US 2587068 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 26, 1952 c. E. SANDERS 2,587,068
INVALID LIFT AND TRANSFER APPARATUS Filed Oct. 17, 194'! 3 Sheets-Sheet l FIGI.
Feb. 26, 1952 c, SANDERS 2,587,068
INVALID LIFT AND TRANSFER APPARATUS Filed Oct. 17, 1947 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG.5. FIG.7. 49 I Feb. 26, 1952 c. E. SANDERS 2,587,068
INVALID LIFT AND TRANSFER APPARATUS Filed Oct. 17, 1947 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented Feb. 26, 1952 INVALID LIFT AND TRANSFER APPARATUS Clifiord E. Sanders, Maplewood, M0., assignor, by decree of distribution, to Lillie K. Sanders Application Octoberll, 1947, Serial No. 780,532
This invention relates to mobile apparatus for invalids, and with regard to certain more specific features, to an invalids movable and adjustable combination bed and chair.
Among the several objectsof the invention may be noted the provision of an invalids combination bed and chair which is mobile to and from an ordinary bed; the provision of apparatus of this class which will permit a single attendant to transfer a patient with ease from-a bed to the apparatus or vice versapthe provision of apparatus of the class described in which the supporting structure for the patient may be adjusted from a chair form through various inclinations to a bed form; the provision of apparatus of the class described in which the structure which directly supports the patient may be independently adjusted in elevation regardless of its form as a bed or a chair; and the provision of apparatus of the class described which is rugged and economical to construct. Other objects will be in part apparent and in part pointed out hereinafter.
The invention accordingly comprises the elements and combinations -of elements, features of construction, and arrangements of parts which will be exemplified in the structures hereinafter described, and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the followingclaims.
In the accompanying drawings, in which several of various possible embodiments of the invention are illustrated,
Fig- 1 is a side elevation of the device shown in its chair form at its minimum elevation;
Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1, showing the device in itsbed form at its maximum elevation;
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Figs. 1 and 2 but showing an intermediate reclining position of parts and intermediate adjustment for elevation;
Fig. 4 is a plan view of Fig. 2 with certain cushions broken away;
Fig. 5 is a rear elevation of the invention in chair form;
Fig. 6 is a kinematic diagram of the basic linkage employed in the invention;
Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic plan view; showing the device used as a mobile bed in conjunction with a permanent bed and showing how a patient is transferred from the latter to the former;
Fig.8 is a diagrammatic end view of Fig. 7
Fig. 9 is a view similar to Fig. 8, showing how a patient is transferred from the mobile apparatus to the permanent bed;
Fig. 10 is a view similar to Fig. 9 but showing an alternative method of transferring a patient from the apparatus to the bed; and,
Fig. 11 is an isometric view of a cradle.
Similar reference characters indicate corresponding parts throughout the several viewsof the drawings.
The present invention facilitates the transfer;
emergency operating table or the like, thus contributing to the patients comfort and welfare and providing a convenience to thepatients at tendant by eliminatingthe, necessity for pulling, pushing and lifting a patient in making the necessary transfers.
Referring now more particularly to the drawings, numeral 1 indicates a frame comprising members 2 joined at the rear by a crossbar 1, and at the'front and middle by rotary shafts 23 and 25 carried in bearings 3! and 33 respectively and to be further described. Rear wheels 3 and front casters 5 are mounted on the frame I to carry it parallel with a floor surface. Supported upon the frame I is an elevating linkage consist: ing of two parts which are best shown in the kinematic diagram of Fig. 6. A part of this linkage is a four-bar linkage consisting of the frame I, a driving lever i, a connecting link 9 and a swinging stabilizing link ll, pinned to one another as shown at 8,13 and 25. By rotating the lever 1, the pivot 13 may be adjusted in eleva-. tion. Pivoted at the other end of the frame! is a second driving lever I5, equal in length and angular position to the lever 1 It is pinned at IE to "link ll, which is equal in length and position to the link 9. A horizontal seat-formirig link I9 is pivotedto the links 9 and l l at pivot f3, and to the link i? at pivot 24. By rotatin either or both levers l and 15, the stated linkage will be driven to adjust the elevation of member 19, maintaining it in ,every position parallel to the frame I. It will be understood that in Fig. 6 all parts of all links are diagrammatically shown in one plane but actually they are formed with duplicate elements on each side of the apparatus, with the exception of single link II, which is mounted centrally. The other figures of the drawingsshow the physical duplicates throughout.
