US 2585120 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 12, v1952 J. HARRINGTON, JR
CONTROL APPARATUS 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. i4, 194? By Ms Attorney Feb. 12, 1952 m o JR 2,585,120
CONTROL APPARATUS Filed Aug. 14, 1947 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Z 219. Z V jnvrinfor:
Joseph fiarr/nyfol? Jr. By his Arm/"nay F 12, 1952 J. HARRINGTON, JR 2,585,120
CONTROL AP1?ARATUS Filed Aug. l4, 1947 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 inventor: Jose ob Harmngfon /n By his Afforng Patented Feb 12, 1952 NHD STATES OFFICE 2,585,120 CONTROL APPARATUS Application August 14, 1947, Serial No. 768,552
3 Claims. (01. 74-198) This invention relates to control apparatus and particularly to apparatus for controlling the training movements of a device such, for example, as a telescope, gun, Searchlight etc.
In the training of devices, such as those just mentioned, it is a common practice to provide a control handle which is adapted to be grasped by the hands of an operator and moved by him to control the movements of the device in azimuth and in elevation. However, when the extent of such training movements in azimuth or elevation becomes considerable and the necessary displacement of the control handle correspondingly increased, it is extremely awkward for the operator to twist his hands and wrists far enough to accomplish the desired movement of the device or, at least, impossible for him accurately to control its'movements. This is particularly true where the device is being trained to follow the path of a moving aircraft which may require a complete rotation of the device in azimuth and a very great angular movement thereof in elevation.
It is, therefore, an object of this invention to' provide an improved control apparatus by means of which even the most extensive training movements of a device may be controlled with the greatest of ease and accuracy. To this end, the herein illustrated control apparatus is provided with a control member which, regardless of its position, always presents the same surface for engagement by the hands of the operator. More particularly, this control apparatus comprises a device mounted for swinging movement about ments of the device in elevation, while the spherical member is supported for universal rotation and in frictional engagement with the aforementioned wheels. With this arrangement, the spherical member may be rotated by the operator in any direction in which it is desired to move the de-' vice and, inasmuch as the horizontal and vertical components of the rotation of this member are picked up by the two friction wheels, the movements of the devicev will thereby be determined. Also, as the extent of movement in any direction increases, the operator merely reengages his hands with a diiferent portion of the surface of the spherical member, thus avoiding the necessity for assuming an awkward position as well as the resulting inaccuracy of control.
The above, and other, objects and features of the invention will appear in the following detailed description of the embodiment illustrated in the accompanying drawings, and will be pointed out in the claims.
In the drawings,
Fig. 1 is a view in side elevation of a control apparatus embodying the features of this invention;
Fig. 2 is a View, in perspective and with oertain parts broken away, of a portion of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a schematic view of the operating mechanism of the apparatus; and
Fig. 4 is a plan view, at a reduced scale, of
a portion of the apparatus.
Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings, the device which is to be controlled is illustrated as being a telescope 10, shown mounted on the top of a hollow standard 12 which is supported on a fabricated frame [4. This frame comprises a top plate I8, carried by a plurality of columns 20 which extend upwardly from a base 22. The
mechanism for operating the telescope, under the control of a spherical member I6, is contained within a box 24 which is secured to the top plate, directly beneath the standard I2, and includes two friction wheels 26 and 28, the former being mounted for rotation in a horizontal plane and the latter for rotation in a vertical plane.
The spherical member I6 is supported for universal rotation on a ball bearing 30 which rides on a plurality of rollers 32, 32, carried by a block 34, and this block is secured on the base 22.. A bracket 36 extends rearwardly from the frame I4, above this spherical member l6, and isprovided with two plungers 38, 38, arranged to engage the surface of the spherical member, rearwardly of the ball bearing 30 and on the opposite sides of a diametrical plane passing through the ball bearing 30 and between the friction wheels 26, 28, see Fig. 4. These plungers are backed up by coil springs 40, 40, the tension of which will be varied by means of screws 42, 42. With the arrangement just described, the spherical member 16 is urged yieldingly, against the friction wheels 26 and 28 while still being free for rotation in any direction. As will be apaasamo parent, the vertical component of the rotation of the spherical member I6 will be transmitted to the roll 28, which rotates in a vertical plane, while the horizontal component thereof will be transmitted. to the roll 26 which rotates in a horizontal plane. The rotation of these friction wheels is imparted to the telescope I0 by means of mechanism about to be described.
