US 2593246 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 15, 1952 E. A. BENDER PORTABLE DERRICK 5 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Aug. 9, 1948 April 15, 1952 E. A. BENDER 2,593,246
PORTABLE DERRICK Filed Aug. 9, 1948 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 @t tfmey s April l5, 1952 E. A. BEN DER 2,593,246
PORTABLE DERRICK Filed Aug. 9, 1948 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 CiLto'uxels April 15, 1952 E. A. BENDER 2,593,246
PORTABLE DERRICK Filed Aug. 9, 1948 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 5@ EJLCIEP. E
n i0 635g/ 5i April 15, 1952 E. A. BENDER 2,593,246
` PORTABLE DERRICK Filed Aug. 9, 1948 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented Apr. 15, 1952 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE PURTABLE DERRICK Emil A. Bender, Bakersfield, Calif.
Application August 9, 1948, Serial No. 43,268
l2 Claims.- 1
This invention relates to portable oil drilling derricks; and more particularly to a portable der-` rick for use in drilling oil wells.
It has become the increasing practice in recent years to provide portable derricks for use in drilling oilwells as distinguished from the conventional stationary derrick fabricated for permanent installation at the site of operations. A number of such derricks have been found to be reasonably satisfactory in operation, for example the derrick shown in the prior patent to Robert E. McCarthy and Emil E. Bender, No. 2,413,149, granted December 24, 1946.
Wherever a, portable derrick can be employed, its useis desirable since it can be put up as a temporary installation and transported from site to site, when needed. The disadvantages in the using of portable derricks lie in the complication involved in the means for raising the bodies of the derricksA to operative position and the diiiiculties usually involved in transporting the structures.
An important object of the present invention is to provide a derrick structure which is more readily portable than prior structures of this general type, the structure being such as to meet state regulations governing road clearances, etc.
A further object is to provide a novel derrick of the portable type which may be much more quickly, and easily placed in operative condition than is true of prior structures of this general type.
A further object is to provide a portable derrick which is transportable with the body of the derrick in a horizontal position and wherein the elevating means for the derrick becomes a part of the derrick itself when the body of the derrick has been raised to operative position. l
A further object is to provide a, portable derrick wherein the elevating means is in the form of a pivoted structure normally folded beneath the derrick and operable by a power source, such as the drawworks, for engaging the derrick to elevate it to its operative position, whereupon the elevating structure assumes an operative position relative to the derrick body to form a permanent part of the derrick structure until the derrick is to be lowered. A further object is to provide such a structure wherein the elevating means includes rollers engageable with two legs of the derrick body to transmit an elevating force thereto, and wherein the rollers pass out of operation as the derrick body approaches operative position to bring into play another part of the elevating structure which thereupon engages and assists in supporting the derrick body, thereby becoming a part of the derrickstructure.
A further object is to provide an apparatus of the character just referred to wherein the legs of the derrick body engaged by the rollers of the elevating structure converge toward the normally upper end of the derrick whereby, during the elevating operation, the rollers engage progressively wider portions of such legs, the distance between the roller-engaged legs at the lower extremities thereof being greater than the distance between the remote ends of the rollers whereby the rollers become disengaged from the legs as the latter approach their operative position to permit a separate and rigid portion of the elevating structure to engage and support the legs of the derrick referred to. Y A further object is to provide such a structure wherein the roller-engaged legs of the derrick terminate in offset ends forming a stepped-in shoulder solidly engageable by a rigid portion of the elevating structure when the derrick `body reaches operative position, whereupon the elevating structure becomes a solid supporting structure for the adjacent. side of the derrick.
A further object is to provide a derrick structure of the character referred to wherein the side of the derrick opposite the elevating structure is hinged for swinging movement on a horizontal axis whereby it is free to swing between transportable and operative positions, and to provide novel means for supporting the hinged side of the derrick body including brace arms adapted to be swung out of operative position when the structure is being transported to provide necessary and desirable road clearances.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent during the course of the following description.