The elevator mechanism so far described is actuated by means of the following'drivez The frame I carries the previously mentioned rotary cross shafts 23 and 25 upon which are respece tively mounted worm gear reduction drives ,2! and, 29. The shafts 23 and 25 support the drives 21 and 29, respectively, and are driven by fthem respectively. The frame bearings for the shafts 23 and 25 are shown at 3I and 33, respectively. The worms of the reduction units are connected by a longitudinal drive shaft 35. This drive shaft is borne in and supports a Worm gear reduction unit 31. The unit 31 is driven from a shaft 39, which is in turn rotated by means of a crank M. The shafts 23 and 25, respectively, carry the levers I and I so that when the crank II is operated, the parallel levers I and I5 are turned through the same angular phases, since the speed reductions in units 21 and 29 are equal. Thus a double reduction is obtained from crank handle M to lever I through units 31 and 21 and to lever I5 through the units 31 and 29.
The apparatus thus far described constitutes the elevator mechanism for the seat member I9 and hence for parts subsequently to be described, which constitute the adjustable chair and bed or table combination. The combination is constituted by the link I9, which is in the form of a frame, as shown in Fig. 4. The pieces 43 forming the pivots I3 and 24 are welded to the member I9. The frame I9 carries a seat pad 45. The rear end of member I9 carries pivot-forming members 4'! for pivoting at 48 a back 49 which carries a back pad 5!. The front end of the frame I9 carries members 53, which form a pivot 55 for a leg-supporting frame section 51 carrying a leg pad 59. At the bottom of section 51 is a foot rest 6I which may be angled to any convenient position, suitable bores 63 and pin 65 being used for the purpose.
From the drawings it will appear that the member 49 may be referred to as a rectangular frame forming a back rest section; the member I9 is a rectangular frame forming a seat rest section; and the member 57 is a rectangular frame forming a leg rest section. The leg rest section 57 has extensions 67 which carry coaxial pivots 69 for joining with links forming arm rests. The rear ends of these links 'H are pivoted at I3 with the back rest section 49. The members 'II, 61, 49 and I9 form a parallelogram in side elevation so that adjustments may be made from the upright position of parts shown in Fig. 1 through the reclining position shown in Fig. 3 to the prone position shown in Fig. 2. A sector plate I5 is welded to member I9 and carries an arcuate series of holes 11 adapted to be transversed by a hole 19 in the lower end of the back rest member 49. By dropping a pin into aligned holes TI and I9 the desired adjustment may be maintained. A sector mechanism of the class described is used at each side of the chair.
From the above it will be clear that adjustments for elevation which are made from the crank M and control the position of the seatforming section or link I9 are independent of the adjustments for reclining, which are made between the sections 49, I9, 51 and arms 1 I. Thus a patient may be adjusted for any given recline and independently adjusted into any desired elevated position. For example, the parts 49, I9, 51 may be placed in the prone or horizontal reclining position of Fig. 2 and then adjusted for elevation to a near flush condition with the surface of a permanent bed for transfer of a patient. Then the parts 49, I9 and 51 may be adjusted to a position such as shown in Fig. 3 or Fig. 1, so that the patient may be perambulated in seated position. Or, he might be elevated in the position of Fig. 2 for transfer to an operating table or for emergency operation on the present device itself.
It will also be noted that raising of the seat section I9 causes said section to shift forward with respect to the points of support, the wheels. Since the apparatus is normally at a low elevation when used as a chair and at a high eletion when used as a bed, the linkage, in effect, compensates for the rearward shift of the patients center of gravity when he is changed from a sitting position to the reclining position of the bed form.
Many bedridden patients are completely helpless, and it is quite difficult for one person to move them to and from a bed. Often several persons are required for a removal. In order to facilitate a transfer of a helpless patient by one or a minimum number of persons, the equipment operatively shown in Figs. 7-10 is employed. Details appear in the remaining figures. This comprises a three-section sheave BI carried on a shaft 83 which is supported in bearings 85 on the frame section I9. A crank 37 controls the shaft 83 and sheave 8|.
Wound on the sheave BI are three flexible connector cords 89, SI and 93 shown in alternative positions in Fig. 4. The arrangement of cords shown in solid lines is used for transfer from the bed to the apparatus (Figs. 7 and 3); and the dotted line arrangement is used for transfer from the apparatus to the bed (Figs. 9 and 10).
Referring to the solid lines in Fig. 4, the cord 89 is threaded through an eye on a crossbar 22 which forms the cross connection of the two links H. The cord then passes through an eye 91 under the leg rest 51. The cord 9| is threaded through an eye 99 on the crossbar 2I and an eye I93 on the side of seat frame I9. The cord 93 passes through an eye Iill positioned next to eye 99 on crossbar 2I and through eye I99 on the back rest 49. The cords and eyes are located beneath the frames.
