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Publication numberUS2594240 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 22, 1952
Filing dateDec 24, 1947
Priority dateDec 24, 1947
Publication numberUS 2594240 A, US 2594240A, US-A-2594240, US2594240 A, US2594240A
InventorsWilliam S Wells
Original AssigneeDaisy Mfg Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Pneumatic gun
US 2594240 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

W. S. WELLS PNEUMATIC GUN Filed Dec. 24, 1947 April 22, 1952 E. R. M Y Xx 0 M mm f r 7 m mw mw W n.. 2 ff IW VANS? M mm 4%@ M l/V. om mm a mm m m M m m lllmHmH M, s `m |mHH O I .V N. m :u mm, E wm/, @.m of? HLMMMV "NI E kx.. L i..

Patented Apr; 22, 1952 PN EUMATIC GUN william s. wells, Palo Aub, Calif., assignmto Daisy Manufacturing Mich., a corporation of Michigan Application December 24, 1947, Serial No. 793,676

rlhis invention relates generally to guns and refers more particularly to guns of the type wherein shot is propelled through the barrel by air under pressure.

Guns of the above type are usually equipped with a storage chamber containing air under sufficient pressure to propel shot either of the ball or pellet type through the barrel at high velocities. The air in the storage chamber is periodically replenished by a compressor either in corporated as a part of the gun or forming a separate unit attachable to the gun whenever it is necessary to replenish the air in the chamber. In either case the ilow of air under pressure from the storage chamber to the gun barrel is controlled by a valve operated by manipulation of suitable trigger mechanism.

One serious objection to many types of pneumatic guns heretofore employed is the necessity of replenishing the supply of air in the storage chamber after practically each shot in order to obtain anything like uniform velocity of successive shots. In most pneumatic guns the mechanism is such that the first shot subsequent to replenishing the storage chamber moves at considerable velocity due to the relatively high air pressure existing in the chamber. However, the drop in pressure in the chamber after the ilrst shot is so severe that the second shot is discharged at a considerably less velocity and in mostinstances, the air pressure in the chamber must be restored before the third shot is discharged. The necessity of replenishing the air pressure in the storage chamber at such frequent intervals is inconvenient and requires considerable time.

With the above in view, it is an object of this invention to provide a pneumatic type gun characterized in that a relatively large number of shot or pellets may be discharged at a substantially uniform velocity without replenishing the storage chamber. The number of shots obtainable with one airvcharge depends upon the velocity of the shots, but regardless of whether a small or a relatively large number of shots are required, the velocity of successive shots is generally uniform.

A more detailed object of this invention is to provide a pneumatic gun wherein the air pressure required to propel shot through the gun barrel is obtained from a receiving chamber having a fluid connection with a storage chamber through a pressure regulating valve assembly. The valve assembly maintains a substantially uniform air pressure in the receiving chamber Company, Plymouth,

2 Claims. (Cl. 124-13) which is considerably lower than the air pressure in the storage chamber. but is sufficient to propel shot through the barrel at the required velocity. Thus successive shots are propelled through the gun barrel at practically the same velocity until the pressure in the storage chamber approaches the pressure in the receiving chamber or until the storage chamber pressure drops below the pressure at which the valve will perateto transferiluid pressure from the storage chamber to the receiving chamber.

Another object of this invention is to provide a pressure regulating valve having a slidable valve member held in a position wherein communication between the two chambers is closed by the pressure of the iiuid in the receiving chamber and having spring means for moving the valve member to establish `communication between the chambers in response to a drop in pressure in the receiving chamber below a predetermined value.

Still another object of this invention is to provide a valve assembly wherein the surface area of the valve member exposed to the fluid pressure in the receiving chamber exceeds the area of the valve surface exposed to the pressure existing in the storage chamber by an amount such that the valve member is held in `its closed position against the action of the ing chamber to the gun barrel with a valve normally held in its closed position by the fluid under pressure in the receiving chamber and adapted to be momentarily opened by a trigger operated hammer.

The foregoing as well as other objects will be made more apparent as this description proceeds. especially when considered in hconnection with thegaccompanying drawing, wherein:

Figure 1 is a. fragmentary sectional View through a pneumatic gun embodying the features of this invention; y

Figure 2 is an enlarged sectional view through the pressure regulating valve provided between the storage chamber and receiving chamber on the gun; and y Figure 3 is a cross sectional view tal-ren onthe line 3-3 of Figure 1.

