|Publication number||US2591779 A|
|Publication date||Apr 8, 1952|
|Filing date||Apr 13, 1948|
|Priority date||Apr 13, 1948|
|Publication number||US 2591779 A, US 2591779A, US-A-2591779, US2591779 A, US2591779A|
|Inventors||Buck Homer G|
|Original Assignee||By Buk Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (27), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 8, 1952 H. G; BUCK 2,591,779
SIGN AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed April 13, 1948 2 SHEETS-SHEET l I April 8, 1952 H. GfBucK 2,591,779
SIGN AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed April 15, 1948 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 sign is to be displayed, with said sheets adapted to be readily removed without disturbing the applied sign characters.
With the foregoing objects in view, together with such other objects and advantages as may subsequently appear, the invention resides in the parts and in the combination, construction and arrangement of parts hereinafter described and claimed, and illustrated by way of example in the accompanying drawing, in which:
Fig. 1 is a top plan view of a piece of composite sheet stock from which are made sign character units embodying the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a perspective view on an enlarged scale of a sign unit embodying the present invention and which has been cut from the stock material shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1 also on the line 33 of Fig. 2 showing the layers of the sheet material and the adhesive layers or coatings employed in the making of the stock material and sign character units respectively shown in Figs. 1 and 3;
Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the sign character unit with the protective back cover element removed to prepare the unit for application;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary perspective view showing how the unit may be applied to the surface of asign support and how the carrier element is removed after the reflective sign character is adhered to the sign support;
Fig. 6 is a top plan view showing how a plurality of reflective sign characters may be applied and adhered to a carrier sheet in the first step of my improved method of making a complete sign unit;
.Fig. 7 is a top plan view showing how a masking sheet is applied to the reflective characters and carrier sheet in the second step of the method of making a complete sign;
Fig.8 is a side view of the complete sign unit as when attached to a sign support on which the reflective sign characters of the unit are to be adhered, with the unit swung upwardly so that a rubber cement coating may be applied to the sign unit area of the support;
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary front elevational view showing how the complete sign unit is swung backagainst the support after the operation indieated in Fig. 8 is completed, to adhere the masking sheet to the support;
Fig. 10 is a sectional view taken on the line I I0 of Fig. 9 on an enlarged scale;
Fig; 11 is a fragmentary sectional view showing how the carrier sheet with the reflective sign characters thereon is separated from the masking sheet and lifted up to make possible the application of an adhesive substance to the sign support surfaces which are exposed through stencil openings in the masking sheet;
Fig. 12 is a side elevational view showing how the carrier sheet with the reflective sign characters thereon is swung down against the masking sheet .to adhere the sign characters to the adhesive coated surfaces of the sign support after the operation indicated in Fig. 11 is completed;
Fig. 13is a fragmentary perspective view showing how the masking sheet and the carrier sheet are removed after the sign characters are adhered to the sign support;
Fig. 14 is a perspective view of typical core pieces cut out in making the stencil openings in the masking sheet;
Fig. 15 is a sectional view taken on the plane of line ll5 of Fig. 6 with themake-up board 4 or table omitted and showing how the core piece for sign character A is fitted thereto; and
Fig. 16 is a sectional view in perspective of an enlarged fragmentary portion of the reflective sign character as seen from the front thereof.
