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Publication numberUS2586797 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 26, 1952
Filing dateJun 21, 1947
Priority dateJun 21, 1947
Publication numberUS 2586797 A, US 2586797A, US-A-2586797, US2586797 A, US2586797A
InventorsDurang Edwin Forrest, Dunlop James
Original AssigneeOtis Elevator Co, Westinghouse Electric Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fire protection system
US 2586797 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 26, 1952 J, DUNLOP ET AL 2,586,797

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM Filed June 2l, 1947 4 SheetS-Sheet l E g I NVE NTORS BY ATTORNEY Feb. 26, 1952 J, DUNLOP ET AL 2,586,797

F' IRE PROTECTION SYSTEM Filed June 2 1, 1947 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 't t t Flo 'TIG A mygwrdg SINVENTORS 5v ATTORNEY Feb. 26, 1952 J, DUNLQFv ET AL 2,585,797

l FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM Filed June 21, 1947 4 sheets-sheet 5 Fm v INVENTORS l y B mum J ATTQRNET T Feb. 26, 1952 Filed June 2l, 1947 .1. DUNLOP ET AL 2,586,797

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 4 sheetssheet 4 Flcz INVENTORS aM/.WM Mij lav-616m ATTORNEY Patented Feb. 26, 1952 UNITED STrfr13sv PATENT Ormel;A

2,586,791 r'IaEPaorEoTioN SYSTEM Jersey Application tine A2,1, 1947, Serial No. 756,140 232 Claims. (Cl. 169--2) ties result, most of these casualties arethe're-lsult of breathing fumes,A such`as smoke, toxic gases and highly heated gases, due to the fire. Where there is a connecting opening between one portion of a building and: another, 'such fumes from a re in onemay spread to the other through the opening. This'is especially'true in multistory bulidings where [openings are provid# ed to enable people to go from one iioor to an-` other, as for example the Wellivaysofmoving stairWays, stairwells, entrances` to elevator hoist-` Ways and the like. Thus, fumesv from ajfire on one floor may rise to floors above vthrougi'i the moving stairway Wellvvaysk'; oreatihgahazfard to people on such floors above, which may prove fatal even though the nre ldoes not Vreach these, oors. Also such fumes in these Wellvvays pre# vent the use of the stairvvays during there. Similarly, in the casev of" a stairvvell, especially when used foremergency exit,""the' passage'of such fumes into this well defeats its' purpose with the possibility of trapping people'attempting to use it as a means of escape. "In the caseof elevator hoistways, thelling of 'them with such fumes renders them unuseagble.V i The object of the invention is to prevent fumes due to a re from passing from thevportion of a burning in which the nre ocrsthrough 'a connecting opening` te another portion ofthe buildT ing.

One feature of the invention resides in divertfumes from van opening'co'iniecting one' portion of a bulding with another'by exhausting them into the'outdoo'rs.

Another feature involves drawing air through the opening in y`a` directionto oppose the flcvv of liuines through the opening.

Another feature involvesspraying water across the path of the .fumes as' they approach the'open'-v Still another feature involves preventing air from an outdoor wall opening of the building on In Acarrying out the inventicn according to the y arrangement which will ,be described, a duct is .provided ,for each opening, `nolsituined around 'the opening when inthe 'ceiling an.. 'e inCr when in a side Wal-l. 11g d into the duct when afire occurs. These ducts serve as collection ducts and lead through eon' necting ducts to an exhaust duct vcommon ther L" to. Each connecting duct is providedwith" a damper. An exhaust fan Iwhich 'dis'chargesout" door shas itsinlet connected tothe exhaust duct. When a re starts the damper in the `connecting duct for the portion of the"billing in whichthe" lire starts is opened and the exhaust fan iS'start-l ed in operation. The fandravvsiair through'the opening in a direction to" oppose the fl-owoffu'mes; this air being drawn intothe collection duct and, with -umes from the re entrained therein',"dis"` charged outdoors. The air for opiiosilns th 119W o f the fumes through the openingis supplied from an overhead fresh air intake and.' "i'sdrawr through the opening by the action ofthe exhaust fan. The Vfreshairv intake is also provided'7 with a damper which is opened along'with thev 'starti ing of the exhaust fanin operation. Wheea connecting opening is normally closed, a fresh'air access may be provided.

A sprinkler system is utilized to spray Water across the path of the furries.V It'is preferredto arrange the sprinkler vsystem to formV afvvater' curtain which, vby its coolingk action, obsti'uetsv the passage of fumes into the opening byconvection', fumes which pass the' 'curtain' beingA drawn into the collection duct; It also prevents flame passinginto the collection duct.' The exhaust system for the Portion ofthe building in whichare occurs is started in onli eration automatically, as by thermal responsive devices or smoke detecting devices. The invien tion is especiallyl applicable to sprinklered build; ings. In such structures; upon` the starting' of a fire, one or more ofthe sprinkler headsl near the iire are automatically set off to iight theiire. I n applying the invention to such structurels, the turning on of the vvater'may be utilizedtostart the exhaust system in operation with respectto the portion of the building inivhich the Vfire exis The Water curtain yfor an opening may be Seton; by a system ofone or more pilot sprinklers, xivshich also may be used to initiate the operation of t e exhaust system when the fire starts "near the opening. T he sprinkler system may be arranged to provide a water'deluge for the connecting opening; Such arrangement has especialy applicationv to stairwells bi' t0 yveliw'ays Off moyie vsta'irfvvaye For this purpose .S'riilk, heads' of the bienveilimit-yv wateriet'it peare'utllizd*andfrosft g so as to provide afecncentrated Wateappllca tion" over fan "entire if cross section oa stairway opening. This arrangement may be used to supplement the water curtain sprinklers, particularly where there is the possibility of flash res at the opening.

