US 2583233 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan 22, 1952 RUSSELL 2,583,233
SHOWER HEAD Filed April 22, 1949 I I0 l4 INVENTOR. IRVl/VG H. RUSSE LL A TTOR/VE Y5 Patented Jan. 22, 1952 SHOWER HEAD Irving H. Russell, Oak Park, 111., assignor to Sloan Valve Company, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Illinois Application April 22, 1949, Serial No. 89,067
The present invention relates to shower heads for use in shower baths, and the principal object of the invention is to provide a new and improved shower head which is automatically self-cleaning in action.
Another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved shower head which automatically flushes out sediment or foreign deposits each time the shower head is used.
A further object is to produce an improved shower head which will instantly discharge all residual water remaining in the shower head so there is no subsequent dribble after the water is shut off. a
A still further object is to provide a shower head in which a water dispersing disc is positioned in spaced relation to the casing outlet and responsive to water flow into said casing, the outlet is automatically restricted to produce a spray discharge.
Still further objects are to provide a new and improved shower head which is simple and durable in construction, is eflicient and reliable in operation, and does not require constant maintenance and service.
With the foregoing and other objects in view, the invention consists in certain novel features of construction, operation, and combination 'of the various elements as will be more fully described and pointed out hereinafter.
Referring to the drawings:
Fig. l is a sectional view through a shower head embodying the invention;
Fig. 2 is a similar sectional view showing the shower head in operated position with water flowing through the device; a
Fig. 3 is an end view of Fig. 1; whil Fig. 4 shows a cross-section of a different form of the invention.
A large number of shower heads in-use at the present time are provided with a manually operated handle which is connected to an adjustable water dispersing disc, so that the disc may be raised or lowered in the spray outlet of the casing to regulate the type of jet discharge desired by the user. After use of this shower head, the handle must be again operated to lower the water dispersing disc so that a large gap exists between the casing and the disc to permit the fiow of Water to flush out the shower head.
Instill other shower heads in common usage, the water dispersing disc is adapted to be manually and axially screwed outward from the spray discharge opening to permit flushing out of the 2 devices, the accumulation of lime deposits and sediment results in gradual unsatisfactory operationv of the shower head because it has been found from observation that the .user often neglects to fully open the water dispersing disc to flush out the shower head, so that eventually the jet discharge grooves become clogged up. This Lways provide the desired spray characteristics without attention whatsoever by the user.
Referring now particularly to Fig. l of the drawings, this discloses a preferred embodiment of the invention arranged for installation in a shower stall or above a bathtub in the usual manner.
' The shower head comprises a cup-shaped body or casing 5, having a lower flanged open portion 6 surrounding the spray outlet or discharge end I. The upper neck portion 8 of the casing 5 is arranged to be carried or supported from a coupling nut 9 threaded thereon, which clamps a universal swivel or ball joint [0 directly against packing ring H located in a recess in the'top of the shower head casing. This arrangement permits swinging of the shower head in any desired direction by the user. An attaching nipple'l2 is formed preferably integral with the ball [0 and may be threaded onto the supply pipe carrying the inlet water supply through the passage l3. Passage I3 connects directly with the water passage l4 extending into the casing through the ball H).
In order to regulate the water flow through the passage l4 and into the shower head, and to compensate for various velocities or pressures of the water supply, a throttle valve is preferably provided on the shower head. This comprises a manual rotatable knob [5, having an operating shaft extending through packing nut I6 in the sides of nipple 12. The valve opening I! in the throttle [5 when turned to the position shown in Fig. 1 restricts the water supply to the outlet of the shower head, while in the position shown in Fig. 2,
sediment when necessary. Inboth'of these prior 6 'permits the water to enter the passage H. A
small circular groove IB surrounding the shaft of the throttle |5 on both sides of the valve opening I! permits a small leakage in the supply line and out through the shower outlet, so as to prevent reverse flow between the hot and cold water supply valve, in the event the pressure conditions of one exceeds the other.