It should be noted that since the introduction on the market of a certain reflective material which is produced in comparatively thin sheets, the use of this material in making signs particularly signs on motor vehicles and along streets and highways, has become singularly popular due to the fact that such material has greater durability than paints and like coatings, is obtainable in various colors and will glow as though illuminated from behind or within under the influence of light beams directed thereon, for
example, as from the head lights of motor vehicles, although, light from other sources when the signs are viewed from certain angles will also cause the signs to glow. Moreover this material in being extremely thin appears as though painted on and lies as close to the supporting surface therefor as though painted thereon. The reflective quality of this material is brought about by the presence on the display surface of the material of a multiplicity of minute bead-like particles of glass or the'like arranged in closely spaced relation to one another and by reason of other factors embodied in the construction and formation of the material, it being deemed unnecessary to further describe the material as it is available on the open market and its qualities are well known. Y
In accordance With one embodiment of this invention, letters, numerals or other sign characters are formed from laminated sheet stock designated S which, as shown in Figs. 1 and 3, consists of a cardboard or stiff paper carrier sheet l4 laid upon a sheet [5 of the aforesaid reflective material which latter overlies a sheet I6 of cellophane or like extremely thin plastic material. The reflective surface l5 of the sheet [.5 and the opposed surface of the cardboard sheet [4 have applied thereon coatings I! of rubber cement to adhere the said sheets to one another. On the back of the reflective sheet I5 is a coating l8 of an adhesive substance of greater tenacity than the rubber cement coatings and which is covered by the sheet iii. The sheets l4, l5 and I6 being of the same-dimensions except as to thickness are adhered to one another as indicated in Fig. 3 and are then ready to have the sign characters cut therefrom. The dotted lines showing I!) in Fig. 1 indicate how various sign characters may be cut from the laminated stock material. The opening 20 in the stock material as shown in Fig. 1 indicates that the sign character unit letter D shown in Fig. 2 has been cut therefrom. This sign character unit designated A is shown greatly enlarged in Fig. 2 and consists of identically shaped portions of the three sheets I4, l5 and I6 superimposed in marginal alignment and which are also designated by the reference characters l4, l5 and It to avoid confusion. Thus the cardboard portion is the carrier element It for the reflective sign character I5 While the portion of the cellophane sheet is the protective cover element 15.
The cardboard carrier element l4 reinforces and facilitates safe handling and accurate application of the reflective sign character [5 to any sign displaying or supporting surface and in addition protects the reflective or display face- P5 of said character so that the latter may be a packed and shipped without likelihood'of being damaged. i
As here shown thesheet l of reflective material making up the stock S has the coating I8 of highly tenacious adhesive applied thereto and covered by the cellophane or other thin plastic protective sheet l6 before the cardboard carrier sheet [4 is adhered to the reflective face of the reflective sheet [5. This cellophane or other plastic sheet i6 is treated so that when dry will adhere to and protect adhesive coating l8 but when moistened will be released and can be readily pulled free of the adhesive coating.
Fig. 4 shows how the sign character unit A is prepared for use, the cellophane cover element [6 having been removed to expose the adhesive coating 18 on the back of the sign character l5. After this the reflective sign character I5 may be "applied as shown in Fig. 5 while the cardboard carrier element 14 is adhered thereto, to a sign supporting means such as the member B, the highly tenacious adhesive I3 on the back of the sign character l5 having the'quality of sticking fast immediately after it contacts the surface of member B on which the sign is to be displayed. Pressure is now applied to the unit by means of a roller or other device not shown to cause an even and effective adherence. of the sign character and thereafter the cardboard carrier element I4 is lifted free of the sign character I5. Due to the fact that the adhesive it has greater tenacity than the rubber cement it is apparent that the carrier element l4 may readily be lifted from the sign character i5 without shifting, or disturbing the latter in any manner. In this manner, letters, numerals or other sign characters may in the composite form shown inFigs. 2 and 3 safely be handled with ease and accurately applied to a sign surface in a particularly efficacious manner which would not be possible without the cardboard or like carrier elements of my invention and the manner in which they are associated with the sign characters.
- It should be noted that in some instances the sheet l5 of reflectivematerial without the coating [8 and cellophane sheet 16 thereon may be adhered to the cardboard sheet 14 by means of the rubber cement coating to form the laminated stock material from which sign character units may be cut; In such case the sign units consisting of just the sign characters of reflective material and the cardboard carrier elements will behandled in the same mamier as previously described, the highly tenacious adhesive being applied before the unit is to be applied to a sign supporting surface. Once this sign character is adhered, the cardboard may be readily removed in the same manner as previously described without disturbing the sign character. The only difference between this form of my invention and the form previously described is that the first form has the adhesive of greater tenacity applied and covered with cellophane before the characters are cut from the laminated stock material whereas in this form the adhesive is applied after the cut out sign unit is ready for use, it being noted that the ultimate results are the same.
Another embodiment'of this invention as shown in Figs. 6 to 15 inclusive, relates to the preparation and application of complete preformed signs made up of a plurality of reflective sign characters 22 cut from sheets of the aforesaid refiective material and held in a given pattern present means of a paper or like carrier sheet 23 and, a"
similar masking sheet 24.
