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Publication numberUS2591046 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 1, 1952
Filing dateOct 18, 1948
Priority dateOct 18, 1948
Publication numberUS 2591046 A, US 2591046A, US-A-2591046, US2591046 A, US2591046A
InventorsBrown Frank E
Original AssigneeFrederick M Turnbull
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hypodermic syringe assembly
US 2591046 A
Images(1)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Patented Apr. 1, 1952 OFFICE HYPODERMIC SYRINGE ASSEMBLY Frank E. Brown, Burbank, Calif., assignor to Frederick M. Turnbull, Los Angeles, Calif.

Application Gotober 18, 1948, Serial No. 55,134

13 Claims.

This invention relates to a structurally and functionally improved syringe assembly and in its more specic aspects aims to provide a hypodermic assembly which, if desired, may be thrown away after a single use.

By the present invention, improved units which form a part of a syringe assembly are provided. These units are readily manufactured by quantity production methods and are capable of being easily grouped together to furnish an economical and improved apparatus.

As a result of this novel construction herein taught, it is feasible to provide a segregated grouping of liquid vehicle and medicament in pre-determined and desired quantities; the thus packaged unit being susceptible to storage over long periods of time without deterioration or loss of its contents. Moreover, by the present structure, the vehicle and medicament may be readily intermixed immediately prior to the injection step. Additionally, the parts may be rendered sterile and may be maintained in this condition until ready for use.

With these and additional features in mind, reference is had to the attached sheet of drawings illustrating practical embodiments of the invention and in which:

Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of the charged or loaded hypodermic syringe assembly in the form in which it is stored and sold;

Fig. 2 is a side elevational view partially sectioned of the hypodermic syringe with the parts arranged in position preparatory to moving the liquid vehicle into contact with the medication;

Fig. 3 is a side elevational View partially sectioned of the syringe illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 with the parts in the position which they occupy after the medication and the liquid vehicle have been mixed and prior to their injection;

Figl is a side elevational View partially sectioned of the syringe illustrated in Figs. 1 to 3 with the parts in the position occupied when the medication and the liquid vehicle have been ejected from the syringe;

Fig. 5 is a transverse sectional view taken as indicated .by the arrows 5-5 of Fig. 2; and

Fig. 6 is a side elevational view partially sectioned of a modied embodiment of the invention. f

Referring to the drawings, which are for illustrative purposes only, the numeral II indicates a syringe barrel having therein a bore I2 forming a reservoir, which bore extends through one end of the barrel I I. The other end of the barrel II is provided with a reduced portion forming a boss I3 through which there is extended a passage I4 rcoaxial with the bore I2. Mounted by the boss I3 is a hollow needle I5 having the usual sharpened and pointed forward end.

Slidable within the bore I2 of the barrel II is a primary piston I5. The piston I6 is preferably formed with a plurality of annular recesses I'I separated by annular ribs I8; the peripheries of the ribs I 8 engaging the inner wall of the barrel iI in sealing relationship.

In the embodiment illustrated in Figs. 1 to 5,

inclusive, the primary piston I6 is provided uponits outer end with a threaded projection I9 adapted to be securedwithin a threaded end 20 of a plunger 2l. The plunger 2l has a chamber 22 extending' from the open threaded end 20- coaxially with the plunger 2| and terminating within the plunger. At its other end the plunger 2| is provided with an enlarged end 23 having a cavity or recess 24 therein formed to receive the finger of the user.

Formed in the inner wall of the barrel II intermediate it sends are a number of recesses or grooves 25, illustrated as five in number, for a purpose which will be later described. These grooves or passages extend axially of the bore I2. They have a length in excess of the lengths of an Yauxiliary piston to be disposed adjacent to them.

Movable within the bore I2 of the barrel II is a floating or auxiliary piston 26. This piston, like the primary piston I5, is preferably provided with a plurality of annular recesses 21 separated by annular ribs 28, the periphery of each of the ribs being in sealing relationship with the inner Wall of the barrel II. i

When the syringe is to be charged with the medication and the liquid vehicle therefor, the primary piston I6 and the floating piston 26 are not in position within the barrel I I. The medication, indicated by the numeral 29 in Figs. 1 and 2, is positioned within the b'ore I2 adjacent the forward end thereof. The auxiliary piston 26 is positioned in the outer end of the bore I2 and moved inwardly to the position in which it is illustrated in Figs. l and 2. The liquid vehicle, indicated by the numeral 30, is introduced into the bore I2 behind the auxiliary piston 25. The primary piston l5 is positioned within the outer end of the bore I2, so that the body of liquid vehicle 30 is confined and sealed within the bore I2 between the primary piston I6 and the auxiliary piston 25.