A hollow supporting stem is threaded into the bottom of the casing 5 into a partition 2| formed across the top of casing 5. This partition 2| is provided with a series of inlet openings 22, while the hollow stem 20 has a pair of orifices 23 arranged near the upper end thereof and a larger number, preferably three orifices 24, adjacent the lower end of the stem 2|]. At the lower end of stem 20, supported in rigid relation thereto and with respect to the casing 5, is a water dispersing disc 25, preferably constructed of some phenolic condensation product, such as Bakelite. This disc 25 is held in place as shown by means of a washer 26 and a screw 27 threaded into the end of the stem 20, The outer periphery of the water dispersing disc 25 is provided with an annular series of grooves or jet discharge passages 28 as shown in Fig. 3.
It will be noted that in the normal position of the shower head, as shown in Fig. 1, when no water is flowing through the same, there is a large discharge passage 29 present between the outer periphery of the disc 25 and the flanged opening 1. This large opening, together with the ledge 30 arranged on the top surface of disc 25, permits the instant discharge of any accumulated amount of water which may be present in the shower head after the water supply has been turned off by the user, as will be pointed out.
Slidable vertically within the casing 5 is a hydraulic piston generally indicated at 3|, which divides the casing into an upper chambe 32 and a lower chamber 33. This piston 3| is provided with an axial opening through which the supporting stem 20 extends, so that the piston has slidable engagement with the stem 20, as well as with the inner walls of the casing 5. The piston 3| includes a skirted portion 35, comprising a flow obstructing member, having a lower annular flanged portion 36 arranged in position between the periphery of the dispersing disc25 and the flanged outlet opening 6 of easing 5. A shoulder 31 on the skirt projects outwardly over the edge of the flange 6 to enable a screw driver to be inserted therebetween to pry the skirt loose in the event sticking occurs for any reason.
The piston 3| also includes a rubber packing member 38, arranged on the top side of the skirt 35, which has sliding engagement with the walls of the casing 5, and prevents passage of water between the chambers 32 and 33. The packing member 33 is held in place on the skirt, 35 by means of a washer 39 and a nut 40 screwed onto the shank portion 4| of the skirt 35.
Arranged between the top end of the water dispersing disc 25 and the bottom of the skirt 35, and encircling supporting stem 20, is a restoring spring 42, which in the normal position shown in Fig. l urges the piston 3| upwardly in the casing 5, and into abutting relationship at shank 4| with a collar formed in the partition 2|, which limits the upward movement of the piston.
It will be noted that no water flow can take place through the shower head in the .position shown in Fig. 1 until the piston 3| has been moved downward by the pressure of the water to expose the orifices 23 into communication with the upper chamber 32.
In assembling the device, the piston 3| is first assembled by placing the rubber packing 38 on the bottom of the skirt 35, then the washer 39 on top of the packing 38, after which the nut 40 is threaded onto the shank of the skirt 35 to provide a unitary assembly for the piston. The water dispersing disc 25 is then placed on the lower end of supporting stem 20 along. with. washer 26, after which the screw 21 is screwed into the open end of the stem 20, rigidly clamping the dispersing disc to the stem. The spring 42 is then slid over the stem 20 and the piston next placed thereon. This complete assembly is then pushed into the open end of the casing 5 and a screw driver applied to the screw driver slot 43 on the upper end of the stem 20", so that the stem can be screwed upwardly into the partition 2| of the casing 5, thereby completing the assembly.
I Referring now to the hydraulic operation of the shower head as shown in Fig. 2, the flow regulating valve l5 may first be turned to the open position as shown in Fig. 2. After the water supply inlet valves usually provided in a shower, have been opened to admit the proper mixture of hot and cold water, this mixed water flows through the nipple inletl3 and passage I4 through the openings 22 and into the upper chamber 32 of casing 5. As pressure is built up in chamber 32 against the tension of spring 42, the piston packing 38 is forced downward, gradually exposing the orifices 23 in the stem 20, so that water flow can now pass into the hollow interior of the stem 20 and outward through the lower orifices 24 into lower chamber 33.