To prevent air entering the building through an outdoor wall opening, such as an outdoor' exit on the ground floor, from supplying air to the exhaust system to such extent as to interfere with the drawing of air through the connecting opening in a direction to oppose the fumes, a fan is provided at the outdoor opening which acts to draw off air which tends to enter the building at the point and discharge it back into the outdoors. This fan is started in operation at the same time as the exhaust system.

Where the building is provided with moving stairways, the moving stairways serving the portion of the building where the re occurs, or all the movingA stairways, are shut down automatically along with starting the exhaust system in operation. Where the building is provided with a Ventilating system, such as air conditioning, this system is also shut down automatically with the starting of the exhaust system.

A general idea of the invention, the mode of carrying it out which is at present preferred. and various advantages thereof will be rgained from the above statements. Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description and appended claims.

In the drawings:

Figure 1 is a schematic representation in perspective, with parts broken away, of an embodiment of the invention, including an exhaust system and a water curtain sprinkler system, applied to the wellway openings for moving stair- Ways in a multistory building;

Figure 2 is a diagrammatic view in vertical section of a deluge sprinkler arrangement along the soflit of a moving stairway;

Figure 3 is a fragmental diagrammatic view in vertical section of a protecting fan arrangement for an outdoor exit for the building;

Figure 4 is a schematic Wiring diagram for an installation such as shown in Figure l, and embodying the protecting fan of Figure 3;

Figure 5 is a diagrammatic bottom View of an exhaust and water curtain sprinkler system as applied to the wellway openings of a criss-cross moving stairway arrangement; and

Figure 6 is a schematic representation in vertical section of an exhaust and water curtain sprinkler system applied to an elevator hoistway.

The invention will nrst be described as applied to the moving stairway wellway openings of a multistory building. Referring to Figure l., a five floor building is illustrated, the floors being designated I, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Moving stair- Ways B serve these floors, extending between floors I and 2, floors 2 and 3, floors 3 and ll and floors 4 and 5. For convenience in illustrating the invention, these stairways are shown in noncontinuous arrangement for one direction of travel. Also, they are shown near a wall but it is to be understood that they would be positioned in accordance with the requirements of the particular installation.

Each moving stairway has a wellway opening 1 communicating with the floor above. Depending from the ceiling around each wellway opening is a collection duct 8. This duct is positioned like a smoke apron, forming an obstruction on each of the two sides and the open end of the Wellway opening with the stairway itself completing the obstruction at the other end. The collection ducts are illustrated as having right angle bends but other constructions such as a semi-circle at the open end may be used. Slots Ii! are provided along the outer walls of the duct near the bottom to form a passage for the fumes. Each collection duct is connected by a duct II with an exhaust duct for flue I2 common to the collection ducts. The connecting ducts are illustrated as joined to the centers of the end portions of the collection ducts. The exhaust duct is illustrated as extending along a wall but it may be positioned outside the building.

Each connecting duct is provided with a damper I3, illustrated as latched in closed position but biased for movement to open position upon release of the latch. The bias is provided by the unbalanced weight of operating arm I4. A pin on this arm is engaged by the plunger of a release electromagnet I5 to latch the damper closed. Energization of the electromagnet withdraws the plunger to release the arm, allowing the damper to open.

The exhaust duct I2 leads to an exhaust fan I6 on the roof Ii of the building. This fan is driven by an electric motor I8. Suitable weather protection, such as louvers not shown, may be provided for the discharge opening of the fan. The size of the fan and the ducts depends upon the size of the weilway openings, it being understood that the fan and ducts are of sufficient capacity to insure the desired down draft through the openings.

A fresh air intake is provided in the roof of the building above the moving stairway wellway openings. This intake comprises a cupola 2i) over the intake opening 2i, the side walls of the cupola being provided with louvers 22 to admit the fresh air and to form weather protection for the intake opening. The intake opening is provided with a damper 23 illustrated as biased by its own weight to open position and arranged to be latched closed, as by the plunger of a release electromagnet 24 engaging a pin on the end of the operating arm 25 for the damper. For convenience, the damper is illustrated as positioned below the ceiling but it is to be understood that the mechanism may be located in the cupola with the intake opening flush with the ceiling and provided with say an ornamental protecting grille. Also, instead of the damper, the louvers themselves may be operated to open and close their openings. Also, instead of the fresh air intake being in the roof or ceiling, it may b e arranged in one of the outer walls of the building.

A sprinklered building is illustrated in Figure 1, this being indicated by a plurality of sprinkler heads 2T distributed at various points on the ceilings for floors I, 2, 3 and 4. These sprinkler heads are of the thermo-responsive type, for example, to be set 01T automatically as by fusible links.

' The setting on of any of these sprinkler heads starts the exhaust system in operation for the floor for which the sprinkler head is provided. Sprinkler heads 21 may be utilized on the fth oor for playing on any iire which may start on that floor. Other automatic controls may be provided to start the exhaust system in operation. Such controls are indicated at 2B for floors I, 2, 3 and i and may be in the form of thermo-responsive devices, smoke detecting devices and the like. Also a manual control 30 may be provided at each system in `operation withn respect to that' floor.

A plurality of additinalsprinkler heads 3| are Theyare spaced apart so that theirfsprays meet a-short distance below the slotin the collection duct; Also 'they are close enoughto the collection duct that solne ofthe lspray h its the ductaand thus may be drawn into-the duct to exert a cooling action. These sprinkler heads are controlled by l pilot sprinklers `3i. positioned to be responsive to temperature at either side or end of the collection duet. The arrangement is such that upon any piglot sprinkler letting go, allV the sprinkler heads 3| are turned on to` seal off the opening with a water curtain.