The threaded end 20 of the plunger ZI is positioned upon the boss I3 of the barrel II; the in'- terior dimensions of such threaded end 2t and the exterior dimensions of such boss I3 being such that the plunger 2| is conveniently secured to the barrel II by a pressed it. This attachment of the plunger 2| to the barrel I I and the sealing engagement of the pistons I6 and 26 with the inner wall of the barrel II seal the needle within the plunger 2|, so that it is maintained sterile. The structure also seals the medication 29 in the forward portion of the bore I2 and the liquid vehicle 33 in the rearward portion of the bore I2, so that the medication 23 and liquid vehicle 3G therefor are maintained separate from each other, and their intermixture is prevented.

With the parts arranged as described and as illustrated in Fig. 1, the hypodermic syringe containing a measured amount of the medication 29 and a measured amount of the liquid vehicle 3i) may be stored and shipped to a pharmacist, stored by him until sale to the user, and stored by the user until the time of use without any danger of impairing the efficacy or volume of the mixture of the medication 23 and the liquid vehicle 30 at the time when it is to be injected.

When it is desired to inject a mixture of the medication 29 and the liquid vehicle 3B, the plunger 2| is removed from the boss I3 of the barrel |I, and the threaded end 26 of the plunger 2| is threaded upon the projection IQ of the primary piston I6, as illustrated in Fig. 2.

Thereafter, the primary piston I6 is moved toward the auxiliary piston 26 by exerting pressure upon the enlarged end 23 of the plunger 2|. This forward motion of the primary piston I6 advances the body of liquid vehicle 36 and the auxiliary piston 26 until the auxiliary piston is in position contacting the inner wall of the barrel II between the grooves 25, so that the liquid vehicle 3|] may pass through these passages around the auxiliary piston 26 into the forward portion of the bore I2, where it contacts the medication 29. The auxiliary piston 26 remains in such position while the liquid vehicle 3i] bypasses it during the proper advancement of the primary piston I6, because the frictional resistance to advancement of the auxiliary piston 26 by virtue of its contact with the inner wall of the barrel II between the grooves 25 is greater than the resistance to advancement of the liquid vehicle 39 around the auxiliary piston 26.

When all of the liquid vehicle 30 has by-passed the auxiliary piston 26, the primary piston I6 is in Contact with the auxiliary piston 25. At this time the syringe may be vibrated or shaken-if necessary-in order to assure a proper uniform mixture. Thereafter the parts may be advanced so as to expel all air from the needle I5. That needle may now be caused to penetrate the epidermis. Continued pressure upon the enlarged end 23 of the plunger 2| advances both the primary piston IG and the auxiliary piston 26, thus ejecting the mixture of the medication 29 and the liquid vehicle 3i) through the hollow needle I5 and into the body of the patient.

The parts may be designed and proportioned to receive a pre-determined amount of vehicle or diluent. Ordinarily the quantity of the latter may be 1 cc. Thus, the distance between the primary and auxiliary pistons and the size of the bore I2 will be sulcient to accommodate the proper volume of diluent. This body has been indicated by the reference numeral 36. When the parts have been shifted to the position shown in Fig. A3, the area of the bore in advance of the 4 auxiliary piston 26 should be adequate to receive the body of the diluent or vehicle and all of the medicament indicated at 29.

In the modified embodiment of the invention illustrated in Fig. 6, in which corresponding numbers indicate the parts corresponding to the embodiment previously described, the plunger 2| is provided with a `chamber 3 I. This chamber 3| communicates with an enlarged bore 32 in the enlarged end 2-3 of the plunger 2 I, and the chamber 3| terminates within the plunger 2|. The end of the plunger 2| opposite the enlarged end 23 is provided with a threaded projection 33.

Prior to its use, the plunger 2| is positioned upon the barrel I| by the insertion of the boss i3 into the enlarged bore 32 with a pressed t therein, the needle I5 being received and sealed within the chamber 3|, as illustrated by the broken lines in Fig. 6. When in use, the plunger 2| is removed from the boss I3, and the threaded projection 33 is threaded within a threaded bore 34 in the outer end of the primary piston I6.

An advantage of providing the threaded projection 33 for connecting the primary piston I6 to the plunger 2| upon the plunger 2|, as illustrated in Fig. 6, instead of upon the outer end of the primary piston I6, as illustrated in Figs. l and 2, is that in the former case the pressure exerted by the plunger 2| upon the primary piston I6 to advance it in the barrel tends to expand the primary piston |5 to some extent and to increase its sealing engagement with the inner Wall of the barrel I|.