The arrangements of the parts and the tension exerted by spring 42 is such that this movement of the piston 3| will take place at relatively low water pressures on the inlet side of the shower. head. Since there are a greater number of orifices 24 than upper orifices 23, no back pressure will take place in upper chamber 32 to restrict the operation of the piston. The movement of the piston 3| is stopped when the flanged portion 1 of the skirt 35 makes contact with the outer edges of the grooves 28 in water dispersing disc 25. In this position of the skirt 33, the water flow from chamber 33 is restricted and directed entirely through the grooves 28, so that a coneshaped jet discharge is emitted from the dispersing disc onto the user of the shower head. These jet discharge passages 28 are of. slightly greater capacity than the orifices. 24 or 23, so
that no back pressure will be built up in the chambers 32 and 33 to efiect the operation of the device.
When the inlet supply valves are shut off to discontinue the use of the shower head, the cessation of water flow through the device results in the reduction of pressure against the piston packing member 38, so that the accumulated energy stored in spring 42 is effective to push the piston 3| upwardly into its normal position, as depicted in Fig. 1. This movement likewise carries along the flow obstructing skirt 35, instantly opening up the wide passage 29-between the periphery of the dispersing .disc 25 and the lower flanged portion 36 of the skirt 35. results in the immediate flushing out and cleansing of any accumulated dirt or sediment which may be lodged in .the shower head passages. likewise, the size of this opening 29 is efiective to prevent the accumulation of any residual water in the head which would ordinarily cause an annoying dribble for some time.
1;, It will beobserved that the reciprocating. move- This action merit of the piston between thedispersin'g. disc 25 and the flange of the casing occurs each timev that the shower head is used, and this operation is entirely automatic and results in a positive cleansing action of the shower head. It will also be noted that no spray or jet discharge can take place from the shower head until the flange 36 of the skirt has moved into positive contact with the disc grooves 28.
Referring now more particularly to the modification of the invention shown in Fig. 4, this arrangement includes the same principles of operation of the preferred embodiment, except for minor variations thereof. The device is shown in its operated position with water ,flowing through the same and a jet discharge being emitted from the water dispersing disc. The device comprises a casing |].of cup shape, having a hollow stem 5| threaded axiallyinto a partition 52 arranged in the top end of the body 50. The water supply enters the casing 55 and passes through the axial opening 53 of the stem 5| and outward through a series of orifices 54 in the sides of the stem 5|, and into upper chamber 55 of the casing. At the lower end of stem 5|, there is rigidly secured a water dispersing disc 56, having a series of peripheral grooves 51 or jet discharge passages. The disc 56 is clamped rigidly in position on the stem 5| by means of a washer 58 and a clamping screw 59. A cup-shaped water flow control member 66 is arranged in slidable relation to the walls of the casing I5 and has an axial opening therethroughwhich encircles the supporting stem 5|.1 This memberfill provides a lower chamber 6| and includesv a series of orifices 62 arranged in the sides of the member 60 which establishes communication between the upper chamber 55 and the lower chamber 6|.
The lower open end of the flow control member 60 is provided with a flanged portion 63which is adapted to move into contactual relationship with the jet discharge grooves 51 of the dispersing disc 55. A coupling ring 64, threaded on the open end of easing 5|], serves to hold the flow control member 60in position and serves as a stop for a flange 65 formed in the member 60. Arranged approximately opposite the lower end of the member 60 is a circular ring 66 protruding on the inside of the casing 5, which cooperates with a series of guiding projections 61 formed on the flow controlmember 6E] and serves to guide 60 upwardly into the dotted line position shown.
Upon the admission of water into the inlet end of the shower head, flow takes place through stem 5|, orifices 54 and into the chamber 55. The pressure exerted in this chamber forces the flow control member 60 downward, thereby exposing the passages between the guiding ribs 61 and ring 66, so that the water flow can take place into the orifices 62 and into chamber 6|. Thisl water flow can only take place at a time when the ribs 61 have been moved downwardly past the ring 66, and when the bottom flanged edge 63 of the flow control member 60 is in engagement with the jet discharge grooves 51 in the position shown in Fig. 4, whereupon a jet discharge is emitted from the device. Upon cessation of water flow, the spring 68, having tension stored therein, forces the flow control member 60 upward again,
mens N W fin ernai and the flange 64, to serve to clean out accumulated foreign substances and permit instant discharge of residual water within the shower head. The invention having been described more or less specific as to details, including a modification thereof, it is understood that the same is not to be limited thereby, as changes may be made in the arrangement and proportion of the parts and elements, and that equivalents may be substituted therefor, all without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims. What is claimed is: 1. In a self-cleaning shower head, a casing having a water supply inlet, and an outlet therefor, a piston slidable in said casing and having a skirt portion thereon, a water dispersing disc rigidly supported at the outlet and of said casing, said piston automatically movable responsive to water flow into said casing to move its skirt into engagement with said water dispersing disc to produce a spray discharge, and means for preventing the emission of said spray discharge until the'skirt portion of said piston has engaged said dispersing disc, said means comprising a flow passage through said piston exposed only for fluid flow when the piston has been moved.