The exhaust and sprinkler system has been illustrated in Figure 1 as applied to anon-continnous stairwayarrangement because the systemis morereadily seenifromthe illustration With such a stairway arrangement; The system -is similarly applied to'other moving stairway arrangements, A s an example, the system is diagrammatically illustrated in Figure 5 for the wellWay openings in a ceiling for a criss-cross arrangement of moving stairways extending to the iloor below. Here the wellway openings are designated 35 and 35. The stairways for which these openings are provided are indicated inidotted lines and are designated 3l and 38.

One collection duct 40 is provided for both openings and'extends in the Yform of a loop all the way around the openings. A connecting duct 42 connects the collection duct to exhaust duct I2 along the outside wall 49 of the building, a damper E3 being provided in the connection duct. Mechanism, not shown, `is provided `for automatically opening the damper as in Figure 1. The collection duct is tapered to provide a uniform intake volurne at any point in the duct. This taper, for the particulararrangement fin Figure 5, starts at a point 4|, opposite the point of joinder to the connection ,duct `52, and extends in each direction from point 4| to the connection duct. Tapered collection ducts are also provided in the arrangement .of Figure 1 but are not readily indicated inthe perspective arrangement illustrated.

The `sprinkler heads 3| Afor the water curtain are positioned'around the collection duct and close enough thereto that some of the Water which is sprayed toward the stairways hits the duct, thereby resulting not only in some vof the water being taken into .the duct system Vfor cooling butalso in the water curtain extending substantially `Straight, down from the outer side of the collection duct. By `having the water curtain substantially straight down on the stairway side and by positioning the collection duct and water curtain sprinkler heads to encompass a space 44 extending well beyond" the ends of the stairways as indicated, the Vstairways and the transfer oor area at the ends of the stairways are kept dry. enabling people to use the stairways during an emergency without getting Wet. With a criss-cross arrangement, there is beneath each of stairways 3l and 38- another stairway extending parallel thereto between the iloor'below the indicated ceiling and the floor `nextbelovv this floor. Thus, transfer between stairway 31 andthe stairway beneath stairway 3S and transfer between stairway i8Y and -the stairway ,beneath ,stairway 31 c an be made inside -the water curtain.

The water supply systemis also'illustrated in Figurer. In the arrangement illustrated, the sprinkler heads I3| are fed through a continuous pipe et. This pipe is connected by a pipe 41 to a llooding or deluge valve 48. This valve is connected to the main water supply pipe 5|)` by way of pipe 5|. Valve 48 is controlled by the pilot sprinklers 32. These pilot sprinklers are positioned to be responsive to heat at any point in the vicinity of the Wellway openings and are illustrated as positioned along each side of the space 44, one midway and one at each end. Other arrangements may be used including those in which a pilot sprinkler is positioned at each end ofA space 44 and midway thereof. The pilot sprinklers are fed by a pipe 53 connected through pipe 5G, valve 48 and pipe 4| to supply main 5G. The valve 48 is normally open tothe pilot sprinklers 32 but closed to the sprinkler heads 3|. This arrangement is such that should any pilot sprinkler react, valve 48l acts automatically to` shut oil the supply of water to the pilot sprinklers and to permity the ilow of water to the sprinkler heads 13|. As the sprinkler heads 3| are of the open type, all of them spray water sothat a Water curtain is formed. A flow valve 56 is arranged in pipe 5| and is arranged to operate a switch, shown in YFigure 4,V should the flow .of water take placeV in pipe y5| from the supply main. This switch acts, as will be explained in discussing Figure .4, to start the exhaust system in operationfor thewellway openingslland 3e. similar'water supply arrangementy is provided for eachwellway opening, or encompassed spacev 44 for associated openings, foreach of floors l, 2, 3 and 4 .of Figure 1.

Automatic sprinkler heads 2l are also shown in Figure 5 as indicative of a sprinklered building arrangement. These heads are fed by a pipe 58, joined to pipe 5| so that their supply of waterV must actuate the flow valve 55. Thus, should a nre occur at any point away from the encompassed space 44, the nearest sprinkler head or heads 21 would automatically react to light the lire and in so doing would actuate the ilow` valve 56 to start the exhaust system in operation for'wellway openings 35 and 36. A similar arrangement is provided for each of floors l, 2, 3 and 4 or^ Figure l in a sprinklered building.

Referring now to Figure 3,4 6@ represents a vestibule between theinterior 6| of the building and the outdoors. 62 Iis an outer` door while 63 is an interior door. A passage 64 is provided in the ceiling of the vestibule leading to the intake of a fan 65. The discharge 66 of the fan leads to outdoors. The fan is driven by an electric motor 61.

Reference may now be had to Figure 4 which is ,a schematic Wiring diagram Ain semi-acrossthefline form for the protective system of Figures l and 3. The supply lines for ,the system are indicated as -land 68 is a v Inain line switch for Iconnecting the circuits .to the supply lines. The motor 8 for driving the exhaust fan .l5 for .the exhaust system is indicated by its armature and Lshunt field winding. Similarly themotor 6.1, for driving the fan above the vestibuie in Figure 3, yis indicated by its armature and shunt field winding. These motors are fed from emergency V supply lines which are insulated from rire, these lines being designated E+ and E-. The release electromagnet vfor the fresh air intake damper is designated 24 as in Figure -l. 'it is an automatic device for sending in an alarm to -theiire department. is anv electromagnetic switch for controlling the Ventilating system. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 11 are contacts of a switch 18 illustrated as of a type which may be manually set and held by a latch 18 in set condition. 80 is an electromagnetic release coil for the latch. 8| is a manually operable changeover switch. The mechanism thus far indicated is common to the various floors.