Conversely, the cords may be reversed to the other side of the apparatus as shown by the dotted lines of Figs. 4 and 8. The cord 89 is threaded through eye 98 on the opposite side of the leg rest 57. Cords SI and 93 are located so as not to overlap. Thus cord 93 passing through eye IIJI may be threaded through the other eye I94 on the seat member I9; and cord 9I passing through eye 99 may be threaded through eye I02 on the back rest 59.
The ends of the flexible connectors 89, 9| and 93 are provided with enlargements I96 which may pass through the aforementioned eyes, but which are adapted to engage in key slots I08 in spatulas or needles to be described (see Fig. 7). Each spatula is flat and polished and has rounded edges for easy slipping under a patient. The key slots I08 are also adapted for receiving angle members III. These angle members are detachable and are placed in position after the spatulas have been slipped under a patient. The angle members are adapted to'back arm rest cushions II3. These cushions normally are held upon the arm rails II by clips H5, but when needed in connection with the spatulas they may beremoved and used as shown in Fig. 7. The cushion arm rests IIS may be clipped onto cross braces H? of the back 19 when not in use in connection with the spatulas or in connection with the arm rests II (see Fig. 2).
The use of the device for removing a patient from an ordinary bed to the present apparatus is shown in Figs. 7 and 8. The apparatus is set to the horizontal reclining position of Fig. 2 and adjusted in elevation to be just slightly lower than the plane of the upper surface of the bed. The cushion arm rests II3 are removed.
' 5 Then the crank 81 ismanipulatedto permit unwinding of the flexible connectors 89; 9!, 93 which are threaded through the propereyes. The spatulas or needles H35, lt'iand N39, with cords attached, are-then threaded under the patient (Figs. 7 and 8), preferably beneath suitable sheeting or other bed clothing, and if possible over plastic or rubber sheeting of relatively low friction finish. These sheets are not shown in the drawings in order not to complicate them. This places the flexible connectors under the'patient. At this time the spatulas or needles do not carry the angle brackets Hi. After the spatulas are in the position shown in- Fig. '7, the cushions H3 are attached and if sheeting is used they will be under the sheeting. The cushions are linked together by means of a pin connection provided for the purpose and shown at i IQ (Fig. '7). They are then attached to the spatulas by means of the angles Hi suitably connected at one of the openings Edi; shown in the spatulas, to suit the contour of the patients body and to maintain the cushions in a substantially vertical position. Then by operating the crank 81, the connectors are drawn in on the sheave 8i and the patient is drawn onto the present apparatus. The reaction for the pull in the connectors is taken between the apparatus and the bed. Then the cushions and brackets may be removed and the spatulas drawn out from under the patient by action of the crank 8'5, whereupon he is in a location to be raised into a sitting position, if desired.
To reverse the order of events, the arrangement shown in Fig. 9 (and bythe dotted lines of Fig. 4) is used, wherein the connectors are reversed as described, then doubled back and threaded under the patient by means of the spatulas. Then assuming that the cushions and angle braces have been applied as above described, winding on the crank will result in movement of the patient from the apparatus to the bed, as shown by the arrow in Fig. 9. In this case the elevation of the apparatus should be slightly higher than that of the upper plane of the bed. Naturally, when one side of the patient arrives at the edge of the bed there will be a reaction tending to tilt the apparatus, which may be balanced by the nurse; or, if desired, a clamp such as shown at I23 may be used between the bed and a portion of the apparatus, as indicated.
In Fig. 10 is shown a mode of operation in which the reaction due to unloading of the patient from the apparatus to the bed is taken up by contact between them, no clamp being required. It is preferable in this case that a special permanent bed be employed having rollers 25 beneath and along its edges. In this case the flexible connectors are fed under the bed, as indicated at i2'l, over its far edge 829, back over the bed as shown at l3l, and then threaded under the patient, as already described. Operation of the crank 8'! and in-drawing of the connectors will then slide the patient from the apparatus onto the bed, the reaction being between their edges.
In the mode of operation of Fig. 10 there is an advantage over that of Fig. 9 since the patient may be moved to the center of the permanent bed;
If desired, an L-shaped, form-fittingcradle may be substituted for the spatulas hi5, it? and H99 and the cushions H3 to which the connectors are attached. Such a cradle is shown at numeral i5! (Fig. 11) with openings I53 for fastening the cords, Such a "cradle whendra'wn toward the patient from onesidehas the effect 1 of picking him up and sliding himacross the bed. It will be understood that the spatulas may be used for threading the cords under the patient and removed before the connectors are fastened to the cradle. The connectors may be composed of tape or cords of nylon or the like, or metal.
