US 2586807 A
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k 33;'261. mi? 595869807 Fb. 26, 1952 o.. s. FowLER 2,586,807
GUN SIGHT Filed 0017. '7, 1946 IN VEN TOR. Urs f Faw/er A TTO/P/YEV Patented Feb. 26, 1952 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE This invention relates to gun sights and more particularly relates to gun sights of the type adapted for use on shot guns or the like, which cause a spreading of the shot or charge as it leaves the muzzle of the gun.
Shot guns are usually used in hunting game birds, such as ducks, and most shots involve aiming along the course of iiight of the moving birds in a horizontal or substantially horizontal course. The distance of the game, from th-e hunter, the speed of flight and the known range of the spread of shot after discharge are factors which have to be taken into account by mental calculation in determining how much lead to give the gun in firing it, in order to make a killing shot.
Heretofore, hunters have depended largely on their skill and experience in making such determinations for their success in killing the game. Some attempts have been made to provide sighting devices which indicate the position of the game with reference to effective killing range within an indicated area toward which the gun is pointing. However, the latter devices are generally subject to the defect that they do not provide a measurable pattern on the object being fired on.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a simple, durable and eflicient gun sight which during aiming accurately designates the effective killing area of the gun over a customary shooting distance.
Another object of the invention is to provide such a gun sight which may be embodied in a variety of structural forms without impairing its eflciency in use.
A further object of the invention is to provide such a gun sight which projects a visual image indicating effective killing area of the gun in relation to the position of a bird or other object moving along a course intersecting such area.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a gunsight which is arranged to superimpose a projected visual image upon the shot pattern fired by the gun along the conical path traversed by said shot.
Other objects reside in novel details of construction and novel combinations and arrangements of parts, all of which will be fully described in the course of the following description.
The present invention is based on the discovery that by using a frustro-conical tube or its equivalent as a sight, which tube has a progressively increasing diameter corresponding to the known conical pattern of a charge of shot fired from the gun on which the sight is mounted, it is possible to project a visual image or annular pattern in the range of vision through the tube which superimposes on the shot pattern at the position of the object fired upon.
With this understanding of the general nature of the present invention, reference will be made to the accompanying drawings illustrating typical embodiments of the invention. In the drawings, in the several views of which like parts have been designated similarly,
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a shot gun having attached thereto a gunsight embodying features of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a vertical central section through the gunsight shown in Fig. 1, drawn to an enlarged scale;
Figs. 3a, 3b, and 3c are sections takenvalong a line corresponding to the line 3--3 in Fig. 2 and illustrating a variety of filament patterns that may be used in the practice of the present invention; and
Fig. 4 is a side elevation of a shot gun having attached thereto a modified form of gunsight assembly embodying features of the present invention.
Referring first to Fig. 1, the gunsight embodying the features of my invention is shown as a rear sight R, mounted on the rear top surface of a barrel 5 of any conventional shot gun G having a front sight Fof conventional design. Since the features of the gun actuating mechanism,
per se, form no part of the present invention,
detailed d-escription of same appears unnecessary.
The construction of the gunsight R, which represents one embodiment of the invention, will be best understood by reference to Fig. 2. This sight comprises a hollow tubular body 6, preferably formed of ductile metal, or a suitable plastic composition, having forward and rear flanges 'I and 8, respectively, extending from the bottom edges of sloping cut ends 9 and I0, respectively. Preferably, each of said flanges is provided with one or more countersunk recesses Il for the reception of the heads of screws I2 by which the tubular body is fastened onto gun G.
The usual shot gun firing a standard quality of shot will cause the shot to spread so that it travels along a path which is in the shape of a developing cone. For example, a standard 12- gauge shot gun shell, when fired, will propel the shot charge at an expanding rate of approximately one-half inch per foot of linear travel. The taper of tube B of gun sight R is predetermined to correspond to this angular relationship, to the end that the visual conepattern is a frustro-conical shape of the same angular relation, but not dimension, as the pattern of shot. Also, because the view from the focal point through such a tube corresponds to the shape of the tube. a small part of the object being fired on may be obscured by the thickness of material forming the tube, and this limited obscurity places a definite, visual pattern on the object being fired on.