Referring to Fig. 2 of the drawings, the telescope I0 is mounted in a sleeve 50 which is provided with an arm 52, secured to one end of a shaft 54. This shaft is journaled in a bearing 56, formed in a bracket 55 that extends upwardly from a disk 58 which is rotatably mounted on the top of the hollow standard I2 by means of three rollers, one of which is visible in Fig. 2 and indicated by the reference character 60. Secured to the other end of the shaft 54, is a spur gear 62 which is in mesh with a rack bar 64 that is slidably supported on a guide boss 36 on the disk 58. A shaft 58 is fixed to the disk 58 and extends downwardly, through the hollow standard I2, and into the box 24. The rack bar 64 likewise extends downwardly into the standard I 2 and, at its lower end, is connected, by means of a link ill, to a yoke I2 which is slidable on the shaft 68, and splined thereto by means of a key I4. The yoke I2 has an annular groove I6 in which the trunnion pin 18 of a block 80 rides. This block has two feet 82, 84, which bear against the inside wall of the hollow standard I2 and is secured to a second rack bar 86 that extends downwardly into the box 24.
Rotation of the shaft 14 is transmitted directly to the telescope I0, so as to swing it in azimuth,
while the vertical movement of the rack bar 86.is transmitted, through the block 80, yoke 12, link I0, rack bar 64 and spur gear 62, to the telescope, to move it in elevation. As will presently appear, the friction wheel 26, which is rotated in accordance with the horizontal component of rotation of the spherical member I6, is connected to the shaft 68; while the friction wheel 28, which is rotated in accordance with the vertical component of rotation of the spherical member I6, is connected to the rack bar 86. Thus the movements of the spherical member I6 are imparted to the telescope III. The herein illustrated mechanism for moving the telescope is adapted to provide a so-called aided tracking control; that is to say, rotation of the spherical control member I6, in any given direction in elevation, azimuth, or a combination of both, and for a predetermined amount, will not only result in angular movement of the telescope I0, in the same direction and to the same extent, but also will establish a rate of angular movement of the telescope in that direction which is proportional to the initial displacement of the spherical member.
Referring now to Fig. 3 of the drawings, and considering first the movement of the telescope in azimuth, which as already indicated is controlled by the rotation of the friction wheel 26, the shaft 58 is connected to the output shaft I00 of a differential having two input gears I82, I04 and a cage I05. The input gear I04 is rotated directly. by the friction wheel 26 through shafts I06, I07, I08 and gears H0, H2, H4, H6, H8 and I20. The input gear I02 is connected, by gears I22, I24 and I26 and shaft I28, to the output cylinder I 34 of a variable speed drive comprising a disk I32, balls I34 and ball carriage I36. This ball carriage is adjustable, to displace the balls I34 relatively to the center of the disk I32, by means of apinion I38 carried by a shaft [40 which is normally connected to the shaft I01 by means of a friction clutch I42. The disk I32 is driven at a constant speed by a motor I44,
through gears I46, I48 and a shaft I50. 5 Assuming that the telescope is in a zero position in azimuth, as shown in Fig. 3, the balls I34 will be in the center of the disk I32 and the input gears I02 and I 04 will be stationary as will, of course, the cage I05 and the output shaft I00. Now, if the spherical member is rotated (1" degrees in azimuth this rotation will be transmitted to the friction wheel 26 and the following movement of the telescope I0 will result. First, the arrangement of the gearin comprising gears I04, H0, H2, H4, H6, H8 and I20 is such that the telescope will be moved a degrees in the same direction as the spherical member was displaced. This provides the space component of the "aided tracking action.