One practicable method of producing this pre-- formed complete sign is as follows:
The sign characters 22 of reflective material each having a coating of rubber cement indicated at 25 on the reflective faces thereof are laid face up in a predetermined sign pattern on a forming board or table D as shown in Fig. 6. It should be noted at this point that the masking sheet 24 is made like a stencil with openings 26 thereon corresponding in shape to the letters or characters 22, it being preferable that the same dies employed for cutting the sign characters 22 be used for making the stencil cuts or openings 26 in the masking sheet. In making these stencil cuts in the masking sheet 24 to correspond to certain sign characters, pieces of the masking sheet are detached or out free of the sheet as for example the triangular core or center portions of the stencil cut representing the letter A, also the core portion of the cut representing the letter B, which core portions are designated 28.
After the sign characters 22 are placed in proper order on the board or table D the separated core pieces cut out in making the stencillike mask sheet 24 such as the pieces 28, having rubber cement coatings on both faces thereof are fltted in proper place in the characters '22.
The rubber cement may be applied in any manner to the display faces of the sign characters 22 and to both faces of the core pieces which are fitted in the said characters, provided the rear faces or backs of the sign characters 22 remain uncoated with the rubber cement.
Next the carrier sheet 23 is applied preferably by a rolling-on operation as indicated in Fig. 6, to overlie the sign characters 22, the surface of said carrier sheet opposite said characters having a coating 29 of rubber cement thereon whereby the characters 22 and the core pieces 28 will be adhered to the carrier sheet. After applying pressure as by means of a roller or the like not shown, the characters 22 and the core pieces 28 become adhered to the carrier sheet 23. Next the carrier sheet is lifted and turned over to the characters on the then upper side of the carrier sheet with the backs of the characters exposed as shown in Fig. '7 so that the masking sheet 24 may be applied in the same manner as the carrier sheet. The masking sheet formed with stencil openings 26 corresponding in shape to the sign characters 22, has applied thereto a rubber cement coating 3!] which coacts with the rubber cement coating 29 on the then exposed face of the carrier sheet so that when the masking sheet is fitted over the characters 22 as indicated in Fig. '1 it will be adhered to the carrier sheet but will not be adhered to the characters 22 which are free from cement coatings on their backs and lie free within the stencil openings 26.
After applying pressure as by means of a roll--- er not shown, to the masking sheet to effect proper adherence thereof to the carrier sheet, the sign in Figs. 8 and 9 and may be rolled up or handled as a sheet or packed or stored in roll or'sheet, form until ready for use or it may be immediate. ly applied to transfer the desired sign to a' selected sign supporting surface.
'Thepresent invention also includes .a novel application to a sign support, such unit is complete and appears as shown method of applying the aforesaid complete sign unit wherein the first step as shown in Fig. 8 requires that the unit be hinged as by means of a strip of adhesive tape 33 to a support or member C on the surface of which the sign characters 22 are to be applied, with the masking sheet 24 opposite said surface.
Next, the sign unit is lifted up as shown in Fig. 8 and so held in any suitable manner so that the surface of the sign support C thereunder may have a coating of rubber cement applied over the sign unit area thereof after which the sign unit is swung back to lie against said coated surface as shown in Fig. 9. The exposed surface of the masking sheet is either covered with rubber cement before the masking sheet is applied as shown in Fig. 7 or while this surface is exposed as shown in Fig. 8 and in either case the sheet will become adhered to the rubber cement coated surface of the sign support when the unit is swung down and pressed against the sign support as shown in Fig. 9. This causes the masking sheet to firmly adhere to the sign supporting surface.
Next the carrier sheet 23 with the sign characters 22 thereon are separated from the masking sheet 24 and swung upward as shown in Fig. 11. It should here be noted that fresh rubber cement has greater tenacity than rubber cement which has been previously applied and allowed to stand for a while. Therefore as the cement on the sign supporting member C is fresh whereas the cement holding the masking sheets to the carrier sheet is older, the separation of the carrier sheet from the masking sheet may be effected without lifting or disturbing the latter. For the same reason the stencil cores 28 will stick to the fresh cement on the surface 0 remaining in.
proper position in the stencil openings 26 rather than remaining adhered to the carrier sheet 23, thus leaving perfect stencil formations in the mask for applying the special highly tenacious adhesive substance aforementioned to those parts of the surface of the member C which are exposed through the stencil openings 26 in the masking sheet. Next the aforesaid special adhesive having greater tenacity than the rubber cement is sprayed or otherwise applied to those parts of the member 0 exposed through the stencil openings 25 in the mask, after the operator rubs off from said exposed parts the rubber cement which has previously been applied to the surfaceof the member C.