Formed in the inner wall of the barrel I| are grooves 35. These passages 35 differ from those previously discussed and which extend parallel to the axis of the barrel II in that the grooves 35 arc in the form of spirals. This structure imparts to the liquid vehicle 30 a swirling movement as that vehicle 3|) is discharged into the forward portion of the bore |2, increasing the intimacy of the mixture of the medication 29 with the liquid vehicle 30.

Either the barrel I| or the primary piston IG and the auxiliary piston 25, and preferably all of them, are made of a material or materials having a greater resiliency than glass, as, for example, a synthetic resin or natural or synthetic rubber.

It is to be noted that the forward end of the primary piston I6 and the forward end of the auxiliary piston 26 are plane surfaced without any bevel at their peripheries, so that there is no groove dened between the ends of the piston and the inner wall of the barrel I| within which any medication may accumulate. It will also be noted that in all of the illustrated forms of the device the medication compartment has a capacity such that in addition to the medication it may receive the vehicle 36 embraced within the assembly.

The invention finds particular utility in the injection of a suspension of forms of penicilli" such as crystalline sodium penicillin or crystalline potassium penicillin (penicillin G), in a liquid vehicle such as water.

It finds utility also when the liquid vehicle is water and the medication is a tablet or powder of morphine, coramine, epinephrine, or any of its derivatives, ephedrine, or any oi its derivatives, any cardiovascular stimulant, or any other medication in solid or liquid form in connection with which it is desired to utilize any of the objects primarily stated herein. A

The needle I5 may be permanently mounted in the passage I4, as illustrated in Fig. 1, and discarded with the syringe after a single use, or it may be attached to a collar which is threaded upon the boss I3 and over which the plunger 2| has a. pressed fit when in the position illustrated by the broken lines of Fig. 6, so that the needle l5 may be -removed for repeated use.

The invention is capable, of utilization also without any needle whatsoever, .the passage I4 being made of such small dimensions that a fine jet of the mixture of the medication 29 and the liquid vehicle 30 is ejected under sufliciently high pressure to penetrate the dermis into the tissues.

Likewise the invention may be utilized in connection with a spring actuated plunger 2|, the spring being set and released in a manner not shown but well known in the art.

While the embodiments of my invention hereinbefore illustrated and described are fully capable of performing the objects and accomplishing the advantages primarily stated, it will be understood that my invention is not limited to the specific embodiments illustrated and described, but embraces all modifications thereof coming within the scope of the claims which follow.

I claim as my invention:

1. In a hypodermic syringe, the combination of: a barrel having an orifice for the discharge of liquid therefrom; a primary piston movable in and in sealing relationship with said barrel; and an auxiliary piston movable in and in sealing relationship with said barrel between said primary piston and said orice and dividing said barrel into a chamber for a medication and a separate chamber for the liquid vehicle for the medication, the medication chamber having a capacity such that in addition to the medication which it may contain it may receive all of the liquid vehicle within the separate chamber, said barrel having, in its inner wall, a groove within the medication chamber and short of the end of said barrel, said groove providing a passage through which the vehicle bypasses said auxiliary piston into contact with the medication during travel of said auxiliary piston toward said orice.

2. In a hypodermic syringe, the combination of: a barrel having an oriiice for the discharge of liquid therefrom; a primary piston movable in and in sealing relationship with said barrel; and an auxiliary piston movable in and in sealing relationship with said barrel between said primary piston and said orifice and dividing said barrel into a chamber for a medication and a separate chamber for the liquid vehicle for the medication, said barrel having, in its inner wall, a groove within the medication chamber and short of the end of said barrel, said groove providing a passage through which the vehicle bypasses said auxiliary piston into contact with the medication during travel of said auxiliary piston toward said orifice, said groovebeing so spaced from said oriiice that the portion of said barrel between said orifice and said auxiliary piston in position for bypass may receive all of said liquid and said medication.

3. A unit to form a part of a hypodermic syringe assembly, said unit embracing an imperforate body provided with a bore to receive liquids and to slidably accommodate a stopper, said body being formed with an integral bypass extending throughout only a portion of its length and intermediate the ends of said bore, said by-pass providing a passage for liquid nor- 6 mally confined Within the bore and to the rear of a resilient stopper within the same, as the latter is shifted axially of the bore to a position in line with said by-pass.