However, the rotation of the friction Wheel 26 will also rotate the shaft M0 which, through the pinion I38, will effect a displacement of the balls I34 from the center of the disk I32. Therefore, the input gear I02 will now be rotated at a speed which is proportional to the displacement of the spherical member I6. The direction of rotation of the disk I32 and the arrangement of the gearing comprising gears I 22, I 24 and I26 is such that the cage I05 and the output shaft I00 will be rotated in the same direction as the spherical member I6. -Accordingly, the telescope III will continue to move in the direction in which the spherical member I6 was originally displaced and at a rate which is proportional to the amount of the displacement of the spherical member. This provides the "rate component of the aided tracking action,
Now, if it is desired to change the rate of movemerit of the telescope, the spherical member must be displaced in the proper direction, i. a, reversely' to slow down the rate and forwardly to increase it, it being noted that, in either case, the tele-- scope will be moved, reversely or forwardly, an angular distance equal to this displacement of the spherical member by the direct (space) control through input gear I04. In order to stop the movement of the telescope, the spherical member must be displaced reversely until the balls I34 are restored to their original position in the cen-' ter of the disk I32. As will be apparent, by appropriately manipulating the spherical member to displace it in the desired direction, and to the proper amount, in azimuth, the operator can control the movement of the telescope, increasing its speed, decreasing its speed, or bringing it to a stop as desired.
The same kind of action is obtained whenthe spherical member is rotated in elevation to effect rotation of the friction wheel 28. The 60 rack bar 86, the vertical movement of which swings the telescope in elevation, is in mesh with a gear I99 on a shaft 20I which is connected, through a slip-clutch 400, to the output shaft 200 of a differential having two input gears 202 and 204, and a cage 205. The input gear 204 is rotated directly by the friction wheel 28, through shafts 206, 201, 208 and gears 2I0, 2I2, 2I4, H6 and 2I8. In order to assure a good frictional contact of the friction wheels 26, 28 with the: surface of the spherical member I6, the shaft I06 is journaled in a bearing, not shown, pro vided in a fixed portion of the box 24, while the shaft 206 is carried by an arm 300 that is pivotally mounted on a fixed shaft 302. The piv- It otal movement of this arm is limited, to the extent permitted by a slight amount of play between the gears 2I0 and 2I2, by means of stop screws 304, 306, and a coil spring 308 is arranged to swing the arm 300 in a direction to hold the wheel 28 in contact with the surface of the spherical member I6 which is held yieldingly in contact with the friction wheel 26 by the action of the plungers 38, 38. v
The input gear 202 is connected, by means of gears'222, 224, 225 and a shaft 228, to the output cylinder 230 of a variable speed drive including a disk 232 and a ball carriage 236, carryin two balls, not shown, but similar to the two balls I34 of the variable speed drive which has been described above. This ball carriage is adjustable, to displace the'two balls relatively to the center of the disk 232, by means of a pinion 238 carried by a shaft 240 which is normally connected to the shaft 267 by means of a friction clutch 222. The disk 232 is driven at a constant speed by the motor I44 through gears 244, 245, 248 and a shaft 250.
The operation of this mechanism to move the telescope in elevation is the same as-has just been described in connection with the control of the movements of the telescope IS in azimuth and, by appropriately manipulating the spherical member I6 to displace it in the desired direction and to the proper extent, in elevation, the operator can control the movements of the telescope, increasing its speed, decreasing its speed, or bringing it to a stop as desired. Compound movements of the telescope, to train it simultaneously in azimuth and elevation, are obtained by rotating the spherical member in a direction corresponding to that in which it is desired to have the telescope moved. For example, if the operator wishes to move the telescope upwardly, and to his right, he would grasp the spherical member with both of his hands, as is indicated at h in Fig. 1, and rotate it in the same direction in which the telescope is to be moved.