The operating and control mechanisms individual to the various iioors are for the most part the saine. Therefore, except for the diierences, these mechanisms for only one floor will be pointed out, differentiation being had as to floors by appending to the reference characters employed a numeral in parenthesis corresponding to the floor for which the mechanism is provided. As a further diierentiation aid, these mechanisms are separated by dot-dash lines extending across the sheet. These 4lines are indicated by numerals in parenthesis in accordance with the various floors. Thus, the mechanism for the second floor, for example, is found between dotted lines (2) and (3).

The operating and control lmechanisms for each floor comprise contacts 83 of a switch operated by the ilow valve 56 for that floor, a thermally responsive switch 28 as indicative of one or more switches other than the flow valve switch automatically actuated in response to a fire, and a manually operable switch 39, all of which are connected in parallel. These switches control the electromagnetic release coil 86 for the latch 81 for a plural contact switch 88 of a type similar to switch 18. Switch 88, except the one for the rst floor, has ve contacts designated 90, 9|, 92, 93 and 94, contacts 94 not being provided on the switch for the rst floor. Contacts 92 of all of these switches are connected in parallel and control the circuit for the release coil 80 for latch 19 of switch 18. Contacts 9| of all of these switches also are connected in parallel and control the circuits for the alarms 95, one for each floor including the fth floor, also connected in parallel. Contacts 90 control the release electromagnet I for the damper in the connecting duct for the correspondingr floor. Contacts 93 control the coil of an electromagnetic switch 96 having contacts 91 and 98 arranged in the circuits for the moving stairways extending from the particular iloor to the floor above. Although only one moving stairway is shown for each floor in Figure 1, each switch 96 is shown as having two pairs of contacts, to illustrate that one pair may control an up moving stairway to the floor above and the other pair a down moving stairway from the oor above. These contacts may be connected in the circuits for the coils of the potential switches for the particular stairways. Contacts 94 are connected in series with contacts 93 of the switch for the iioor below. The latching type switches 18 and 88 are indicated as latched in operated condition while the electromagnetically operated switches 1I and 96 are illustrated in deenergized condition.

In operation, assume that main line switch 68 is closed. This causes switch 1I to be operated. It also causes each of switches 96 to be operated. Assume also that change-over switch 8| is closed. Referring now to Figure l, assume that a re occurs on the second floor at |00. The adjacent sprinkler head 21 reacts to play water upon the re as indicated. The resultant iiow of water in the direction indicated by the arrow |0I(2) in Figure 4 actuates the second oor flow valve 56(2) to close contacts 83(2). This completes a circuit for the release coil 86(2) of second floor switch 88(2). The energization of this coil attracts latch 81(2) to release contacts 90(2), 9| (2) 92(2), 93(2) and 94(2). Contacts 90(2) close to complete the circuit for the release coil |5(2) for the damper I3 in the second oor connection duct. This coil acts to release the latch for this damper, permitting the damper to open. Contacts 92(2) engage to complete a circuit for the release coil of switch 18. This attracts latch 19 to release contacts 12-, 13, 14, 15, 18 and 11. Contacts 14 engage to complete a circuit for the release coil 24 for fresh air intake damper 23. This coil acts to release the latch for this damper permitting the damper to open. Contacts 12 engage to complete a circuit for the operating motor I3 for the fan for the exhaust system. Thus, as soon as a lire occurs, the exhaust system is started in operation for the oor on which the fire is located.

At the same time that the exhaust system is being started in operation, contacts 15 engage to complete a circuit for the automatic device 10 to send in the alarm to the iire department. Also, contacts 9|(2) engage, completing a circuit for the alarms 95 on all iioors. engage to complete a circuit for the operating motor 61 for the fan over the vestibule in Figure 3. Also contacts 16 separate to deenergize the coil of switch 1I, shutting down the Ventilating system. Also contacts 93(2) and 94(2) separate to deenergize the coils of switches 96(2) and 96( I) respectively. These switches drop out to separate their contacts 91 and 98, shutting down the moving stairways extending from the second floor to the third and rst floors.

Thus, as a result of reaction of the particular sprinkler head 21, water is locally applied to the blaze to put out the re, or at least to oppose it until the fire department arrives; the fire department is summoned; an alarm is sounded on each floor to advise people on the oors that a state of re exists; the moving stairways serving the affected iloor are shut down to enable their being used as exits; the Ventilating system is shut down; the vestibule fan is started in operation; and the exhaust system as related to the affected floor is started in operation. The exhaust system, upon being started in operation, starts to draw air through the slots I0 into the collection duct 8 and thus acts to create negative pressure in the vicinity of the second iloor wellway opening. This induces a down draft from the fresh air intake by was7 of the superimposed wellway openings through the Wellway opening in the second floor ceiling, as indicated by the arrows |02 (Figure l) The down draft is opposite to the natural direction of iiow, opposing any ow of smoke and gases upwardly through these openings. Any smoke or gases which reach the second fioor wellway opening are drawn into the collection duct through the slots, being entrained in the air from the fresh air intake and carried off through the connecting duct and exhaust duct to outdoors by the exhaust fan. The vestibule fan acts to carry olf air entering the vestibule as a result of people opening the outer door, thus preventing such air feeding the exhaust system and interfering with the down draft through the wellway openings. Shutting down the Ventilating system also prevents interference with the proper action of the exhaust system and in addition obviates circulation of any smoke and gases throughout the build- Should the temperature in the vicinity of the Also contacts 13,

wellway. 'opening V reach :a certain point, a,A pilot sprinkler 32 reacts'to cause operation ofthe flooding valve 48 to supply water to the sprinkler heads 3| around the wellway opening. The spray from these sprinkler heads forms a water curtain for the stairway between the second and third oors asV indicated. The water of this thick curtain acts to cool the fumes which reachthe stairway, thereby obstructing their passage into the wellway opening by convection. Fumes which penetrate the water curtain are carried into the duct system and drawn orf to the outdoors. Also, the cooling action exerted by the water obviates any ilame passing into the collection duct. Should the ire originate in the vicinity Yof the stairway, the water curtain may be setoi before any buildingsprinkler reacts. In this case the ow of water to the water curtain Asprinkler heads starts the exhaust system in operation.