The lengthwise axis of tube E is not exactly parallel to the axis of the bore of the gun, but preferably is in converging relation, as for example, at a point. 48 yards from the gun. Also, the visual cone, or sight pattern viewed through the tube, is slightly larger than the shot cone and even at a distance of 24 yards the shot pattern substantially fills the area observed through the visual cone. In order to give a proper silhouette pattern in aiming the gun I prefer to use various combinations of cross hair patterns to divide the space of this observable area.
These cross hairs, which preferably are located at the forward end of the tube are arranged to divide the field of view into areas arranged to fit the course of flight of the game. To the sighter the ring and cross hairs or filaments are projected into space as a silhouette in which the game is located in a position to give most effective result when the gun is fired.
The three views of the drawings designated 3a,
3b, and 3c illustrate preferred arrangements of silhouette patterns. As shown in Fig. 3a, the vertical filament or cross hair I3 is for the purpose of dividing the field vertically and for aligning the sight to the gun by aligning it with the front sight F. The horizontal filaments I4 and I5 are for the purpose of dividing the field into 6 segmental areas. Preferably, these filaments I3, I4 and I5 are formed by a plurality of fine wires of black or substantially black shade. However, if preferred the'cross hair pattern may be etched on a lens at the front end of said tube.
In Fig. 3b. three horizontal filaments I4, I5 and I E are so arranged that the central filament I6 passes through the axis of the tube, while the filaments I4 and I 5 are spaced at equal distances from filament I6. The aforesaid arrangements provide a series of divided horizontal zones in which the game is located in the silhouette pattern. Due to the fact that most game birds travel along a substantially horizontal course, it is possible for the hunter to move the gun in aiming so that the game is moving along one of said horizontal courses in the projected pattern.
This enables the hunter to locate the bird in aiming so that itwill receive the maximum effect from the shot charge. Also, the lower filament I5 may be used to denote the firing positionwhen a bird is rising and ying more or less directly away from the hunter.
The arrangement shown in Fig. 3c embodies the fundamental features of the other patterns in that it has two vertical filaments I3a and two horizontal filaments I6a which correspond in position to the filaments I3 and IB of Fig. 3b. However, they differ in that they dont intersect, but terminate in spaced proximity to the axis of the tube R. In addition. there are two diagonal groups of filaments I8 and I 9 which combine with the filaments I 3a and I6a to provide a radial pattern.
The converging relation of adjoining filaments provides an effective silhouette pattern for directing the center of the shot charge into the l 4 game. The visual cone pattern should be so held and moved that the bird will always cross the axis of the tube in its course across the annular enclosure regardless of its point of entrance into said circle.
Thus, it will be apparent that while tube 6 defines a conical zone depicting the pattern of the spread of the shot course with reference to the object being fired upon, the hair lines define lesser areas visibly imposed upon the pattern of said cone within which the shot charge may be presumed to be fatal to any object brought within the focal range of said second area in aiming and firing the gun.
In installing a gunsight of the type shown in A Fig. 2 providing such a pattern, the operator looks through rear sight R bringing front sight F into register with the vertical hairline I3 and the sight is mounted to maintain this relation. Thereafter, front sight F performs no function in the operation of the gun except in the further check ing on alignment of the sight. When game is observed passing the periphery and into the field, the hair line I3 indicates the approximate position of the game when contacted by the shot charge if the gun is fired at that moment. The lines I4 and I5 provide the upper and lower bounds of the most favorable killing area of the shot pattern and hence it is possible by accurate timing to make an accurate shot each time the gun is fired.
If two sections of this visual cone are used in combination as a sight, as illustrated in Fig. 4, the rear one R1 may be mounted at a predetermined distance from the eye, on the breech or frame of gun, and will act as a special peep sight, but it too will be a section of the above conical visual cone while the forward section R11 is made to conform with the visual cone. Forward section R11 is detachably secured to the forward portion of gun barrel 5 by a resilient clip I'I.