2. In a self-cleaning shower head, a casing having a water supply inletv and an outlet therefor, a water dispersing disc rigidly supported ax-.
ially in said casing and spaced from said casing outlet, a cup-shaped flow control member in said casing, .a piston attached to said flow control member slidable in said casing said piston ar-.
ranged to automatically move said flow control member into engagement with the periphery of said dispersing disc responsive to water flow through said casing to cause a spray discharge to be emitted from said outlet, and spring means for automatically withdrawing said flow control member from said dispersing disc upon the cessation of water flow.
3. In a self-cleaning shower head, a casing having a water supply inlet and an outlet therefor, a water dispersing disc arranged in juxtaposition to said outlet, means for rigidly supportin said dispersing disc in axial alignment with said casing, a piston having a skirt forming a flow control means, said skirt surrounding said disc but normally spaced apart therefrom, said piston being automatically slidable in said casing responsive to water flow into said casing to move said flow control means into spray dis,- charge engagement with said dispersing disc, and
a water passage in said rigid disc supporting means opened for passage of water through said device only when said piston has been operated.
4. In a self-cleaning shower head, a casing having a water supply inlet and an outlet therefor, a water dispersing disc, a supporting stem rigidly carrying said disc in axial spaced relation to said casing outlet, a piston having a skirt formin a flow control member arranged with the skirt between said casing wall and said dispersing disc but spaced apart from said disperse ing disc, said piston having an axial opening through which said supporting stem extends and having slidable contact with the wallsof said casing, said piston automatically responsive to water flow through said casing to cause said flow control member skirt to move into water dispersing engagement with said dispersing disc, and said supporting stem having a water passage therethrough opened by the movement of said piston to permit water flow through said device amazes 7 and cause; a spray discharge from the outlet. thereof.
5. In a self-cleaning shower head, a casing having a. water supply inlet and an outlet therefor, a. water dispersing disc rigidly supported in said casing and arranged axially adjacent the outlet end thereof, a flow control means movable in said casing, said flow means automatically movable responsive to water flow into said casing. to move. in the same direction as said water flow and into spray discharge engagement with said dispersing disc, means for causing said spray discharge to be emitted only at the time said flow control means engages said dispersing disc, said means including a water passage in said device opened for water how by the. movement of said flow control means and sprin means for withdrawing said flow control means from said dispersingdisc upon the cessation of water flow to provide a large gap therebetween and thereby prevent dripping from the casing outlet, the withdrawal of said fiow control means again closing said Water passage.
6. In a self-cleaning shower head, a casing having a water supply inlet and an outlet, a hollow stem secured at one end axially within said casing, a water dispersing disc rigidly secured at the other end of said stem with the periphery thereof spaced apart from the casing wall, a piston sldiable in said casing and dividing the casin into an upper and a lower chamber, said piston also having an axial opening therein slidable along said hollow stem, flow control means carried by said piston and adapted to be interposed between said casing wall and said water dispersing disc when said piston is moved, a series of orifices. on said hollow stem in said lower chamber and another series of orifices on said stem normally obstructed by said piston and closing off said upper chamber, water flow into said casing causing said piston to automatically move to expose said upper chamber orifices whereby the water flow extends through said hollow stem and out of said lower chamber orifices to form a spray discharge and only when said control means has been moved into engagement with said water dispersing disc.
