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Publication numberUS2584805 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 5, 1952
Filing dateJul 18, 1945
Priority dateJul 18, 1945
Publication numberUS 2584805 A, US 2584805A, US-A-2584805, US2584805 A, US2584805A
InventorsLeftwich Robert F
Original AssigneeLeftwich Robert F
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for producing an emulsion, including water, fuel oil, and finely divided solids for combustion
US 2584805 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


METHOD AND APPARATUS F bR PRODUCING AN EMULSION, INCLUDING WATER, FUEL OIL, AND FINELY DIVIDED SOLIDS FOR COMBUSTION Filed July 18, 19 15 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 A i; w I .12 68b 0 o o 14 J8 g N V Q .18 Z a I 7 d 29 2! I- ammo/whom d 6? 1. LG fW C Y,



4 Claims. (Cl. 60-39.05)

of finely divided solids, such as coal or the like,

Portland cement or other raw materials.

An object of the invention is to supply controlled heat for chemical and metallurgical processing of finely divided solids.

Another object is to provide improved means to facilitate the operation of gas turbines by colloidal fuels.

In either of these cases, as in many others which it is unnecessary to enumerate and describe, I can by my improvements carry on any desired degree of b'urning to generate heat, or chemical or metallurgical reactions, where temperature limitations are important.

The characteristics and advantages of the present invention are further suificiently explained in connection with the following detailed description of the accompanying drawings, which show a certain representative embodiment. After considering this example, skilled persons will understand that many variations may be made without departing from the plans disclosed, and I contemplate the employment of any structures that are probably within the scope of the appended claims.

Referring to the drawings: a

Fig. 1 is a side elevation partly broken away and in section.

Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken on .the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view on 33 of Fig. 2. I r

Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic side elevational view partly in section and on a smaller scale showing the general organization of apparatus for carryme; out the invention.

Referring to the drawings, 4 designates a casing provided with a plurality of inlets 5 for the introduction of a suitable oxygen containing gas, such as air, into the apparatus. Within the easing there is a pair of stationary tubes 6 forming the inner walls of annular chambers 1 from which the air or the like is discharged through annular throats 8 surrounded by theinner edges of annular internal walls 9 of the casing. Within. the tubes 6 any preferred mixing means is arranged and it may consist of stationary radial fingers or blades H] which cooperate with other blades H projecting radially from the hub portions l2 of, a rotor I3. The latter is fixedly mounted on a rotary shaft l4 journalled in bearings l5 at op' posite ends of the casing, and the shaft is driven by any suitable prime mover (not shown).

the line The tubes 6 and hub portions l2 provide-annular spaces I6 having fuel inlets-l1 and water inlets I8. Fuel oil, for example, and water are pumped into these inlets respectively in 'any, suitable proportions by a variable proportioning pump of any preferred type, and in travelling between the tubes 6 and the rotor hubs, the water and fuel oil are finely dispersed one within the other by means of the blades l0 and II. The emulsion thus formed is organized into annular flaring film-like streams by frusto-conicalsurfaces I9 at the medial portion of the rotor, which surfaces are arranged in close proximity to corresponding surfaces 20 provided by stationary rings 2! fixed at-the inner ends of the tubes 6. The emulsion which is forced between surfaces l9 and 20 is discharged through substantially parallel annular slits 21a formed by the web 22 of a fan Wheel of the rotor and projecting flanges 23 of the rings.

Immediately the emulsion travels outwardly from the ends of the flanges 23, it is cut by curved blades 24, fixed to the opposite sides of the wheel, at the time when it is mixed with the air or the like which enters the annular chamber.

25 (in which the periphery of the wheel rotates) 7 through the throats 8, so the emulsion is immediately finely divided and intermixed with the air.

As may be seen from Fig. 2; the confronting surfaces of the walls'9 and the adjacent edges of the blades 24 converge toward a scroll shaped chamber 26.