In the drawings, I have shown two embodiments of the invention. In this showing, Y
Figure 1 is a side elevation of the derrick shown in solid lines in operative position and in dotted lines in horizontal transportable position, and in an intermediate position,
Figure 2 is an enlarged fragmentary side elevation of a portion of the derrick elevating means and supporting base structure, the derrick body being shown in horizontal position,
Figure 3 is a fragmentary rear elevation of the same, the derrick being shown in operative positionI Figure 4 is a diagrammatic view oi a portion of the derrick body illustrating the relative move-` 3 ment of certain of the parts of the elevating means relative thereto,
Figure 5 is a detailed fragmentary elevation, parts being shown in section, showing the supporting connection between the derrick body Iand the elevating means therefor,
Figure 6 is a somewhat enlarged elevation of the elevating structure and associated supporting rails, parts vbeing shown in section,
Figure-.7 is. an enlarged fragmentaryfront elevation of the derrick body pivotal supporting means and associated elements, parts being. shown in section,
Figure 8 is a diagrammatic representationillustrating the cable lines employed forA elevating the derrick, and
Figure 9 is a View similar to Figure lshowing. modied means for applying elevating power. to the elevating structure, the derricl: body being shown in solid lines in horizontal position and in dotted lines in operative position.
Referring to Figures 1 and 3, the numeralY IG designates-the base of the derrick as a whole, and suchbase is provided with wheels II depending therefrom whereby kthe base with the derrick thereon, asdescribed below, serves as a trailer for hauling theapparatus to and from the siteof installation. The base and associated elements form per se no part of the present invention and needv not be illustrated in substantial detail. VV
Generally speaking, the base comprises spaced parallel rails` I4, and theY spacing of these rails represents substantially themaximum width per-- mittedv by traiiic regulations in most'stateswhich govern the transportation of apparatus of this character. The rails I4 are connected at spaced points by cross members I5, and the rails and crossmembers are preferably of I-beam section.
At its forward or front endthevbase IIJ is supported by a substructure indicated as a whole bythe numeral I8. This substructure comprises lower spaced structural supporting' elements I9 whichV may be formed of I-beam section and have their'ends preferably connected by welded pipe section 2i). The ends of the structural elements I9 are curved upwardly as at 2l (Figure 3) whereby the substructure may be skidded into position as referred to below.
The substructure further' comprises upper spaced pairs of cross members 22, each pair com-y prisingv elements arranged in end to end alignment andV preferably in alignment-withione of the cross members I5. The members 22 of each pair are -supportedby` vertical posts' 23v andl 24, the former of which are arranged in relatively close vertical alignment to the rails I4 to transmit vertical loads therefrom directly to the structural elements I9. From each post 24 an angular'brace extends from each structural member I9 upwardly and inwardly as at 25. These braces, as is true of the posts 23 and 24, are preferably welded to the member I9. 25 may be similarly secured to a gusset plate 26.
This platel is welded or otherwise secured to the associated post 23 and cross member 22. Additional outer braces 21 are connected between the ends of the cross members I9 andv the associated cross members 22. The inner ends of the members 22 are bolted as at 28 to the rails I4 (Figure 3).
The back or rear side portions of the baseV II are` supported; on spaced jacks 30 of any desired type. These jacks may rest on the supporting surfaceI or on suitable blocks 32 as shown. Two of' the jacks 3l)4 areV arranged beneath each side The upper end of each braceY 4 rail I4, and when the parts of the apparatus are in the inoperative or transporting position shown in Figure 2, the load Will be wholly supported by the jacks 35 until therbase I8 is arranged in position. The base I!) may be raised to elevate th wheels I I and to lift the apparatus from the tractor bed by which the apparatus is hauled to the site, by proper operation of the jacks 3U whereupon the substructure I8 isskiddedinto position and theijacks vlowered to bringfth-efrontlend of the base It] between the spacedend's of the'cross members I5. These cross members are then bolted or otherwise secured to the side'rails I4 asat' 2l (Figure 3). The base I8 then will be properly placed to sustain the weight and principal operating loads of the apparatus when the 'derrickis elevated in a manner to be described.
designates a pair ofposts. welded or similarly` secured atltheir lower endsto therail members i4. Near its lower' end,V each post member Sii` carries spaced collars Y3l between which` is mount'- ed a sleeve 38 adapted to turn on the associated; post 36 and outwardly.' of each post 36 is arranged a rigid angular brace 45', the lower end of.'
which is spacedfromand connected to the sleeve 35 by a horizontalbrace 4I. The brace 40 is provided at its lowerend with afoot 42 adapted to be bolted as at 43 to the adjacent cross member 22 L'when the device is assembled as described below. The upper' end of Veach brace 4] turns inwardly for connection with a sleeve 44, similar to the sleeve 36 and adapted to turn on the associated post S6 between collars 45 fixed to such post; Each post 36 is provided at its upper end with a yoke 4T for a purpose to be described.