After the highly tenacious adhesive is applied as aforesaid, the carrier sheet 23 with the sign characters 22 thereon is swung downwardly to fit the characters into the stencil openings 26 in the masking sheet 24 and adhere them to the surface of member C. Pressure is applied as by means of a roller (not shown) to assure uniform and effective adherence of the sign characters to the member C following which the carrier sheet and the masking sheet are lifted and removed as indicated in Fig. 13, thereby leaving the sign characters attached to the member C. The core pieces 28 will remain in the sign characters but may be readily lifted out with the fingers or by means of a suitable instrument. In this connection it should be noted that if desired the cores 28, if made of the aforesaid reflective material having a different color than the characters 22, can be adhered by suitable cement to the member C thus producing a fanciful color arrangement in the sign.
It should be noted that while this invention deals primarily with signs made of the aforesaid reflective material it may be carried out to advantage in the manner hereinbefore pointed out with any other sheet material which has properties corresponding to those of the reflective sheet material except as to being reflective.
While I have shown and described a specific embodiment of my invention I do not limit myself to the exact details of construction set forth, and the invention embraces such changes, modifications and equivalents of the parts and their formation and arrangement as come within the purview of the appended claims.
1. In a preformed sign unit, a reflective sign character made of comparatively thin and flexible sheet material and having on one side thereof a reflective display surface and having a strong adhesive on the other side thereof, said char-' acter being provided on said display surface with a coating of an adhesive which requires contact with a like coating in order that two parts coated with such adhesive be removably adhered to one another, a carrier element for reinforcing and facilitating the handling of said character having thereon a coating of the same adhesive substance as on the sign character removably adhering said element and said character to one another, and a protective covering sheet adhered to the strong adhesive on the sign character adapted to be stripped free from said sign character without detaching or otherwise disturbing the latter; said sign character, carrier element, and protective covering sheet being identically shaped and superimposed in marginal alignment with each other.
2. In a preformed sign unit, a sign character made of thin and flexible sheet material and having a reflective display surface on one side thereof, there being a coating of rubber cement on the display surface side of said character and a coating on the other side of said character of an adhesive substance having greater tenacity than said rubber cement coating and the quality of adhering fast to the sign-supporting surface to which the sign character is to be adhered, and a carrier element for reinforcing and facilitating the handling of said sign character having a coating of rubber cement on one side thereof contacting the rubber cement coating, on said sign character and adhering the character and the carrier element to one another;
the relative tenacity of the rubber cement and said adhesive substance being such that once the character With the carrier elementthereon is adhered to said sign surface by means of said adhesive substance, the carrierelement may be removed therefrom without disturbing said sign character.
3. In a preformed sign, a flexible carrier sheet,
a plurality of sign characters having backs and display surfaces with the latter removably adhered to one side of said carrier sheet in a predetermined sign pattern by means of coatings of like adhesive, and a flexible masking sheet.