After the. nre has been extinguished, the water is shut oit and any sprinklers which have reacted are restored. Also released latch type switches are manually reset and the operated connecting duct damper and the fresh air intake are closed.

While in the above example of operation it has been, assumed .that the exhaust systemis startedlin operation by operation of the flow valve v56 for the affected door, it may be started in operation by the action of a thermal responsive switch 28'in the affected area or some other automatic device such as photoelectric device actuated by smoke. Also the exhaust system may be started in operation manually by the closing of switch 30 for the alected floor. While these other controls may be utilized in a sprinklered building, they are of particular advantage in a partially sprinklered building or a nonsprinklered building.

Also in the above example of operation it has been assumed that change-over switch 8| is closed. Withthis switch open, contacts vVi of switch 'I8 are rendered effective. As these contacts control the feed common to the coils of all of switches 96, their separation shuts down the moving stairways on all floors. An arrangement similar to that had with switch 8| closed may be employed whereby instead of shutting down the Ventilating system for the whole building, only that Aportion of the system which is connected to the affected area is shut down.

Reference may now be had to Figure 2 wherein a water deluge system for a wellway opening is illustrated. Two moving stairways are shown with a Wellway opening 'l for the lower stairway. A plurality of sprinkler heads are arranged along aline crosswise of the soit |05 of` the upper stairway.' A plurality of additional sprinkler heads |01 are arranged along anotherline crosswise of soit |00.V The sprinkler heads are of the high velocity jet type and are controlled by thermal responsive units |08. Sprinkler heads |05 are angled to insure water being sprayed over an area from soflit |06 into a portion of the Wellway opening while sprinkler heads |01 areangled to spray water into the remainder of the opening. Thus when `these sprinkler heads are set 01T, there is a deluge of water spray which completely fills the wellway opening as indicated. Also, setting olif of the deluge sprinklers starts the exhaust system in operation by the action of the flow valve.

While'the deluge system may be used instead of the water curtain, it is preferred.. to. use it more in the. nature of a reserve for the. water curtainlasto rakecare o;fz,.flaslr..firesV originating at. the` stairway, particularlyv those which:v would beiinside-.thewater curtain. For manyinstallations the` deluge .system .would be zomitted.

Although the. inventionhas beeny illustrated in vFigure '1 in .conjunctioniwith moving. stairway wellway openings,y itis similarly. applied to other ceiling openings, vsuchM aslstairwell openings. Also-,i the inventionn applicable `to sidewall openings. `For. example, it isshown in- Figure 6 as applied tothe hoistwaydooropenings ofan elevator installation.

Referring to. `Figure 6, the elevatorhoistwayds designated H0, while. the elevator carwandfits counterweight whichoperate inthe hoistway are designated .I l. and ||2 respectively.y The car and counterweight are .suspended by hoisting ropes ||3which pass arounda hoistingsheeve I|.4 at the Vtop of the hoistvvay.V A. three iioor installation is illustrated, these oors beingdesignated ||'5,.||.6and` Ili'l. ||8 lathe-.opening atffeach iioor to provideaccess .to the elevatorcar and |20 is the hoistway door forA closing this opening.

TheV `exaust system comprises a collection 4duct 2 on each Viioor extendingacross and above the opening. ||.8.' The' collection duct is .provided with .an..intake .slot |22 extending.. lengthwise thereof nearthe bottom. Eachcollection.duct iscOnnected by va connectingduct4 .|23 tov the Aexhaust .duct 124.5 The vconnecting A,ducts andf ex-V haust' duct` are arranged, .as at. one end fof the collection ducts, not. to interfere. with .the` operation ofthe elevator.. Afda'mpenl 25v fis, provided in each lconnection duct and Vmay vbe latched in closed .positionand automatically. opened as pre.- viously described. The exhaust. duct. leads'. to'. a centrifugal fan |2'6`above'the hoistway. Thisfan is .driven by an. electricmotor |2`|I and discharges to' the outdoors, the. dischargeA opening |2`8`"be. ing protected bylouvers |301'- An airintake 1| 32 is provided at the top .of the .hoistway..l This intakeV is'also protected by Ilouvers |332` It 'is arranged to" be normally closed ,as by a shutter |34, illustrated asadapted to be raised above the opening through the action of ropi'ng wound on a drum driven 'by van electric' motor |35." Inasmuch as the'hoistway doorsarenorrnallyclosed, a freshf'air access 136 isprovid'ed at' each liioor illustrat'edas arranged in the hoistway doorVv panel theduct. The sprinkler heads""|40"are,controlled byfpilot' sprinklers |41 'as previously`de'scribd. |42 indicates the sprinklers in a sprinkleredgbuildl ing. The electric'system andthewateriflow Sys.- tem are not shown but itistobe'. understood that they may be similar to .those in 'Figures 4 and 5.