It should be understood that in the arrangement shown, the two sections i function as a unitary structure and it is preferred to have them in physically divided relation with the rear sight in more or less permanent installation on the gun and the forward sight of an easily removed type due to the snap-on mounting, so that when the gun is stored, as in a case or in transporting the gun, the forward sight may be removed for its protection and reassembled when in a proper lo cation for use. However, the same functional effect can be obtained by increasing the length of the bore of a sight, such as sight R1, thereby eliminating the need for a front sight of the type shown. In such case, the filaments providing the silhouette pattern would be incorporated in the rear sight R1. Also, if the single tube arrangement just described is used, such tube may be of any desired length and such a sight may be 1ocated at different positions on the gun, as with its forward end placed at the forward end of the gun or in an intermediate position or preferably at the rear end. For convenience in manufacture, assembly and use, I prefer the arrangement illustrated in Fig. 4, but I consider the above described arrangements as being within the scope of my invention.
Any suitable material may be utilized in producing the gun sights of the present invention. Brass tubing is well suited for this purpose because it can be worked accurately to satisfy the dimensional requirements and is durable enough .to withstand weathering and hard usage withs, out deterioration. The hairlines I 3, Il, I5, I6, I8 and I9. or any combination thereof, preferably are installed by notching the end of the tube and soldering fine gauge steel wire in the notches. Other similar arrangements will be apparent to persons skilled in the art. such as by providing holes at or near the end off the sight through which the wires are strung. f
In the use of gun sights of the above described character, no interference in proper functioning is occasioned by dull light effects, fog, snow, rain, sleet or other such natural or atmospheric conditions. The structural forms so far illustrated and described are intended merely to teach con-'- venient methods for the practice of the invention, the scope of which is defined in the hereunto appended claims.
What I claim and desireto secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A gun sight for shot guns or the like comprising a frustro-conical tube adapted to be mounted on the top surface of a gun barrel, said tube having its end of greatest diameter facing the forward end of the barrel, a plurality of hairlines mounted in and crossing said tube and forming a visual pattern, and said visual pattern and the walls of the tube covering substantially the same area as the shot pattern from said gun barrel at normal ranges.
2. In combination with a shot gun having a bore which fires a spreading charge in a substantially conical shot pattern, a gun sight comprising a frustro-conical tube mounted on the surface of said shot gun, said tube being a section of a cone substantially identical with that of said conical shot pattern and having a field of view at a predetermined range substantially equal in diameter to the diameter of the shot pattern at said range, and the axes of said cones converging in the direction of fire and intersecting at the substantially said predetermined range of said gun.
3. In combination with a shot gun having a bore which fires a spreading charge in a substantially conical shot pattern, a gun sight comprising a frustro-conical tube mounted on the top surface of said shot gun, said tube being a section of a cone substantially identical with that of said conical shot pattern, and a vertical cross hair inside of said tube and extending through the axis of said tube and horizontal cross hairs in said tube equally spaced above and below the axis of said tube.
4. In combination with a shot gun having a bore which fires a spreading charge in a substantially conical shot pattern, a gun, sight comprising a frustro-conical tube mounted on the top surface of said shot gun, said tube being a section of a cone substantially identical with that of said conical shot pattern, and a vertical cross hair extending through the axis of said tube, a horizontal cross hair bisecting the vertical hair .and horizontal cross hairs equally spaced above and below said first mentioned horizontal cross hair.
5. In combination with a shot gun having a bore which fires a spreading charge in a substantially conical shot pattern, a gun sight comprising a frustro-conical tube mounted on the top surface of said shot gun, said tube being a section of a cone substantially identical with that of said conical shot pattern, and a series of radial cross hairs extending from the periphery of said tube to a point adjacent to but spaced from the axis of said tube.
6. A gun sight adapted to be mounted on the upper surface of a shot gun barrel comprising a frustro-conical'tube having beveled end portions inclined downwardly and outwardly toward said gun barrel, cross hairs mounted in said tube to form a visual pattern divided into portions of a circle, said tube extended forming an imaginary cone having its apex at the normal position of the eye of the person using the gun and the base of said cone being substantially coextensive with the shot pattern from said gun at normal ranges, and means for securing said gun sight to said gun barrel.
ORA S. FOWLER.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 193,061 White July 10, 1877 813,677 Stillwell Feb. 27, 1906 1,306,879 Boone June 17, 1919 2,049,496 Gaty Aug. 4, 1936 2,436,453 Schulz Feb. 24, 1948 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 69,558 Germany July 6, 1893 566,952 France Nov. 29, 1923 299,159 Germany Jan. 7. 1920