'7. In a self-cleaning shower head, a cup-shaped casing having a water supply inlet and an outlet at the open end thereof, a Water dispersing disc rigidly supported in spaced relation to the open end of said casing, restricting means comprising a piston automaticall controlled by the flow of water into said casin and having a skirt portion thereon movable therewith for restricting the space between said dispersing disc and the open. end of the casing to cause a spray discharge to be emitted therebetween, and spring means responsive to the cessation of water flow into said casing for restoring said restricting means to open the space between said casing and said dispersing disc whereby water dripping from the shower head is eliminated.
8. In a self-cleanin shower head, a cup-shaped casing having a water supply inlet and an outlet at the open end thereof, a water dispersing disc supported in spaced peripheral relation to the open end of said casing, piston means automatically controlled by the flow of water into said casing for decreasing the space between said dispersing disc and the casing outlet to cause a spray discharge to be emitted therefrom, means for preventing the emission of said spray discharge until said space has been decreased to produce the proper spray discharge, said means comprising a: water flow passage opened, by the:
operation of said piston means and closed when the water flow ceases and. spring means for in.- creasing, said spaceagain to flush out the shower head upon the cessation of water flow.
9. In aself-cleaning shower head, a casing terminating in a lip surrounding a discharge opening, said casin having a water inlet aperture. at its opposite end, a water dispersing disc normally fixed in relation to. the casing and having: a circumferential edge portion exterior to the plane, in which the lip of the open end of the casing. lies, a piston mounted for movement within the casing in response to water pressure. within the casing, the. piston having a circumferential edge portion positioned to extend between the lip of the casing and the edge of the water dispersing disc, said piston having a portion adapted, with a portion of the casing, to define a. pressure chamher in communication with the water inlet. aperture of the casing, and spring means. adapted normally to urge the piston to a withdrawn position within the casing, said spring means being of insufficient strength to resist movement of the piston toward extended position when normal. service water pressure is admitted to said pressure chamber, the circumferential edge portion of the piston, when the piston is in extended position, defining, with the circumferential edge portion of the water dispersing disc, a restricted discharge passage.
10. In a self-cleaning shower head, a casing terminating in a lip surrounding a discharge opening, said casing having a water inlet aperture adjacent its opposite end, a water dispersing disc normally fixed in relation to the casing and having a circumferential edge portion, and a piston mounted for movement within the casing, in response to water pressure within the casing, said piston having a circumferential edge portion opposable to the edge portion of the casing, said piston bein guided for movement in the casin in response to the admission of water under pres sure through the water inlet aperture of the casing, and spring means adapted to move the piston away from the water dispersing disc when the piston is not subjected to water pressure, the piston including a portion which, when the piston is in withdrawn position from the water dispersing disc in response to action of said spring means, constitutes a closure of the casing adapted to prevent water flow from said water inlet aperture to said discharge opening.
11. In a self-cleaning shower head, a casing having a water supply inlet and having an outlet opening, a water dispersin disc normally fixed in relation to said casing, a movable member adapted to complete, with said disc, a spray passage in said outlet opening, a uiding connection between said member and the casing formed and adapted to guide the member toward and away from the disc, the disc having an edge portion conforming substantially to the inner diameter of an aperture in the member when the member is opposed to the disc, an assembly for moving the member toward the disc in response to a flow of water inwardly through the water supply inlet, said assembly including means adapted to initiate the flow of water between the disc and the member at the end of the movement of the member toward the disc, the opposed edge surfaces of the member and the disc bein shaped to define circumferentially spaced jet discharge orifices, and means for moving the member to a position withdrawn from the disc when the flow memes 9 of water through the Water supply inlet is terminated.
12. The structure of claim 11 characterized in that the assembly includes an apertured shutter element and an opposed closure element cooperetingtherewith, one such element being fixed in relation to the casing and the other such elementybeing mounted for movement in unison with the movable member.
IRVING H. RUSSELL.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
Number Number 10;, UNITED sTATns PATENTS Name Date Speakmen Aug. 17, 1917 Hewitt 1 Nov. 26, 1929 Schneider July 28, 1936 High Aug. 25, 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date Switzerland Mar. 8. 1889 France Sept. 10, 1934