to unlatch the doorbut enabling'the outside handle to be fully rotated, even whenso rendered inefiective.

Another object is to provide inside'controlled means for acoomplishing a similar resultant effect on the outside handle.

Other particular objects and advantages vof the invention will be mentionedhereinafter, oriwill become apparent from a perusal of the following specification.

In the drawings:

Figure 1 is a side elevation showing' portions of the latch mechanism which-are mountedon a casing plate parallel to the dooriedge; and omitting those parts which are-perpendicular to the door edge. Figure 1 showsv the position of these parts when the door Vis latched.

Fgure 2is a view similar to Figure 1, but showiorreleasing the latch.

`F'igure 3 is a view at a right angle to Figure l showing. these parts of the latch mechanism which are mounted on a casing plate .substantially parallel to the inside wall of 'the door, and showing the key 'controlled lock plate in looking position, rendering the outside handle 'ineffective to unlatch the door.

Figura 4 is a view similar to Figure '3, but showing the same parts in unlocked position. w

' Figui'e 5 is a view similar to Figure ll, but showing 'the roll back mechanism on the inside plate rotated to latch releasin'gjposition.

Figure 6 is a Vertical seotional view at the edge of the doojr showing the 'rot'a'ry 'bolt housing about to enter 'the keeper. g

Figure 7 'is another view 'taken at the same 'position showing the position of'the irotary bolt housing in 'Safety latch position.

Figure 8 is a similar view showing the "rot'ary bolt in llatching or door holding position. I

VFigure 9 is a top 'plan view of the complete latch mechanism. i I I Figures '10 to i1'3 inclusive show a modification off my invention.

vli'i'gure 1`0 is an elevational view 'similar to Figure 2 showing the outside release member actuated to unlatch the latch mechanism, the mechanisms mountel on 'the roll-'back plate being omitted. i

lF'gure 11 'is an 'elevation'al view of the mechanism carried on the inside roll 'back plate of this modified Aform of my inven'tion, showing the parts in latched 4but unlooked position.

Figure '12 is an elevational view showing the mechanism of Figure 11 rotated to unlatching position.

Figure 13 is' anelevation'al view showing the same parts in latohed 'and locked position.

Figure 14 is 'a side elevatlon of the keepe'r einployed with either form of the invention.

As shown on the drawings:

The parts of 'the iatch mechanism are mounted on 'a casing which is bent to form 'two plate meine bers' substantially at right angles to each other, the plate member which is mounted parallel-to the door edge being numbered I, while the plate which lies 'substantially parallel to the inner wall ofthe'door is numbered H.

The plate IQ supports the'rotary bolt and will be referred to hereinafter as the rotor plate, while the plate II supports the roll back mechanism. and will be i'eferi'ed to as the roll back plate.

The rotary bolt, whiohis generally designated as A, is mou'ntd on the i'otor plate at the 'edge Of the door in the following manher. A box shaped atsaes housing for the rotary bolt having a bottom wall |2, end walls |3 and |4 and a side wall |5 is secured to the outside surface of the rotor plate in any appropriate manner. A pivot post |6 for the rotary bolt has one end supported in the outside wall |5 and its inner end is supported on the rotor plate, extending therethrough and carrying on its inner end a cam shaped collar |1, whose function Will be described later.

The rotary bolt has a striker arm IB and latching arm |9. Secured in the arm |9 is a post which extends through a curved slot 2| in the rotor plate. The inner end of the post 20 is provided with a kerf in which is crimped one end of a spring 22. The post 20 serves also as a pivotal mounting for a take up arm 23 having a laterally extending portion 24 and a fiange 25 extending therefrom over which is laid the other end of the spring 22, whereby the spring tends to rotate the arm 23 about the post 20. In the unlatched position of the mechanism as illustrated in Figure 2, the proiection 24 of the take up arm will rest upon the cam shaped collar |1.

The take up arm 23 cooperates with a rotor lever 26 which is pivotally mounted on a post 21, one end of which is supported on the rotor plate |0 and the other on a U-shaped bracket 28 secured to the rotor plate. The movable end 29 of lever 26 extends through a Vertical guide slot in the roll back plate When the door is open. or when it is closed and latched. the free end 29 of the rotor lever is supported on a horizontal shoulder 30 of a safety latch plate generally designated as B which is pivotally mounted on a post 3| supported on the roll back plate I I.