Although this invention maybe advantageous-` 1y used 1n connection with pneumatic guns oi mun'icating with the storage chamber through.

the medium of a pressure regulating valve I1.

The barrel I4 is axially bored to receive Shot either of the pellet or ball type, and is formed with an opening |3 at the -breechend thereof through which the shot may be in's'ertedinto'the l` barrel. Although either ball or pellet type'shot e 4w valve plunger 3zfor yieldably positioning the pad 32 against the seat 28.

ihe receiving chamber I3 is formed with an inlet port 35 adapted to be' connected to the outlet port 25 in the storage chamber throughthe pressure regulating valve II.v The pressure regulating valve I I comprises` a casing 36 and a valve member 3'i slidably supported in thecasing 33. The casing 33 is secured'onth'e Afrari'ie |2 of the gun directly below the receiving" chamber I6, and is closed at the rear 6. a plug "SBLLUThe front end of the casing is cl db'y a wallj39 'having a tubular guide 53. `exlte 'ing rearwardly. therefrom in concentric relationto the axis' of the may be employed, nevertheless, pelletV type'shot is preferred for most satisfactory operation, and the numeral I9 in Figure 1 of the drawing dsignates a shot of the pellet type. In accordance with "conventional practice, the pellet `|53 is formed with a relatively: thin skirt portion 23 at vthe trailing end'which flaresputwardly toa maximum normal Vdiameter 'somewhat greater than the internal diameter of the bore inthe gun barrel. Thus when the pellet |9'is inserted into the bore, the skirt "portion 23 is contracted,V

and intimately engages the innersurface of the gunbarrel throughout its circumference to form anY effective seal behind the pellet. Actually the skirt portion 20 is so Vthin that the pressure Aof the propelling air introduced into the barrel behind the pellet tends toV expand theskirt outwardly against the Vinner surface of the barrel.V Asia result leakage of air under pressure past the pellet 'is reduced to a minimum, and the full force of this Vair is applied to the pellet'for discharging the same from Vthe barrel.

The `storage chamber I5 is positioned directly below the barrel I4, in advance of the receiving chamber I6, and is separated from-the latter by a npartition-2|. The front endof thestoragechamber I5 is open to -receivelafsuitable handoperated compressor22, andris'internally threaded for `threadably engaging theladjacent portion of the compressor cylinder 23. VThe `rearend of the storage chamber |5 is 'formed' with an outlet .port 25, and the latter communicates with the receiving chamber I6 through the pressure regu- Ylatingvalve II in a manner to bepresently de- Y scribed.

Thefreceiving chamber I'S is located directly in rear of the storage chamber I5, and is open at therear end to a passage 26 havingva vertical extension 2 communicating with the bore Vinthe gun barrel in advance of the shot receiving opening I8. rFormed on the rear Wall of the receiving `chamber I6 and surrounding the entrant endV of the passage 26 is a at seat 28 for engagement with a valve 29. The valve 29 comprises a plunger 30 slidably supported in a tubular guide 3| and Y*having a pad 32 of wear resisting deformable material secured to the rear end thereof in aposition to engage the seat 28. WThe tubular guide 3| Wall thereof .-to enable uid under pressure toflow into the tubular guide at the `front end of the 'plunger 30. Thus the air under pressure in'the y tively` weak' coil spring 34 l is "supported "in "the tubular guide 3 I between thepartiti'on 2 rand the gis 'secureda't its .front end tothe partition 2| and is formedwith an opening 33 Tin `the side casing `and, adapted to slidably. supportthe v.valve A wardly into thertubular guide and forms an farb nular shoulder for engagement With thejrear end of-a coilspr-in'g fill. The frontend of thelcol spring is engageable' with an Yadjustable'plug 45 threadably Vsupported in 1an opening formed through thefront wall 39--of .the` casing in'alignment with the tubular Vguide 43. Thepurpose tof the coil spring dit is to yieldably urgethevalve member S'Ivinarearward direction toleng'age" the vrear`-wall l 43 4of-Y the valvememb'er Awith an abutkment liproiectingf forwardly.fromtheiplug 38. Y