From the foregoing it will be understood'that the liquid and solid materials supplied under pressure from the proportioning pump will-be emulsified in the dispersion mills (II), II) and will be forced through annular openings and distributed uniformly over the surface of the fan Wheel web 22. The construction is such that the fiow of liquid is restricted sufiiciently to cause uniform distribution over the opposite surfaces of;

theweb so that the emulsion will be picked up by the fan blades 24. In other words, the guiding surfaces will present uniform films of emulsion which will be sliced into infinitesimal particles and dispersed by theinner edges of the fan blades. The air for combustion entering the fan housing at 5 and in accordance with the fan action, is carried through the fan inlet and into the blades 24 in a manner which will be obvious. The action of the blades in cutting into the films of the emulsion being forced out at the outer edges of the flanges 23 and the tendencypf these small particles to be thrown out by the high velocity of the revolving disc, will cause fine dispersion of emulsh 3. Led fuel oil, water and the solids (if introduced ito the spaces 16) to take place within the treams of air being pumped by the fan.

In order to carry this dispersion of liquids and olids within the gas to the point at which they will be burned or processed, I have adopted the croll 26 which has its cut-off point :atZ-I (Fig. 3). t gradually increases in cross-sectional area ralially from the center of the Wheel so that a uniorm velocity is maintained from the cut-off 2;! up to the discharge opening 23. Around the inner ieriphery of the scroll is aseries .of stationary 'anes 29 designed to direct the mixture along the esultant of the radial velocity and peripheral 'elocity producing minimum resistance to low of the fluid. These vanes serve-to distribute he fluid in such a way that the velocities are naintained throughout the periphery of the fan. Ehis construction has been designed as a-means If taking advantage of the pressure velocity proiuced by the -fan inorder to carry the dispersion if emulsion in combustion air, for example, to a Joint remote from the burner where burning or. )IOCBSSiIlg takes place.

As a further means of maintaining thorough iispersion and prevention of segregation I have iesigned a construction which produces Venturi hroats at intervals around the periphery of the .croll. This includes spaced ridges or internal lumps 3!] so constructed and distributed as to orce the fluid stream to change its direction from me travelling away from the fan wheel and :reate throats between the outer edges of the dis- :harge vanes 29 and the ridges which increases he velocityand creates a suction at the trailing :nds 3i of the ridges wherebyany material tendng to accumulate as a result of centrifugal force in the inner surface of the scroll will be sucked )if and drawn into the advancing stream.

The design of the scroll is-such that the velocty of gasis in the neighborhood of 290 feet per :econd which is the resultant velocity created by he periphery yelocity of the fan and the radial velocity of air through the blades 24. Since lame propagation is in the neighborhood of 80 ?eet per second, it is safe to assume that with ;his velocity, a safe distance can be maintained 3y the eneration of fuel and air dispersion and ;he flame in the combustion or processing chamher (not shown). distance between the source and point of burning..-can ibe wari'ed Joy larying the velocity of the air or gas. This bar- :icular velocity of 290 feet per second will afford a. Qfoot space :between the source of dispersion )f the emulsion into the combustion .air and the point at whichburn'ing :takes place and, therefore, the high temperatures created will not be detrimental to the burnin equipment.

By utilizing such apparatus .1 can .producean emulsion consisting of water :and nonecombusbible solid minute particles, surrounded by a-film of oil, and such emulsion will be uniformly 'dispersed or broken into fine particles, within sufficient air for complete combustion of the fuel. By bringing the non-combustible matter which is to be processed or disposed of in intimate con.- tact with the fuel and then in turn bringing the emulsion in intimate contact with sufficient oxygen for complete "combustion I can produce and maintain a critical mixture which will result in combustion at its maximum-efficiency.

It is appreciated that prior apparatus has been proposed whereby air has been supplied to fuel prior to introduction intothe combustion chamher but I offera novel method of accomplishing .this in such a way as to maintain this critical maximum efiiciency while the solids are in suspension and in a state of maximum dispersion.

In addition to my ability to bring finely divided solid matter into intimate association with fuel and air so that ;processing and combustion take place simultaneously and at maximum efficiency, I am permitted to use such varying quantities of non-.combustibles and water that I can control the degree of processing to prevent it from going beyond .a desired point, which is obviously of great advantage in calcining before clinkering in the manufacture of Portland cement, for example. Goingone step beyond this, I offer this process as a means of drying materials by burning fuel .in direct contact with water contained in the materials without burning or processing themater-ials beyond the drying stage.