The apparatus is provided with a derrick body indicated as a Whole by the numeral 50. This derrick comprises spaced front legs 5I (Figures 1, 2 and 7) and spaced rear legs 52 (Figures 1, 2 and 3). The front and rear legs are connected by astructuralbrace 53 at each side of the derrick. The lower end of each front leg 5I is provided with a bearing 54 arranged between the arms of the associated yoke 4l and av heavy pin 55 connects'eaohrfront l-eg to its-yoke 4l as shown in Figure 7. lit will become apparent that the derrick body 55 is adapted to swing on the horizontal axis of the pins 55 between operative and inoperative positions. The legs of the derrick may be conventionally xed with respect to each other'by suitable girtsand braces 51 and 58. The derrick body 58 is preferably provided with the usual fou'rbleV beard 58 and platform 6I. The top of the derrick is provided withl any desired type of crown block assembly 52, and this assembly preferably is of the type shown in my prior Patent 2,440,427, granted April 27, 1948. With this type of crown block assembly, the live and dead lines may bey arranged externally of the derrick. The derrick is hauled to the site in the horizontal position shown in dotted lines in Figure 1. In such position, the body of the derrick is supported at one end by the pins 55`and at its opposite -end by. a cradle 65 'supportedi onbeamexten'- sions 66 secured to the rails I 4 as shown in Figure l. To this cradle is connected a pair of guy lines 68 having their other ends connected to the derrick body 50 as shown in Figure l, each guy line being provided with a suitable turnbuckle 69 to tighten it after the derrick body has been elevated as shown in solid lines in Figure 1.
The elevating means for the derrick body is indicated as a whole by the numeral 15, and as will be described below, such means becomes a permament part of the derrick body to support the back side thereof when the derrick is in its operative position shown in solid lines in Figure l. The elevating means is shown in detail in Figure 6 of the drawings. Such means comprises spaced legs 16. the lower ends of which have welded or otherwise secured thereto collars 11 rotatable on pins 18 mounted in a rigid cross tube 19 extending through and welded to the rails I4, as clearly shown in Figure 6. These pins are held in position by screws 80 threaded through the tube 19 and engageable in annular grooves 8| formed in the pins 18. These pins are Iprovided with heads or collars 82 at their outer ends to prevent the spreading of the legs 16. At its upper end, each leg 16 has a sleeve 8,4 welded thereto. These sleeves are in axial alignment and receive a shaft 85 extending therethrough and provided at its ends with sheaves 86 rotatable thereon. Each sleeve 84 projects outwardly beyond the associated leg 16 and is braced relative thereto by a welded gusset plate 81. Adjacent the inner end of each sleeve 84 is arranged a roller sleeve 90 -for a purpose to be described. These roller sleeves are spaced a substantial distance from each other as shown in Figure 6 and between them is arranged another sleeve 9| acting as a spacer for the roller sleeves. The sleeves 84 and 9| are preferably spot-welded or otherwise fixed to the shaft 85 to increase the rigidity of the structure.
Each leg 16 is provided with a brace leg 95 tted and welded to the associated leg 16 at one end and diverging from the leg 1G towards the shaft 85 .as clearly shown in Figure 6. These brace legs are bolted as at 96 to lugs or plates 91 welded to the sleeve 9|.v This materially assists in bracing and increasing the rigidity of the legs 16 and the spaces between each leg 16 and its brace leg 95 is provided with preferably welded girts and braces 68 and 99.