The safety latch plate has a proiection 32 serving as a Safety latch bolt which is normally projected through a Vertical slot in the rotor plate and through a horizontal slot in the bottom wall |2 of the rotary bolt housing by the action of a s spring 32' anchored as shown on the rotor plate The spring 32' serves as a restorinxr spring for the safety latch plate B. Hence, following the opening of the door, the safety latch plate is restored to normal by its spring and will raise the rotor vlever 29 back to its normal position as shown in Figures 1 and 3.

When the door is closed and the rotary bolt occupies a position such as that shown in Figure 8 in latching engagement with the keeper, the rotation of the rotary bolt from unlatched position shown in Figure 6 to latched position shown in Figure 8 will have carried the take up arm 23 along with it and cause the head 34 of the take up arm to ride upon and flrmly engage the wavy or serrated surface 35 of the rotor lever 26. In such a position the spring 22 holds the take up arm head firmly engaged with the rotor lever, which prevents the rotary bolt from unlatching due to any pressure tending to open the door. At such a time, the force exerted by the head of the take up arm on the rotor lever will be in a downward direction toward the pivot of the take up'arm, as can be readily perceived by observing Figures 1 and 8 simultaneously.

It should be noted that a rotary bolt constructed in accordance with this invention is not under the pressure of any spring tending to rotate it either to latched or to unlatched position. It is moved only by engagement With the keeper as the door closes or opens.

After the rotary bolt becomes latched and is held in latched position by the take up arm, the free end of which is supported on the Safety latch bolt. the only way in which the rotary holtrmay be released for unlatching movement is by rotating the safety latch plate out from underneath the end of the rotor lever 26.

The mechanism for retracting the Safety latch bolt and simultaneously releasing the take up mechanism which holds the rotary bolt latched is mounted in part on the roll back plate An inside release lever 36 is pivotally mounted on the roll back plate by means of a post 31 whose enlarged head 38 is employed also for retaining on the post a lock Operating lever 39. An Operating finger 40 on the inside release lever is engaged with an Operating finger 4| on the safety latch plate. One arm 42 of the inside release lever extends past a slot 43 in which is guided the end 44 of a rockable outside release lever 45 pivoted on post 21 (see Fig. 1). A lateral flange 46 is provided on this outside release member and when the lock ls installed in a door the fiange 46 will be located near the outer surface of the door to be operated upon either by a push button or by some mechanism connected with a pivoted handle (not shown) whereby pressure applied against this fiange will cause the outside release lever 45 to pivot about its supporting post 21 which will cause the inner end 44 of the outside release lever to press downwardly on the arm. 42 of the inside release lever, causing through the cooperation of the Operating fingers 40 and 4| the safety latch plate to be rotated about its pivot 3| and thereby be rotated from underneath the free end 29 of the rotor lever 26. Thus, the take up mechanism holding the rotary bolt in latched position can be released from the outside of the door, simultaneouslv with the retraction of the safety latch bolt 32.

For releasing the take up mechanism from the inside of the door, I provide a remote control link 41 which is connectable with an inside door handle in any well known manner and provide this' link with a slot 48 which is engageable with a' laterally extending post 49 carried by the lower' arm or the downwardly extending arm 50 of the inside release lever. Thus, in an obvious manner, when the link 41 is pulled a sufiicient distance to the right, as Figure 4 is viewed, the inside release lever 36 may be rocked to cause the safety latch plate to be retracted and thus release the take up mechanism.

Whenever either the inside or outside handle mechanism is employed for rocking the Safety latch plate, the latching nose 32 of that plate will be withdrawn into the rotary bolt housing, and as is apparent from Figures 5 and 7, this Safety latch bolt will therefore clear the lower latching projection' in the keeper when the door is being opened.

A spring 21' wound about post 21, having one end abutting bracket 28 and its other end abutting an ear 45' struck out from lever 45 functions to restore that lever to its normal position shown in Figure 1. w

For the latch mechanism shown in Figures 1 to 9, inclusive, I provide several mechanisms for establishing a locked condition which will prevent unlatching of the door from the outside.. These mechanlsms will now be described.

A lock plate 5| is pivotally mounted about the' hollow post 3| and a square aperture 52 formed' therein serves to receive a shank from la key controlled lock of ordinary construction with which automobile doors are customarily equipped.