4. A unit to form a part of a hypodermic assembly, said unit embracing a body provided with a bore to receive liquids, the face of said bore presenting throughout only a portion of its length relativelyraised and recessed portions, said portions providing a. by-pass for liquid normally confined within the bore and to the rear of a resilient stopper, as the latter is shifted axially of the bore to a position in line with said portions.

5. A unit to form a part of a hypodermic assembly, said unit embracing a body provided with a bore to receive liquids, the face of said bore presenting throughout only a portion of its length relatively raised and recessed portions, extending in a'direction substantially parallel to the axis of the bore, said portions providing a 4by-pass for liquid normally confined within the bore and to the rear of a resilient stopper, as the latter is shifted axially of the bore to a position in line with said portions. f

6. A unit to form a part of a hypodermic syringe assembly, said unit embracing an imperforate body formed with a bore to receive liquid and to slidably accommodate astopper, the face of said bore presenting throughout only a portion of its length a groove extending in a direction substantially parallel to the axis of the bore and at apoint intermediate the ends .of said body, said groove providing a. by-pass for liquid normally -coniined within the bore and to the rear of a resilient stopper within the same, as the latter is shifted axially of the bore to a position in line with said groove.

7. A unit to form a part of a hypodermic syringe assembly, said unit embracing in combination a body formed with a bore, relatively raised and recessed portions within said bore and between the ends of the same, a movable piston disposed within said bore at a point short ofY said portions and the width of said piston being less than the length of said portions.

8. A unit to form a part of a hypodermic syringe assembly, said unit embracing in combination an imperforate body formed with a bore to slidably accommodate a stopper, said body being integrally formed with a groove in the face of said bore and extending substantially parallel to the axis of the latter at a `point between the bore ends, a movable piston disposed within said bore at a point short of said groove and the width of said piston being less than the length of said groove whereby with said piston disposed in line with said by-pass liquid may flow through the latter from a point to one side of said piston into the bore to the other side of the same.

9. A unit to form a part of a hypodermic syringe assembly, said unit embracing in combination a body formed with a bore and a bypass between the ends of and extending substantially parallel to said bore, a primary piston within said bore adjacent one end of said body,

an auxiliary piston also within said bore and at a point between said by-pass and primary piston and deining with the latter a space to receive liquid and the width of said auxiliary piston being less than the length of said by-pass.

l0. A unit to form a part of a hypodermic syringe assembly, said unit embracing in combination a body formed with a bore and a bypass between the ends of and extending substantially parallel to said bore, a primary piston within said bore adjacent one end of said body, an auxiliary piston also within said bore and at a point between said by-pass and primary piston and defining with the latter a space to receive liquid, the width of said auxiliary piston being less than the length of said by-pass and said bodybeyond said auxiliary piston-providing a bore capacity in excess of the body of liquid initially disposed between said pistons.

l1. A unit to form a part of a hypodermic syringe assembly, said unit embracing in combination a body formed with a bore, the face of said bore presenting throughout only a portion of its length relatively raised and recessed portions extending in a direction substantially parallel to the axis of said bore, said portions providing a by-pass, a primary piston within said bore adjacent one end of said body, an auxiliary piston also within said bore and at a point between said by-pass and primary piston and defining with the latter a space to receive liquid and the width of said auxiliary piston being less than the length of said by-pass.

12. A unit to form a part of a hypodermic syringe assembly, said unit embracing in conibination a body formed with a bore and a groove within said bore between the ends of the same and extending substantially parallel to the bore axis, a primary piston within said bore adjacent one end of said body, an auxiliary piston also within said bore and at a. point between said groove and primary piston and defining with the latter a space to receive liquids and the width of said auxiliary piston being less than the length of said groove.

13. A unit to form a part of av hypodermic syringe assembly, said unit embracing an imperforate, open-ended body having a single bore extending throughout its length, said body being moreover formed with an axially extending bypass portion intermediate its ends, a stopper slidably mounted for projection throughout the length of said bore and initially positioned at a point short of said by-pass, the width of said stopper being less than the length of said bypass and said. stopper being shiftable to a position in linewith said by-pass to have the ends of the latter extend beyond the opposite faces of said piston.

FRANK E. BROWN.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,816,857 Kulik Aug. 4, 1931 1,961,023 West May 29, 1934' 2,193,322 Lozier et al Mar. 12, 1940 2,453,589 Poux Nov. 9, 1948 2,453,590l Poux Nov. 9, 1948 2,453,591 Poux Nov. 9, 1948 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 495,067 Great Britain Nov. '7, 1938

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Classifications
U.S. Classification604/90, 222/136, 604/193
International ClassificationA61M5/28
Cooperative ClassificationA61M5/284
European ClassificationA61M5/28M