removably adhered by means of coatings of like adhesive to said carrier sheet and having stencil openings thereon corresponding to the forma tion of said sign characters and the sign pattern formed thereby, with said sign characters nested in said openings so that the backs thereof are exposed for adherence to a sign-supporting surface on which the complete sign is to be displayed, the tenacity of the adhesive employed to adhere the sign characters to said carrier sheet and to adhere the carrier and maskin sheets together being such that when the backs of the sign characters are adhered to the said sign-supporting surface by means of an adhesive substance having greater tenacity, the carrier sheet and said masking sheet may be removed so as to leave the characters adhered to said sign supporting surface.-
4. In a preformed sign unit ready for application to a sign displaying surface, a plurality of sign characters having frontal display surfaces and adhesive coating on the back faces thereof, a carrier sheet to which said characters are removably adhered by means of applications of rubber cement of less tenacity than the adhesive on said back faces and made alike to the display surfaces of said characters and to one surface of said carrier sheet, and a stencil sheet removably adhered to the other surface of said carrier sheet by means of coacting applications of rubber cement and in such manner that the backs of said characters are fully exposed in the stencil openings in said stencil sheet with said characters separable from said carrier sheet through said stencil openings after the characters have been adhered to a sign displaying surface by means of the adhesive on said back faces. 5. The method of making display signs wherein such signs are made up of a plurality of separate sign characters formed of pieces of extremely thin and flexible material and have refiective frontal display surfaces, which method consists in arranging a plurality of the aforesaid sign characters in a given sign pattern, adhering said characters to a carrier sheet so that they will be removably held thereon by means of applications of rubber cement on the display faces of said characters and on one surface of said sheet respectively; and then removably adhering by means of coacting coatings of rubber cement, the other surface of carrier sheet to a stencil sheet in such manner that said sheets and characters become a portable unit with the backs, of said characters being fully exposed in said stencil openings and said characters being subject to removal from said carrier sheet through said openings, then adhering said characters to a sign displaying surface by means of an adhesive substance having greater tenacity than the rubber cement which adheres the characters to the carrier sheet removing said carrier sheet and said stencil sheet after said characters are adhered to said sign displaying surface.
6. The method of making a display sign unit ready for application to a sign supporting surface wherein said sign is made up of separate sign characters formed of pieces of thin and flexible material having frontal display surfaces and provided on their rear faces with an adhesive coating having the quality of permanently adhering the characters immediately after applicationof such adhesive coated faces thereof to a sign supporting surface, which method consists in arranging a plurality of the aforesaid sign characters in a sign pattern; removably adhering said characters of said pattern to a carrier sheet by means of applications of rubber cement made alike on the display surfaces of said characters and on one surface of said sheet respectively, then removably adhering a stencil sheet by means of coatings of rubber cement to the other surfaces of said carrier sheet, with the rear faces of said characters fully exposed in the stencil openings of the stencil sheet for application to a surface for displaying the sign characters.
7. The method of applying a completed sign unit to a sign supporting surface wherein said sign unit consists of a series of sign characters arranged in a predetermined sign pattern and removably held by an adhesive substance on a carrier sheet and wherein a stencil sheet is removably adhered to said carrier sheet with the signcharacters disposed in the stencil opening and the backs of said sign characters exposed for application to a sign supporting surface on which the characters are to be permanently affixed; which method consists in hinging the sign unit to the sign supporting surface on which the sign characters are to be displayed, by means of a piece of flexible adhesive tape applied along the top edge of the sign unit and to said surface respectively, then lifting the complete sign unit upwardly away from said surface and applying to the sign unit area of the sign supporting surface and to the exposed surface of the stencil sheet like rubber cement coatings, then swinging the sign unit back against said surface to adhere the stencil sheet thereto, then swinging the carrier sheet together with the sign characters upwardly from said stencil sheet, then applying to said exposed portions of said surface an adhesive substance having a greater. tenacity than said rubber cement coatings, then swinging the carrier sheet downwardly to apply the characters thereon against said adhesive covered surfaces exposed through said stencil openings and applying pressure to adhere the sign characters to said sign display surface, then removing said adhesive strip by which the sign unit is hinged to said surface, then removing said carrier and stencil sheet in the order named so as to leave the characters adhered to the sign displaying surface.