The method and apparatus can also be employed efficiently in generating steam by burning fuel in directcontact with water.

It will be obvious that the amount of water employed in these various processes can also be increased to the point where it will act as a limiting factorinthe production of heat.

Although the invention has been illustrated and described as includin a dispersion mill constructed as an integral part of the burner, those skilled in the art will recognize that the-emulsion of oil and water, or -,'0i1, "water and (finely divided solids, can be made in a dispersion mill independently of the burner, and such emulsion can be dispersed in .air or other gas by means of the parts arranged posteri'orly of the tubes '6. I also propose to produce a colloidal fuel in accordance with the method disclosed :in my, application, Serial No. 505,603, filed- 0ctober-5, 1943, now abandoned, and to vmix it with air by the :apparatus of the present application before utilizing the combustible mixture in a .gas turbine or the like.

The apparatus should be especially useful in producing colloidal fuels if the finely divided solids are combustible.

I claim:

'1. A method comprising producing an emulsion including water, fuel oil and finely divided solids and'in which the fuel oil-is present in sufficient amount to furnish ;heat for the processing of the solids when the fuel OH. is burned, passing such emulsion in a thin annular film radially outward from a center, then cutting the film into a number of streams while projecting thestreams centrifugally :away from said center, intimately mixing a combustion -supporting gas with said streams immediately they are formed, after.- wards :organ'izing the streams into a common stream and causing said comm'on stream to travel scroll fashion, and subsequently subjecting the common stream to combustion at a .point remote from that where it travel-led scroll fashion. v '2. .A method as claimed in "claim 1 in which the common stream :caused to ialternately expand andicontract while travelling scroll fashion.

3. In apparatus for processing and feeding liquid fuels to a zone of g'combustion, a stationary casing, a fixed tube mounted within said casing forming the inner wall .of an {annular chamber within the casing, means within the tube for mixing fuel oil and water into an emulsion, a rotatable hub within and at one end of the tube, means carried by the tube and by the hub forming an annular slit adjacent one end of the tube through which the emulsion moves as a film, a disc-shaped web carried by said hub for receiving the film passing through said slit, a plurality of circumferentially spaced blades carried by a peripheral portion of said web, said casing having an air inlet opening for admitting air into said chamber and into the presence of said blades, and a scroll member arranged around the casing outwardly of said web.

4. In apparatus for processing and feeding liquid fuels to a zone of combustion, a stationary casing, a tube mounted within said casing forming the inner wall of an annular chamber within the casing, means within the tube for mixing and agitating fuel oil and water into an emulsion, a rotatable hub within the tube, means carried by the tube and the hub forming an annular slit through which the emulsion moves as a film, a disc-shaped Web carried by said hub for receiving the film passing through said slit, a plurality 2 of circumferentially spaced blades carried by a peripheral portion of said web, said casing havscroll.


REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,088,188 Theisen Feb. 24, 1914 1,777,097 Lasley Sept. 30, 1930 2,033,010' Russell Mar. 3, 1936 2,078,958 Lysholm May 4, 1937 2,287,021 Buck June 23, 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 383,966 France Mar. 25, 1908 391,258 Germany Mar. 1, 1924 513,237 Germany Nov. 24, 1930 397,683 Great Britain Aug. 31, 1933

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US2735265 *Sep 28, 1954Feb 21, 1956 Bois eastman
US2762619 *Sep 11, 1952Sep 11, 1956Morris A BoothApparatus for producing hydraulic cement clinker
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U.S. Classification60/775, 110/347, 366/303, 261/90, 366/264, 110/348, 60/39.464, 241/38
International ClassificationB01F13/00, B01F5/16, F23K5/02, F23K5/12, B01F5/00, B01F13/10
Cooperative ClassificationB01F13/1025, F23K5/12, B01F5/167
European ClassificationF23K5/12, B01F13/10C, B01F5/16D