In operation. assumeA that a r'e occurs onthe second4 iioor at the.point' .|451V TheA adjacent sprinkler head |42reacts toplaynwateroncthe 'lire as indicatedcIt/also causesthe opening of the secondloor damper |25, thelitingof shutter 34 fromY theA fresh air.. intake Vand the starting of the exhaust fan.v l 261m. operation.. The .exhaust system starts .to .draw Vair-into theA collection duct yabove thesecond floorhoistway opening. inducing a down draft of fresh air in the hoistway as indicated by the arrows |46, the fresh air owing into the second floor through the fresh air access |36. Any smoke or gases which reaches the hoistway are entrained in the airl and drawn into the collection duct. the mixed air and fumes being exhausted by the exhaust system. Should the temperature adjacent the hoistway opening reach a certain point, water for sprinklers |40 is turned on and a water curtain is formed across the opening. The water curtain acts to cool the fumes which reach the opening and any fumes which penetrate the curtain are drawn off into the exhaust system. Thus, the elevator hoistway is kept free of smoke and gases to enable the use of the elevator car during the emergency. A similar arrangement of exhaust and water curtain sprinkler system may be employed for other sidewall openings such as those leading into emergency stairwells.

Thus it is seen that with the arrangements described, when a fire occurs the resultant fumes are localized to the area where the re starts. It has been found by experiment that with some fires, especially where the fire occurs in a sprinklered building and where there is considerable smoke but not so much heat, the exhaust system provides adequate protection without the water system being brought into action. While certain arrangements of duct systems have been speciiii tive floors, as for example, the wellway openings 1"' and elevator hoistway openings. Also, the various arrangements for operating the dampers and shutters are by way of illustration and other mechanisms may be employed. Other arrangements may be used for exhausting air from exits to prevent interference with the exhaust system. Also other arrangements may be utilized for preventing air from an outer wall opening below the affected connecting opening from destroying the opposing air flow through such affected opening, as for example by providing a forced down draft to the connecting openings. Also, other arrangements may be employed for controlling the water curtain sprinklers and for controlling the water deluge sprinklers. Other arrangements of electrical circuits and control and operating mechanism may be employed and, while the system has been illustrated as having direct current supply, it may also be utilized in buildings having alternating current supply.

As many changes could be made in the above constructions and many apparently widely diierent embodiments of this invention could be made without departing from the scope thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

What is claimed is:

1. A system for protecting one portion of a building against fumes from a fire in another `portion having an opening connecting it to the first named portion, said system comprising; a

outdoors; operating means for said fan; an air intake on said one portion side of said opening; and means for causing operation of said fan air through said opening from said air intake into said other portion to create a draft through said opening to oppose the fumes and with said fumes entrained therewith into said duct and to discharge said air and fumes outdoors.

2. A system for protecting one portion of a building against fumes from a fire in another portion which has an opening connecting with said first named portion, said system comprising; a collection duct for said opening; an exhaust fan having its inlet connected to said duct and its outlet discharging outdoors and adapted upon operation when such nre occurs to draw air and entrained fumes into the duct and discharge the air and fumes outdoors; operating means for said fan; a sprinkler system in said other portion; and means responsive to the reaction of said sprinkler system to such fire to start said ian operating means in operation.

3. A system for protecting one portion of a building against fumes from a fire in another portion which has an opening connecting with said rst named portion, said system comprising; a collection duct for said opening; an exhaust fan having its inlet connected to said duct and its outlet discharging outdoors and adapted upon operation when such fire occurs to draw air and entrained fumes into the duct and discharge the air and fumes outdoors; means for driving said .1 fan; a sprinkler system in said other portion, said sprinkler system including a plurality of sprinkler heads; and means responsive to the flow of water to any of said sprinkler heads to start said driving means in operation to drive said fan.

4. A system for protecting one portion of a building against fumes from a fire in a portion below which has an opening in the ceiling connecting it to the rst named portion, said system comprising; a collection duct extending around said opening; an exhaust fan having its inlet connected to said duct and its outlet connected to discharge outside the building; operating means for said fan; an air intake for said opening on said one portion thereof and a control for causing operation of said fan by said operating means when such re occurs to draw air through said opening from said air intake to create a down draft through said opening to oppose the fumes and with said fumes entrained therein into said duct and to discharge said air and fumes outdoors.

5. A system for protecting one portion of a building against fumes from a re in a portion below which has an opening in the ceiling connecting it to the iirst named portion, said system comprising; a slotted duct extending around said opening; an exhaust fan having its inlet connected to said duct and its outlet discharging outdoors; means for driving said fan; an intake for providing air to said opening from above; a damper in the connection between said duct and said inlet; and means responsive to the re for causing opening of said damper and operation of said fan by said driving means to draw air from said air intake through said opening and along therewith fumes from the fire into said duct and to discharge the air and fumes to outdoors.

6. A system for protecting each of a plurality of floors of a multistory building against fumes from a lire on a oor below such floor, each of said plurality of oors having an opening to the oor below, ksaid system comprising; a duct for each opening, each duct extending at least part operating means when such lire occurs to draw 75 Way around the Opening fOr Which it iS DlOVded 13 and having a slot throughout its length; lan exhaust ductcommon to and connected to said first named ducts; a normally closed damper for each rst named duct in Athe connection' thereof to said exhaust duct; an exhaust fan having its inlet connected to said exhaust duct and its outlet discharging outdoors; a driving motor for said fan; an intake for providing air to said openings from a higher point in said building; and means Yresponsive to such fire for causing operation of said motor to drive said fan and opening of said damper for said rst named duct for the opening `to the iioor on which the re occurs from the oor above.