Although the present disclosure indicates cranks for supplying manual motive power, it
willz be: understood that suitable motor drives 7 may be used at these points if desired, supplied Thus compensation is made as the device is put into the bed position shown in Fig. 2. The result is that the center of gravity of the patient is kept within the area bounded by. the wheel supports of the frame. The compensation is such that the rearward movement of the center of gravity of the patient when lying down is compensated forward, so that there isno danger of a prone patient. pivoting. backward on the wheels 3.
- It should be observed that the. device would not normally be used as a chair when elevated to the position of Fig. 2 but only asa bed, so that under such conditions the center of gravity of a patient will properly be compensated. On the other hand, the normal seating position is with the member l9 down, as shown in Fig. 1, wherein the center of gravity is compensated backward into the preferred position within the wheel supports of the frame. There is of course some adjustment forward of the patients center of gravity when seated during the initial period of lift but this is not enough for the patient to tilt forward on the casters 5. By the time the lift is high enough for the desired bed position of Fig. 2, the reclining chair linkage is no longer used by the patient as an up-right chair.
In view of the above, it will be seen that the several objects of the invention are achieved and other advantageous results attained.
As many changes could be made in the above constructions without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
1. Adjustable mobile apparatus for invalids comprising a mobile supporting frame, a section to be raised and lowered, spaced gear-reduction units carried on the frame, a power unit driving said spaced units, parallel driving levers of equal lengths driven by said spaced units, parallel links of equal lengths pivoted to the driving levers and pivotally connected to said section, and a stabilizing link pivoted to said section and the frame.
2. Adjustable mobile apparatus for invalids comprising a mobile supporting frame, a section, spaced gear-reduction units carried on the frame, a crank-driven unit driving said spaced units, parallel driving levers of equal lengths driven by said spaced units, parallel links of equal lengths pivoted to the driving levers and pivotally connected to said section to be raised and lowered, and a stabilizing link pivoted to said section and pivoted with the frame to permit elevation and horizontal displacement of said section with respect to said frame while maintaining said section substantially parallel to the centers of rotation of the driving levers.
3. Transfer apparatus for invalids, comprising an elongate patient carrier adapted to be moved into a substantially horizontal and coplanar position with respect to a horizontal support to and from which a patient is to be transferred, a. winding member on the carrier, flexible connectors adapted to be wound on and oil? the winding member, guides on the carrier for said flexible connectors for directing them substantially parallel to one another crosswise of the carrier and substantially in the plane of transfer, needle threading devices attachable to the ends of said flexible connectors for threading them under a patient, and at least one upright member attachable and detachable with respect to said flexible connectors for lateral pulling engagement with a patient when the flexible connectors are drawn in on the winding device.
4. Transfer apparatus for invalids, comprising an elongate patient carrier adapted to be moved into a substantially horizontal and coplanar position with respect to a horizontal support to and from which a patient is to be transferred, a crank-driven winding element on the carrier, flexible connectors adapted to be wound on and oif the winding element, guides comprising eyes disposed on the carrier through which said flexible connectors are threaded, the eyes being disposed for directing the connectors substantially parallel to one another crosswise of the carrier and substantially in the plane of transfer, needle threading devices attachable to the ends of said flexible connectors for threading them under a patient, and at least one upright member attachable and detachable with respect to said flexible connectors for pulling engagement with a patient when the flexible connectors are drawn in on the winding device.
5. In transfer apparatus for invalids consisting of an elevator mechanism and an elongate foldable patient carrier supported by the elevator mechanism adapted to be adjusted from a sitting arrangement to a reclining arrangement including a substantially coplanar position with respect to a horizontal support to and from which a patient is to be moved; comprising a crankdriven winding member on one part of the foldable patient carrier, flexible connectors adapted to be wound on and 01f the winding member, guide eyes on other parts of the foldable carrier for said flexible connectors for directing them substantially parallel to one another crosswise of the carrier and substantially in the plane of transfer when the carrier is horizontal, needle threading devices attachable to the ends of said flexible connectors for threading them under a patient, and at least one upright member attachable and detachable with respect to said flexible connectors for pulling engagement with a patient when the flexible connectors are drawn in on the winding device.
CLIFFORD E. SANDERS.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 242,573 Wilson June 7, 1881 410,157 DeWeese Sept. 3, 1889 443,197 Pynchon Dec. 23, 1890 716,886 Goode Dec. 30, 1902 1,857,031 Schaifer May 3, 1932 2,074,653 Larsen Mar. 23, 1937 2,218,883 Jones Oct. 22, 1940 2,322,683 Costa et a1. June 22, 1943 2,345,182 Corber Mar. 28, 1944 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 90,063 Germany Nov. 5, 1897