The legs 16 and their bracing elements 95, 98 and 99 lie in a common plane transversely of the derrick body and greatly increase the transverse rigidity of the derrick when the parts are assembled as will be described, under which conditions the elevating `means 15 becomes ineiiect a part of the derrick. The legs 16 are further braced in planes parallel to each other by upwardly diverging brace legs (Figures 1 and 2) diverging upwardly from the legs 'I6 and fixed relative thereto by gigrts and braces I0| and I 02. At its upper end, each leg is provided with a structural member (Figure 5) forming a rigid connection .between such leg 16 and the associated brace` leg |00. Each member |05 is welded to the associated bracel leg |00 and to the associated sleeve 84, each member |05 lying slightly outwardly of the associated leg 16. When the parts are assembled, each member |05 will be engageable against the associated angle brace 53 of the Vderrick body and will be bolted thereto as at |06 (Figure 5) with the lower end of each derrick leg 52 resting squarely on the associated sleeve 84.
Attention is invited to the diagrammatic showing in` Figure fi in which the vnormal positions of the roller sleeves relative to the derrick legs 62 have been shown in dotted lines, that is, the positions in which the rollers will engage the derrick legs 52 when the structure is brought to the site in the horizontal dotted line position shown in Figure l. The rollers 90 and associated elements have been shown relative to the legs 52 in the positions they will occupy when the derrick is in the operative position shown in Figure 1. It will be noted that the legs 52 diverge toward their lower ends, and the rollers 90 are so spaced from each other that they squarely engage the rear faces of the legs 52 in the initial positions of the parts. As the derrick is elevated in the manner to be described, the rollers 90 move downwardly following the relative paths indicated by thebroken lines IIII in Figure 4, the rollers moving inwardly relative to thelegs 52 asy the lower ends` of the latter are approached and when the rollers 90 reach the operative positions of the parts the remote limits of the rollers will lie in positions coincident with or slightly inwardly of the adjacent limits of the legs 52. In such positions of the parts, the lower extremities III of the legs 52 (Figures 4 and 5) will form shoulders engageable with the sleeves 84 which, in turn, are rigid with the legs 16 and the struc'- tural elements connected thereto. As will be described below, this arrangement of the rollers is to reduce frictional engagement of the elevating means with the derrick body until the derrick approaches vertical position at which point frictional resistance to movement of the derrick by the elevating means approaches zero.
As previously stated, the derrick is provided with any desired type of crown block assembly 62 and the lines I I5 are reeved around the sheaves of the crown block assembly and around the sheaves of a conventional traveling block IIB. The live line I|1 from the crown block assembly passes around a sheave I|8 and thence around the drum I I9 of a conventional drawworks |20,
shown in the preferred form of the invention as being supported on the base of the apparatus. The sheave IIB is employed for the reason'thatV the line II1 extends substantially horizontally in the initial derrick elevating operation, and the sheave |I8 serves to protect the line I I1 from injury by any part of the drawworks. The dead line I20a (Figure 1) passing from the crown block assembly is xed to any suitable point on the base structure I0. y The traveling block I I8 is provided with a yoke |22 to which is connected one end of each of Aa pair of lines |23. Each of these lines, as shown in Figure 2 and as shown in the diagrammatic perspective in Figure 8, passes around a 'sheave |24 anchored as at |25 to the main derrick body 50. From these sheaves |24, the lines pass along the sides of the derriok body and around. the sheaves 86, which are carried by the elevating means 15 as previously described. From the sheaves 86, the line |23 passes back along the side of the derrick body 50.as shown inFigure. 2V and islixed to the derrick body as at `|15 (Figure 2). l
The modified form of the invention shown in Figure 9 is identical with the form previously described except for the means for reeling the live line II1. In the form of the invention previously described, the drawworks is arranged on the base I4. The apparatus is operative regardless of the means for winding the fast line. The drawworks may be employed and it may be arranged on the base, I0. Alternatively. a drawj tal axis, an elevating structure pivotally connected at one end to said base for swinging movement on a fixed horizontal axis parallel to and spaced from said first-named axis, said derrick body being movable between an inoperative substantially horizontal `position and a substantially vertical operative position, and said elevating structure lying beneath the opposite side of said derrick body when the latter is in inoperative position, the other end of said elevating structure movably engaging said derrick body from said opposite side of said derrick body, and means having mechanical connection with said elevating structure for applying, force to said elevating structure to swing it upwardly to move said derrick body to operative'position, said opposite side of said derrick structure having Va shoulder engaging said other end of said elevating structure when said derrick is in its operative position whereby said elevating structure serves as a support for said opposite side of said Aderrick body 2.A portable derrick structure comprising a base, an opstanding structure carried by the front end of said base, a derrick body having one side pivotally connected to said opstanding structure for swinging movement on a horizontal axis, an elevating structure pivotally connected at .one end to said base for swinging movement on a fixed horizontal axis parallel to and spaced .from said first-named axis, said derrick body :being movable between an inoperative substantially horizontal position and a substantially vertical operative position, and said elevating structure lying beneath the opposite side of said derrick body when the latter is in inoperative position, the other end of said elevating structure having contact portions engaging said derrick body from said opposite side of said derrick body, a crown block assembly and a traveling block assembly carried by said derrick body, and means having mechanical connection between said traveling block assembly and said elevating structure transmitting motion from said traveling block assembly to said elevating "structure to swing the latter and swing said derrick body to its operative position.