Such movement of the spherical member can be resolved into two components, one parallel to a vertical plane passing through the center of the spherical member and the friction wheel 28 and another parallel to a horizontal plane passing through the center of the spherical member and the friction wheel 26. The first of these components will be transmitted to the friction wheel 28 and, in accordance with the direction and extent thereof, will effect movement of the telescope in elevation as has already been explained. Similarly, the second component will be transmitted to the friction wheel 26 and, in accordance with the direction and extent of this component will effect movement of the telescope in azimuth. When the extent of displacement of the spherical member, necessary to produce a desired movement of the telescope, both with respect to the extent of movement as well as the speed of movement, becomes considerable, the operator merely re-engages his hands with a different portion of the surface of the spherical member and displaces it as required for the continued control of the movement of the telescope. Thus, it is not necessary for him to twist his hands or wrists excessively or to assume an awkward position. With his two hands in a natural position and in contact with the spherical member, the operator can have a very accurate and easy control over the displacement of the spherical member and of the movements of the telescope. As will be obvious, the operator can readily efiect movement of the telescope through 360 in azimuth with no' difiicu1ty,' and even the extreme limits of movement'of the telescope in elevation impose no strain upon his hands.
It sometimes may be desirable to eliminate the rate control function of the control mechanism and to move the telescope solely from the spherical member I6 with a so-called space control. For this purpose, thefriction clutches I42, 242, are provided, respectively, with yokes 342, 344 which are adapted to be shifted to release these clutches, thereby disconnecting the shafts I0'II40 and 201-240, and eliminating the rate control feature provided by the variable speed drives. The yokes 342, 344 are provided, respectively, with operating arms 346, 348, arranged to be engaged by a pair of cams 350, 352, carried by a shaft 354. A crank arm 350 is secured to this shaft for rotating it to engage these cams with the yoke arms. In operating the device with this space control only, the spherical member I6 is first manipulated so as to position the balls of the two variable speed drives in centered position with respect to their disks and then the crank arm is turned in the direction of the arrow in Fig. 3, thereby disengaging the two friction clutches I42, 242. Now,
as the two input gears I02 and 202 will be held stationary, the telescope I0 will follow the movements of the spherical member I6 as a result of the rotations of the friction wheels 26, 28 which are, respectively, fed into the two input gears I04 and 204 of the two differentials.
Having described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:
l. A control apparatus having, in combination, a device mounted for training movements in azimuth and elevation, means for moving said device in azimuth, including a friction wheel mounted for rotation in a horizontal plane, means for moving said device in elevation, including a friction wheel mounted for rotation in a vertical plane, a spherical member, and means for supporting said spherical member for universal rotation with its surface in frictional contact with said friction wheels.
2. A control apparatus having, in combination, a device mounted for training movements in azimuth and elevation, power-operated means for moving said device in azimuth, including a friction wheel rotatable in a horizontal plane for controlling the speed and direction of movement of said device in azimuth, means for moving said device in elevation, including a friction wheel mounted for rotation in a vertical plane for con trolling the speed and direction of movement of said device in elevation, a spherical member, and means for supporting said spherical member for universal rotation with its surface in frictional contact with said friction wheels.
3. A control apparatus having, in combination, a device mounted for training movement in azimuth and elevation, means for moving said device in azimuth comprising a differential havin two inputs and an output, a power driven variable speed gear connected to one of said inputs and a friction wheel, rotatable in a horizontal plane, connected to the other of said inputs, means for moving said device in elevation comprising a second differential having two inputs and an output, a power driven variable speed drive connected to one of said inputs and a friction wheel, rotatable in a vertical plane, con- 7 nected to the other of Sam inputs, a, spherical member, and means for supporting said spherical member for universal rotation with, its surface in frictional contact with said friction wheels.
JCSEPH HARRINGTON, JR.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record. in the le oi th s pa ent:
3 UNITED STATES PATENTS Name Date Abbot July 15, 192% 192, Pierce e. r July 26, 1947 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date France July 28, 1908 Germany ---V--. Nov. .2, 1917