The'square shank on such a lock can be employed to rotate the looking plate 5| to and from looking position. The plate 5| is provided with' Vtwo arms '53 and 54` and Vwithfaprojection upon its lower edge which cooperates withfza spring 56 anchored as shown in the cover plate t'l'to releasably'hold the lock plate in either. of its two positions. If the key be employed'to rotate the lock plate from unlocked position shown in Figure 'i to locked position shownin Figure 3, the arm :'34 of the lock plate will engage a fiange 58 on the arm 50 of the inside release lever and rotate that lever into the position shown in' Figure 3. In this position, thearm 42 of the inside release lever has been moved out from under the free end 44 of the outside release lever. Therefore, if anyone, from outside of the door rocks the outside release lever 45 downwardly about its pivot post 2! it will have no effect'upon the inside release lever 36, and the door will remain latched. This type of lock mechanism therefore serves to render a portion of the latch releasing mechanism ineffeotive: for actuation by the outside release mechanism.

` When a key is employed from the outsidetto return the lock plate 5| back to its unlockedposition the arm 53 of the lock plate will engagetthe flange 58 on the inside release lever and cause that latter lever to 'ce rotated counterclockwise, as Figure 3 is viewed, and again place the arm 42 underneath the end 44 of the outside release lever. VWhen the mechanism is restored to this normal condition, thedoor may then be unlatched from the outside.

The lock plate 5! also may be rotated from locked position by means of the inside handle Controlled link 41 which, acting upon the post 49, may be employed to directly rock the inside release lever 36 back to normal ,position and through cooperation of the fiange 58 and the arms 53 and 54 move the lock plate to unlocked position. Further movement of the inside handlein the same direction would, of course, unlatch the door.

Looking or unlocking of this door lock mechanism may also be accornplished by means ofe conventional button which usually is located in the selvage of the door adjacent the window. For this purpose I provide the bell crank 39 which is pivotally connected to the push rod 59 which may be raised or lowered by means of the push button, mentioned, but not shown. A pin 60 extending laterally from the arm 53 of the lock plate engages a slot 6! in the bell crank 39 whereployed to'render the outside release mechanism effective or ineffective for unlatching the door.

The keeper which is preferably employed with the latch mechanism herein described and shown in Figures 6 to 8, inclusive, and Figure 14 may be formed from a plate having a fiange portion`` 62 for securing to the door post and a recessed portion generally indicated at 63 for admitting .the rotary bolt when the door is being closed. .A

shoulder 64 serves as the strike surface for the.

strikei' arm 18 of the rotary bolt, whereas the shoulder 65 serves as the latching shoulder against which the latching arm 59 rests when'thedoorfis latched. The bottom of the latch bolt housing will rest upon the projection 66 when the: door :isv

closed and latched, and the shoulder 61 will serve ;6 as the Safety latch projection to cooperate with the nose-32v` ofthe' safety latch plate.

VV-Auotl'ier feature: of the .lock mechanism shown in Figures l'1to19, inclusive, which may be noted here is that if the lock plate 5| be rotated into its .looking position [byeither of the two methods heretofore described at a time when the door is open, 1 the subsequent closing of the door will reset this lockl plate back to unlocked position. As' the door is being closed, under these circumstances. the Safety latchbolt 32 will ride up on lthe inclined surface 68 of the striker plate rocking. the safety latch plateto fully unlatched position. Duri-ng this movement, the Operating finger M of the safety latch plate will strike the ilange of the inside release member 36 and simultaneously rctate lever 36 back to its normal position where .it is again effective for unlatching operation and at the same time. b'y reason of the engagement of the flange 59 with the lock plate arm '54. will move the' lock plate itself back to its unlocked position. a door equipped with the latch mechanism'iust described cannot be placed in a' locked, position with the door open 'and remain in that condition upon slamming, thus vlookingv the driverv out of the car when his keys might happen to be in the ignition switch.

'A modified form ofV the invention is shown in Figures 10 'to 13; inclusive. In this modified form, I employ the same rotary bolt construction, take up mechanism'andbutside release mechanism which I have shown and described in connection with Figures'l-to 9, inclusive, hence those portions of the mechanism will not be described as in as great detail' as they have already been described. It will suifice to note the location of a rotary bolt a take up arm 8| pivotally mounted on the rotary bolt, the'rotor lever 82 and the out- "side release lever 83 whose inner free end 84 is employed for actuating the inside release mechanism to'cause'a retraction of the safety latch plate'BZ'fshown in Figures 11 to 13, inclusive. Thissafety latch plate B' is identical with the similar plateB heretofore described.

' The 'difference' between the modified form of the zin'ventionand the first described form i'esides in the inside release mechanism and the looking system, all of 'which'` are mounted upon the roll hack plate. portion of the lock mechanism.