3. Apparatus constructed in accordance with claim 2 wherein said derrick body has a shoulder engaging said other end of said elevating structure when said derrick body is in its operative position whereby said elevating structure serves as a support for said opposite side of said derrick body.
4. Apparatus constructed in accordance with claim 2 wherein said derrick body has a shoulder engaging said other end of said elevating structure when said derrick body is in its operative position whereby said elevating structure serves as a support for said opposite side of said derrick body, said opposite side of said derrick body having legs diverging away from said crown block assembly, said contact portions comprising rollers engaging with said legs and through which lifting forces are transmitted to said derrick body, said rollers being axially aligned and having their remote limits spaced apart a distance slightly less than the distance between said legs at the shoulders of said derrick body whereby said rollers become disengaged from said legs and other portions of said supporting structure engage such shoulders when said derrick body reaches operative position.
5. A derrick structure comprising a horizon- 10 tal base, a derrick body having one end thereof pivotally connected, to said base for swinging movement on a horizontal axis between 1a substantially vertical operative and a substantially horizontal inoperative position in the latter of vwhich the derrick body extends in one direction from its pivotal connection with said base, an elevating structure of xed length pivotally connected at one end to said base for swinging movement on a fixed horizontal axis spaced in said direction from said first-named axis, said elevating structure lying beneath saidderrick body when the latter is in its inoperative position and having its other extremity projecting in said direction and engaging said derrickfbo'dy from the side thereof on which said elevating structure is pivoted, and means forA swinging said elevating structure about its pivotaxis `to swing said derrick body upwardly to its operative position, said derriclr body and said elevating structure swinging in the same direction labout their pivot axes as said Aderrick structure moves toward its operative position, and means securing said other extremity of said elevating structure to said side of said derrick body when the latter is in its operative position, whereby said elevating structure becomes a fixed means for supporting said derrick body in its operative position.
6. A derrick body comprising a horizontal base, a derrick` body having one end 4thereof pivotally'connected to said base for swinging movement on a horizontal axis between a substantially vertical operative and a substantially horizontal inoperative position in the latter of which the derrick body extends in one direction from its pivotal connection with said base, an elevating structure of fixed length pivotally connected at one end to said base for swinging movement on a fixed horizontal axis spaced in said direction from said first-named axis, said elevating structure lying beneathA said derrick body when the latter is in its inoperative position and having its other end projecting in said direction and engaging said derrckbody from the opposite side thereof, and means for swinging said elevating structure about its pivot axis to swing said derrick body upwardly to its operative position, said derrick body and said elevating structure swinging in the same direction about their pivot axes as said derrick structure moves toward its operative position and said derrick structure having a portion supportingly engaged by said other end of said elevating structure when said derrick body is in its operative position, and means securing said other end of said elevating structure to said opposite side of said derrick body when the latter is in its operative position. l
7. A derrick structure comprising a base, a derrick body having one side thereof pivotally connected to said base for swinging movement on a horizontal axis between a substantially horizontal inoperative position and a substantially vertical operative position, an elevating structure of fixed length pivotallyconnected at one end to said base for swinging movement on a fixed horizontal axis and occupying an inoperative position beneath the other side of said vating:'structure being offsetl outwardly away i-rorrrsaid other side ofi-said dei-'rick body when a the latter is in `its operative position whereby 'said elevating structure. inclines upwardly and inwardly toward said derrick body, and means operativeto releasablyv secure said: other endl of the elevating structure to said other side of the dei-rick body when said derrick fbody is in said operative position wherebysaid elevating structure becomesa permanent means for'fsupporting isa-id other side-of said derriek body.