HOMER G. BUCK.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1573295 *||Sep 23, 1925||Feb 16, 1926||Bourgeois Edgar||Art of lettering|
|US1678341 *||Jul 13, 1925||Jul 24, 1928||Joseph W Kaber||Transfer sign|
|US1900048 *||Jan 7, 1932||Mar 7, 1933||Rayner Decalcomania Company||Decalcomania transfer|
|US2020717 *||Aug 26, 1932||Nov 12, 1935||Ansell Jr William Edward||Art of producing displays for the inner surface of transparent panes|
|US2191704 *||Mar 26, 1935||Feb 27, 1940||Bennett Arthur||Transfer adhesive process and product|
|US2262400 *||May 4, 1939||Nov 11, 1941||Internat Transparency Company||Method of forming and applying signs and the like|
|US2394701 *||Sep 5, 1941||Feb 12, 1946||Internat Transparency Company||Method of preparing signs|
|US2426462 *||Jun 7, 1944||Aug 26, 1947||Merle Hughey||Decalcomania manufacture|
|US2430534 *||Sep 27, 1939||Nov 11, 1947||Rodli Gilbert||Marker and process of making it|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2646364 *||Jul 15, 1949||Jul 21, 1953||Meyercord Co||Method of producing reflecting films, decalcomanias, and signs|
|US2647849 *||Apr 10, 1950||Aug 4, 1953||Minnesota Mining & Mfg||Lettering film|
|US2699103 *||Jul 28, 1952||Jan 11, 1955||Stasikewich William||Type|
|US2985970 *||Nov 25, 1957||May 30, 1961||Mccarthy Edward F||Shoes and means of attaching them|
|US2994362 *||Jun 18, 1957||Aug 1, 1961||Bell & Howell Co||Film splicing|
|US3338395 *||Nov 9, 1964||Aug 29, 1967||U O Colson Company||Sign-making kit|
|US3481058 *||Jul 26, 1967||Dec 2, 1969||Eng Model Associates||Identifying system|
|US3481652 *||Apr 21, 1967||Dec 2, 1969||Mazerolle Lorn A||Advertising means|
|US3541712 *||Nov 8, 1967||Nov 24, 1970||Keeler Brass Co||Means for holding articles of trim and mounting same|
|US3772810 *||Feb 11, 1972||Nov 20, 1973||D Kupperman||Reflecting figure to be applied to a support surface|
|US4300887 *||Mar 31, 1980||Nov 17, 1981||Replogle Globes, Inc.||Method of manufacture of raised relief illuminated globe|
|US4372070 *||May 26, 1981||Feb 8, 1983||Egon Erlich||Adhesive sign and method of making|
|US4414731 *||Jun 4, 1981||Nov 15, 1983||Replogle Globes, Inc.||Method of manufacture of raised relief illuminated globe|
|US4430816 *||May 13, 1982||Feb 14, 1984||Seton Name Plate Corporation||Marker system|
|US4440590 *||Feb 24, 1982||Apr 3, 1984||Letraset Corp.||Manufacture of signs|
|US4479319 *||Jan 31, 1983||Oct 30, 1984||Egon Erlich||An adhesive sign and method of making|
|US5107868 *||Sep 9, 1991||Apr 28, 1992||Aryee Frederick O||Hair graphics|
|US5127675 *||May 17, 1990||Jul 7, 1992||Moss James W||Method for marking an article for identification and description and a label device therefor|
|US5240539 *||Feb 19, 1992||Aug 31, 1993||New Hermes Incorporated||Process for making three-dimensional signage|
|US5277736 *||Jun 9, 1992||Jan 11, 1994||Gerber Scientific Products, Inc.||Automatic weeding system and method of use|
|US5368672 *||May 14, 1993||Nov 29, 1994||New Hermes Incorporated||Process for making three-dimensional signage|
|US6385840 *||Sep 17, 1999||May 14, 2002||Michael L. Scarfia||Assembly for applying signage and method for applying signage|
|US7250092||Oct 19, 2004||Jul 31, 2007||Ferrell Randall W||Adhesive sign and methods for applying and producing same|
|US7682476 *||Mar 23, 2007||Mar 23, 2010||Ralph Sutton||Method to create 3-dimensional images from a 2-dimensional image|
|US20050051263 *||Oct 19, 2004||Mar 10, 2005||Ferrell Randall W.||Adhesive sign and methods for applying and producing same|
|US20120325585 *||Jun 24, 2011||Dec 27, 2012||Trans-Tech LLC||Reflective Friction-Enhancement For Surfaces|
|USRE33727 *||Nov 2, 1983||Oct 29, 1991||Baxter International, Inc.||Bandage frame|
|U.S. Classification||428/138, 40/595, 156/300, 156/247, 156/230, 428/202|
|International Classification||G09F13/16, B44C1/16|
|Cooperative Classification||B44C1/162, G09F13/16|
|European Classification||B44C1/16F, G09F13/16|