.Irr thisiform the'rotor plate 85 supports the rotary bolt-'and .outside release lever, while the rollback 'plate 86 supports the inside release mechanism, which includes an inside release lever "B'I'pivotally mounted ona post 88, together with anjint'ermediate lever. B9 which likewise is pivotthe inner-endV 84. of the. outside release lever will lbear.downwardly upon the arm. 9| of the inside releasez'lever to ;cause the Operating finger 92 thereof to bear against the Operating finger 93 on the safety latch plate B' and cause the latter '70 to rock about its pivotal support at 94. This actioninot only retracts the safety latch bolt nose ,95 .hutalso'removes `the safety latch bolt from its supportingpo'sition underneath the free end of the .'rotor zle-ver` 82, thus. releasing .the take up 'li mechanism, as will he understood from the 7 f, description of the iirstf'idescribed form of this invention.`

The safety latch bolt may also be retracted by means of an inside remote control link 95 pivotally connected by means of a post 91 to the arm 98 of the inside release lever.

For locking the latch mechanism from the outside of the door by means of a key, I provide a key lever 99 pivotally mounted at 94 and having a squared aperture |90 therein for the reception of the customary square shank on a key operated door lock of the type commonly used on automobile doors. This aperture IUO may therefore be used to bring about the rotation of the key 'lever 99 in either direction between the unlocked position shown in Figure 11 and the locked position shown in Figure 13. When the key lever is rocked in a counterclockwise direction from 'the position shown in Figure 11 the intermediate lever 89, which is pivotally connected by means of a post I to the key lever, will rotate in a clockwise direction and its supporting post 89 will slide downwardly in the inclined notch 90 and this movement of the post 88 will cause the inside release lever 81, which has a pivotal contact with the safety latch plate where the Operating fingers 92 and 93 touch each other, to likewise rotate in a clockwise direction, causing the arm 9| of the inside release lever to move as shown in Figure 13 out of the path of the outside release lever 83, should the latter be operated for the purpose of unlatching the door. Consequently, the door cannot then be unlatched from the outside by means of the outside door handle or push button.

Return of the key lever to its position as shown in Figure 11 will, of course, reverse the operation just described and enable the door to be unlatched from the outside.

While the key lever is in the door looking position, the door may nevertheless be unlatched from the inside by meansof the remote control link 96, as a retractive movement on that link acting through pin 91 will actuate the inside release lever 81 to retract the safety latch bolt and cause the post 88 to slide upwardly in the nclined notch 99, resulting from pressure between fingers 92 and 93. This action restores the key lever to unlocked position.

The lock mechanism may also be placed in condition to prevent latch release from the outside by means of a push rod I 02 connectedto theiarm' m3 of the intermediate lever 89. By means of the rod i02, which is pivotally connected at IM to the arm 193, the intermediate lever 89 may be rotated clockwise causing the key lever 99. to..

rotate counterclockwise, causing the post 88 toW move downwardly into slot 90, and r'aising` the arm 9| of the inside release lever out of the path of the outside release lever.

The arm I 95 which is also integral with the intermediate lever, is provided for optional use in the event that it is desired to locate the inside push button at a point on the door remote from the latch mechanism. Inv such case, a remote control link 195,'indicated in dotted lines in Figure 13, would be pivotally'connected'at 101 to the intermediate lever and extended away from the latch mechanism and connected by a suitable bell crank to a vertically extending rd similar to m2 and equipped with a push button.

The spring m8 anchored to casing plate 86 at |9 and pressing against the under side of shouli der HO on the Safety-latch plate keeps thelatch bolt portion 'thereof normally projected 'and 'assists in frictionally retaining the lock plate either in locked or unlocked position. The restoring spring |08 not only restores the latch plate from rotated position shown in Figure 12 to normal position shown in Figure 11, but also enables the latch plate in the same movement to lift the lever 82 back to normal and rotate release lever 81 from the position shown in Figure 13 back to its normal position shown in Figure 11.

It will be noted that in either form of the invention as described herein, the operation of conditioning the latch mechanism so that it cannot be retracted from the outside, consists of rotating the' inside release lever out of the path of the outside release lever.

While I have shown and described in detail a preferred form of the invention, it should be understood that various details and construction thereof may be modified considerably without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention defined in the appended claims.

I claim as my invention:

1. In a door latch mechanism, a pivotally mounted bolt, a bolt retracting member and a shiftable pivotal mounting therefor, outside handle actuated means for actuating said bolt retracting member, key operated looking means rotatable to and from looking position, and a lever pivotally connected with said looking means and pivotally mounted on said shiftable pivot mounting effective upon rotation of the looking means into looking position for shifting said pivotal mounting and simultaneously rocking said bolt retracting member out of the path of movement "of said outside handle operated actuating means.