V7. A system for protecting each of a plurality of floors of a multistory building against fumes from a lire on a floor below such iloor, each of said plurality of floors being connected to the loor below by an opening in thelceiling of such oor below, which lopenings are superimposed, said system comprising; an intake for providing air to said openings from above; a collection duct for each opening, each duct xtending downwardly from the ceiling in which the opening for which it is provided is located and around said opening and having a slot coextensive therewith in its outer wall near the bottom; an exhaust duct common to said collection ducts; a duct for each collection duct connecting saidfcollection duct to the exhaust duct; a damper -in each connection duct; an exhaust fan having its inlet connected to said Aexhaust duct and its outlet connected to outdoors; and means for driving said fan.

8. A system for protecting each of a plurality of floors of a multistory building against fumes from a re on a iloor below such floor, which building has a plurality of superimposed moving stairways, one extending from each of said plurality of oors tothe oor below, each stairway having a wellvay opening, and which building has heat responsive sprinkler heads on each of such floors below, said system comprising; a collection duct for each opening, each duct extending downwardly around the opening for which it is provided and having a substantially continuous intake slot in its outer wall near the bottom; an exhaust duct common to said collection thereof; an exhaust fan having its inlet connested to said exhaust duct and its outlet sonnected to outdoors; a motor for driving said fan; and means responsive to the reaction of a sprinkler head on any one o f such floors below. on which a nre occurs for causing operation of said damper opening means for the damper in the connection duct for such floor and of said fan motor to `causeair to be drawn downwardly through'the wellway opening and thence with any fumes from the nre entrained thereiny into the collection duct on such floor and by way of the-connectingduct therefor and exhaust duct to the fanV and be discharged outdoors.

9. A system for protecting one portion of a building against fumes from a lire in another portion having an opening connecting it to the first named portion, which` building has an outdoor wall opening on the same level or below said iirst named opening, said system comprising; an exhaust system including anY air intake Onfsaid oneportionside of said opening operable in case of a re'in said other portion to draw-airfrom said air intake through said first named 'opening in a direction to oppose the passage of fumes from said other portion into said first named portion and entrain with such air any fumes from the re which reach the opening and thence to discharge the air and fumes to outdoors; and means for equalizing the air pressure at a point just inside said outdoor wall opening with respect to the pressure of the outdoor air to prevent any substantial amount of air entering said other portion through said outdoor wall opening.

A system for protecting one portion of a building against fumes from a re in another portion having an opening connecting it to the iirstnamedportion,which building has an outdoor wall opening on the same level or below said first named opening, said system comprising; an exhaust system including an air intake on said one portion side of said opening operable in case of a fire in said other portion to draw `Aair from said air intake through said rst named opening in a direction to oppose the passage of fumes from said other portion into said first named portion and entrain with such air any fumes from the fire which reach the opening and thence to discharge the air and fumes to outdoors; and a second exhaust system for discharging to outdoors air entering said outdoor wall opening to thereby prevent substantial interference with the said drawing of air through said first named opening by said rst mentioned exhaust system.

ll. A fume protection system for a building having an opening connecting one portion of the building with another portion, said system comprising; an exhaust system extending from said opening to outdoors; and a water spray system at said opening; said exhaust system and said water spray system cooperating to effectively prevent the passage of fumes through said opening from one of said portions into the other.

12. A fume protection system for a building which has an opening connecting one portion of the building with another portion, said system comprising; a collection duct for said opening; an exhaust fan havingits inlet connected to said duct and its outlet discharging outdoors; and a sprinkler system positioned at said opening to form a water curtain therefor.

13. A system for protecting one portion of a building against fumes from a lire in another portion which has an opening connecting with said first named portion, said system comprising; a collection duct for said opening; an exhaust fan having its inlet connected to said duct and its outlet discharging outdoors and adapted upon operation when such re occurs to draw air and entrained fumes into the duct and discharge the air and fumes outdoors; a sprinkler system positioned at said opening to form a water curtain therefor; and means responsive to temperature at said opening for starting-said sprinkler Isystem in operation.

14. A system for protecting a iloor of a building against fumes from a fire on the floor next below which has an opening in the ceiling connecting it to the first named floor comprising; an apertured duct extending around said opening; an exhaust fan having its inlet connected to said duct and its outlet dischargingV outdoors; operating means for said fan; an intake for providing air to said openingfrom above; a sprinkler system for saidA opening for providing a water curtain therefor-on the outside of the. collection duct; and means responsive to `a Vre onsaid floorA belowfor. causing operation .off` said: fan by" said operating means, said fan and duct being of sufficient capacity to draw air from said air intake downwardly through said opening and with fumes from the re entrained therein into said duct and to exhaust the air and fumes to outdoors and for causing operation of said sprinkler system when the temperature at said opening reaches a certain point.

15. A system for protecting a floor of a building against fumes from a re on the floor next below which has an opening in the ceiling connecting it to the rst named oor comprising; an apertured duct extending around said opening; an exhaust fan having its inlet connected to said duct and its outlet discharging outdoors; means for driving said fan; an intake for providing air to said opening from above; a sprinkler system on said floor below positioned at said opening to form. a water curtain therefor; an additional sprinkler system on said floor below for playing water on the iire; and means responsive to the flow of water to either sprinkler system for causing operation of said fan by said driving means, said fan and duct being of suiicient capacity to draw air from said air intake downwardly through said opening and with fumes from the fire entrained therein into said duct and to exhaust said air and fumes to outdoors.