8; derrickf structure comprising a base, a derrichy body having one side thereof pivotally vconnected. at its lower end-to said baseforsw-ing- "said base for swinglngmovement ona xed hori- "zontal' axis. parallel to said first-named' horizontal axis, said elevating structure lying beneath said derrick body when the latter is in its inoperative position and having its other end engaging said derrick body from said other side thereof, and means for applying a force to'said elevating structure to. swing it upwardly and movesaid derrick body upwardly to its operative position; the pivot axis of said elevating structure being offset outwardly from said other side offsaid derrick body-when the latter is in opera- -tive' position. whereby, when said elevating strucvture has V'swung said derrick body to its operative position', said' elevating structureV will incline upwardly and inwardly towardv said derrick body,
said elevating structure, when said derrick body is inasai'cl operative position; having ay portion underlying said downwardly facing element to support `said derrick body from said other side thereof,v
9. apparatusconstructed in accordance with claim 8 whereinY the second-named end of said; elevating; structure is provided with rollers engagedV with said derrick body to elevate the latter.
10;A An apparatus constructed in accordance with claim wherein the-means for applying a force tol saidelevating structure comprises sheaves carried by said other vend of said elevat- Ving structure, and lines Vpassing around said sheaves, each line having a dead end and a live endto which a Vpulling force may be applied to swingl said elevatingy structure upwardly.
1l. A portable derrickV structure comprising a base, an upstanding structurek carriedl by said base, a derrick body having one side pivot-ally *connected to said upstanding structure for lswinging movement on a' horizontal axis, an
elevatingstructure pivotally connected at one endV to saidr basefor swinging movement on a horizontal axis' parallel to and spaced from said rstena-med axis on. theY opposite sideV of the derri'ckbody, saidv derrickbodyl being movable betweenan inoperative; substantially horizontal Yvposit-ionand a substantially vertical4 operative Y position, and. said elevating structureV lying` be.
neaththe opposite sideof Saidderrickfbody when the latter is inf inoperative position, saidV derrick body having a shoulder supportingly engaged by the other. end) of" said, elevating structure when said derrick body is in. its operative. position whereby saidrelevating` structure. servesy as a support for said4 opposite-side. ofV said derrick body, said; other` end; offV the elevating structure having rollers engaging with` po1tions` of said derrick body and; through vwhich lifting forces are transmittedthereto.v
12. A derrick. structure comprising a base, a derrick body having-.one ende-thereof pivotally connected.y to said, bases for swinging; movement on a horizontal axis between.- aj substantially vertical operative and a substantiallyY horizontal inoperative position in the latter,v ofv which the derrick` bodyv extends in onefdrection from its pivotal connection withsaid base, an. elevating structure of nxed lengt-h pivotally connected at one end to said base` for swinging movement on aiixed horizontal, axis spacedv in said direction from said first-named axis, said elevating structure lying beneath said derrick body when the latter is in its inoperative position land having its other extremity projectingin said direction and engaging said derrick. bodyfrom the side thereof on which said elevating Astructure is plvoted, and means for swingingsaid elevating structure about its pivot axis to Y swing said derrick body upwardly to itsV` operative position, Said means including a sheavefcarried by said other end ofy theelevating structure, a further sheave. carried.v by the4 derriclebody,` a linepass.-
ing around said sheavesV and having, a dead end connected. to said derrick body and alive end,
and means mounted onv saidfderrick body for applying apulling, forceto said-,live endV to swing said elevating structure upwardly. as aforesaid.
Y EMIL' A.' BENDER.
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