2. In a door latch mechanism, a pivoted latch, a retracting member having a finger engageable lwith said latch for retracting said latch, a shiftable pivot for said retracting member, pivotally mounted actuating means engageable with said retracting member for actuating said retracting member to retract the latch, a lpivotally mounted key operated looking member rotatable by a key between looking and unlocking positions, a lever pivotally mounted on said shiftable pivot and pivotally connected with said key operated locking member, whereby rotation of said looking member into locking position pivots and translationally moves said retracting member on said 'shiftable pivot out of the path of movement of said actuating member, to render said actuating mechanism, a latch casing the door edge and a second casing plate for mounting parallel to the inside door wall, a latch pivotally mounted on said second casing plate. a

slot in said second casing plate, a pivot pin movable along said slot, a latch retracting member pivotally mounted on said pin and having an operating finger engageable with said latch, for moving said latch into retracted position, an actuating member movably mounted on said first mounting plate and having operative engagement with said latch retracting member, for moving said retracting member in a direction to retract the latch, a key operated member pivotally 7 lmounted on the second plate for rotation to and from looking position by a key, and means connecting said key operated looking member with said movable pivot pin to move said retracting member along said slot and simultaneously rotate said retracting member by its reaction against said latch out of the path of movement of said actuating member upon rotation of the key operated looking means into looking position, to render said actuating member inefieotive for retracting the bolt.

4. In a door latch mechanism, a pivoted latoh, a latch retracting member engageable With said latoh, a shiftable pivot therefor, outside handle operated actuating means engageable with said retracting member for actuating the same to retraot the latch, a lever pivotally mounted on said shiftable pivot, a pivotally mounted key operated looking lever spaced from said shiftable pivot, means pivotally conneoting said key operated looking lever with said lever, and an inside operated link pivotally connected with said lever for rotating said lever in one direotion and said key operated looking lever in an opposite direcll tion and translationally and rotatably moving said retracting member on said movable pivot out of the path of movement of said actuating means, to render said actuating means ineffective to unlatch the door.


REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PA'I'ENTS Number Name Date 511,454 Perkins Deo. 26, 1893 1.738,338 Wells Deo. 3, 1929 2,191,625 Rightmyer Feb. 27, 1940 2,196,477 Simpson Apr. 9, 1940 2,234,810 Simpson Mar. 11, 1941 2,272,167 Cloutier et al. Feb. 10, 1942 2,29%),353 Simpson Oct. 20, 1942 2,336,211 Barnes Deo. 7, 1943

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US511454 *Feb 24, 1893Dec 26, 1893 Lock and latch
US1738338 *Sep 2, 1925Dec 3, 1929Walker Body CompanyLatch for doors
US2191625 *Nov 26, 1937Feb 27, 1940American Swiss CompanyVehicle door latch
US2196477 *Jan 10, 1938Apr 9, 1940Ternstedt Mfg CoDoor lock
US2234810 *Jan 3, 1939Mar 11, 1941Ternstedt Mfg CoDoor lock
US2272167 *Mar 20, 1940Feb 10, 1942Ternstedt Mfg CoDoor lock
US2299353 *Sep 20, 1940Oct 20, 1942Ternstedt Mfg CoDoor lock
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4309884 *Dec 28, 1979Jan 12, 1982The Eastern CompanyPaddle lock with guard-protected handle disconnect member
US4312202 *Dec 28, 1979Jan 26, 1982The Eastern CompanyPaddle lock with bolt-carried handle disconnect member
US4312203 *Dec 28, 1979Jan 26, 1982The Eastern CompanyFlush-mountable lock with actuator disconnect feature
US4312204 *Dec 28, 1979Jan 26, 1982The Eastern CompanyPaddle lock with translatably-mounted handle disconnect member
US4312205 *Dec 28, 1979Jan 26, 1982The Eastern CompanyPaddle lock with rotatably-mounted handle disconnect member
US4320642 *Dec 28, 1979Mar 23, 1982The Eastern CompanyPaddle locks with handle disconnect features
US4321812 *Dec 28, 1979Mar 30, 1982The Eastern CompanyPaddle lock with pivotally mounted handle disconnect member
US5636814 *Apr 5, 1990Jun 10, 1997The Boeing CompanyAutomatic clutch for a door latch handle
U.S. Classification70/149, 292/226, 292/DIG.270, 292/216
International ClassificationE05B65/32
Cooperative ClassificationY10S292/27, E05B85/24
European ClassificationE05B85/24