16. A system for protecting each of a plurality of loors of a multistory building against fumes from a fire on a floor below such floor, each of said plurality of iioors having an opening to the floor below, said system comprising; a slotted duct for each opening, each duct extending downwardly around the opening for which it is provided; an exhaust duct common to said rst named ducts and connected thereto; an exhaust fan having its inlet connected to said exhaust duct and its outlet discharging outdoors; means for driving said fan; an intake for providing air to said openings from above; means responsive to such iire for causing operation of said fan by said driving means, said fanv and ducts being of suicient capacity to draw air from said air intake downwardly through the opening for the oor above the one on which the fire occurs and with fumes from the fire entrained therein into the duct for that opening and to exhaust said air and fumes outdoors; a sprinkler system for each opening positioned to form a water curtain therefor on the outside of the rst named duct for that opening; and means operable when the temperature at the opening to the floor above the one on which the re occurs reaches a certain point for causing operation of said sprinkler system for such opening,

17. A system for protecting each of a plurality of floors of a multistory building against fumes from a re on a floor below such floor, which building has a plurality of superimposed moving stairways, one extending from each of said plurality of oors to the floor below, each stairway having a wellway opening, said system comprising; a collection duct for each opening, each duct extending downwardly around the opening for which it is provided and having a substantially continuous intake slot in its outer wall; an exhaust duct common to said collection ducts and connected thereto; an exhaust ian having its inlet connected to said exhaust duct and its outlet discharging outdoors; a driving motor for said fan; an intake for providing air to said openings from above; means responsive to a re on any one of said iioors below for causing operation of said fan by said motor, said fan and ducts being of sufcient capacity to draw air from said air intake downwardly through the wellway opening and with any fumes from the fire entrained therein into the collection duct for that opening and to exhaust it outdoors; a plurality of sprinkler heads for each opening positioned to form when in operation a water curtain therefor around the collection duct; and pilot sprinklers for each opening for causing operation of said water curtain sprinkler heads for that opening when the temperature at such opening reaches a certain point.

18. A fume protection system for a building which has an opening connecting one portion of the building with another portion, Asaid system comprising: a collection duct for said opening; an exhaust fan having its inlet connected to said duct and its outlet discharging outdoors; and a sprinkler system for providing a water deluge covering the entire opening.

19. A system for protecting one portion of a building against fumes from a re in another portion which has an opening connecting with said rst named portion, said system. comprising; a collection duct for said opening; an exhaust fan having its inlet connected to said duct and its outlet discharging outdoors for drawing air and entrained'fumes into the duct and discharging the air and fumes outdoors; a sprinkler system positioned at said opening to form a water curtain therefor outside said duct; and an additional sprinkler system inside said opening for providing a water deluge throughout the entire opening.

20. A system for protecting a floor of a building against fumes from a fire on the floor next below which has an opening in the ceiling for a stairway connecting said oors, said system comprising; a collection duct extending around said opening; an exhaust fan having its inlet connected to said duct and its outlet discharging outdoors; means for driving said fan; a sprinkler system having heads positioned to provide a water curtain around said opening and collection duct; an additional sprinkler system having sprinkler heads within said opening to provide a water deluge down the stairway; means responsive to temperature around said opening for starting the first named sprinkler system in operation; means responsive t0 temperature within said opening for starting said additional sprinkler system in operation; and means responsive to the flow of water to either sprinkler system for starting said fan in operation by said driving means.

21. A system for protecting a floor of a building against fumes from a re on the floor next below which has an opening in the ceiling for a moving stairway extending between said floors, said system comprising; a collection duct extending around said opening; a motor driven exhaust fan having its inlet connected'to said duct and its outlet discharging outdoors; a sprinkler system on the ceiling of said iioor below having heads disposed at spaced points, said heads reacting to a re in their vicinity to fight the re; a second sprinkler system having heads positioned to provide a water curtain around said opening and collection duct; a third sprinkler system having sprinkler heads within said opening to provide a water deluge down the stairway; means responsive to temperature around said opening for starting said second named sprinkler system in operation; means responsive to temperature 17 within said opening for starting said third sprinkler system in operation; and means responsive to the ow of water to any of said sprinkler systems for starting said fan in operation.

22. A system for protecting a floor of a building against fumes from a re on the oor next below which h as an opening in the ceiling for a moving stairway extending between said oors, said system comprising; a collection duct extending around said opening; a motor driven exhaustfan having its inlet connected to said duct and its outlet discharging outdoors; a normally closed damper in the connection from said duct to said fan; a sprinkler system on the ceiling of said floor below having heads disposedat spaced points, said heads reacting to a re in their vicinity to ght the re; a second sprinkler system having heads positioned to provide a Water curtain around said opening and collection duct; means responsive to temperature around said opening for starting said second named sprinkler system in operation; and means responsive to the ilow of water to either of said sprinkler systems for starting said fan in operation and opening said damper and for stopping said moving stairway.

JAMES DUNLOP. EDWIN FORREST DURANG.

l file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 237,901 Pollard Feb. 15, 1881 268,822 Pitt Dec. 12, 1882 821,416 Hummel May 22, 1906 832,247 Edwards Oct. 2, 1906 980,471 Zenke Jan. 3, 1911 983,877 Cummings Feb. 14, 1911 991,909 Straight May 9, 1911 1,847,736 Ward Mar. 1, 1932 1,905,243 Rogers Apr. 25, 1933 2,073,744 Henney Mar. 16, 1937 2,087,637 Burt July 20, 1937 2,222,365 Edmundson Nov. 19, 1940 2,299,833 Mader Oct. 27, 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 481,991 Great Britain Mar. 22, 1938

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Classifications
U.S. Classification169/48, 169/54, 169/61
International ClassificationF24F7/06, A62C99/00
Cooperative ClassificationF24F2011/0095, A62C99/009, F24F7/06
European ClassificationF24F7/06, A62C99/00F