-Aport 63 -isfofrm'edintlievcasing'36 for con'- necting theoutletport 25to the interior ofthe casing -36at -th'e frontend Tof the valve memberV 31. AIt will'lbefnoted that the port dicommunicates with thevca'sing radiallyoutwardly beyond the tubular guide 4B, 'and-is adapted to be closed by therfrontend of the valve member 'when the latter is -in lits lforward'mo'st lpo'sition. lIt will fur-ther be observed fromV Figure `f2 t'of the drawing that `anoutletport Mis formed'inv thecasing at the rear end-ofithe latter forconnectingthe yinlet porti 35 cf! the-receiving chamber to lthe fannulerpassageii in tiie`valve casingf.V Thus in theopen- 'pcsitionioftheV valve memberSI shown in Figure 1 of the drawing, the receiving'- chamber Il is connectedlto thestorage chamber l5 through lthepressure reg'ula'tirig valve The purposeof the pressure regulatingvalve II-is to maintain a substantiallyuniform pressure in the receiving chamber 'which'isarekletermined im desired prees-ui l50 p. s. 15() p. S.

Y, the receiving chamber, 'the pressure regulatingvalve lfisadaptedftomove to its Vopen position to allow fluid under ipressure to 'flow from. thestorage chamber' to the receiving chamber when the pressure in the latter Adrops below 150 p. s. i. 'fMoreparticu'larly.thearea of the surface 48, atthe rear endof the valverri'e'm- A the predetermined value, or in other words, below 150 p. s. i., the spring 44 overcomes the force exerted by the pressure in the receiving chamber on the surface 48 of the valve, and moves the valve member to its opening position against the projection 45. As a result fluid under pressure from the storage chamber enters the valve casing 36 through the port 46 and ows through the annular passage 4| to the receiving chamber I6. As soon as the pressure in the receiving chamber is built up to approximately the predetermined desired value, the fonce acting on the surface 48 of the valve member becomes suiiicient to move the valve member against the action of the spring 44 to again close the port 46. In this connection it will be noted that a bleed passage 49 is formed in the plug 45 to prevent pressure from being built up within the tubular guide 40 upon forward movement of the valve member 3l. It will also be noted that the plug 45' may be readily adjusted to vary the strength of the spring 44, and thereby enable obtaining practically any desired pressure in the receiving chamber below the existing pressure in the storage chamber.

It follows from the above that the pressure regulating valve will open automatically to replenish the receiving chamber from the storage chamber and maintain a predetermined pressure in the receiving chamber. As a result the force applied on successive shots in response to repeated operation of the valve 29 will be approximately uniform, and accordingly, successive shots will be discharged at practically the same velocity. As will be more fully hereinafter described, the valve 29 remains open for a very short period of time, with the result that a substantial number of shots may be discharged in succession from the barrel without replenishing the supply in the storage chamber I5.

However, when the pressure in the storage chamber l decreases to a value approximating the predetermined desired pressure in the re A ceiving chamber, it may readily be replenished by manipulating the compressor 22. In general this compressor embodies a piston 50 slidably supported in the cylinder 23 and operatively connected to a manually operable plunger 5|. The

` piston 50 has a passage 52 therethrough controlled by a valve member 53, which in turn, is secured to the rear end of the plunger 5|. The arrangement is such that when the plunger 5| is moved outwardly, the valve member 53 is retracted from its seat, permitting air to flow through the passage 52 into the cylinder 23 at the rear end of the piston.` On the other hand. when the piston is moved rearwardly, the valve member 53 closes the passage 52 and enables the piston to compress the air. This compressed air flows from the rear end of the cylinder 23 into t'he storage chamber l5 through a check valve 54 which operates to trap the compressed air in the storage chamber during movement of the compressor piston on its suction stroke.

The valve 29 is automatically operated in response to the manipulation of a trigger 60 supported for sliding movement on the gun frame in accordance with conventional practice. Upon reference to Figure 1 of the drawing, it will be noted that a pin 6| is slidably mounted in a bore formed in the gun frame |2 in alignment with the passage I6 and having the front end portion abutting the pad 32 on the valve 29. The rear end of the pin is adapted to be engaged by an anvil 62 supported for sliding movement in a bore 63 formed in the breech end of the frame and secured to a guide rod 64. The guide rod 64 is supported for fore and aft sliding movement in a plug 65closing the rear end of the bore 63, and a hammer 66 is slidably mounted on the rod 64. The hammer is normally urged toward the anvil by a coil spring 61 surrounding the guide rod 64 between the rear end of the hammer and the plug 65.

The hammer is normally held in its rearwardmost position wherein the coil spring 6l is compressed by a Sear 68 suitably pivotally supported on the frame l2 of the gun below the bore 63. The sear e8 is actuated by the trigger 6o through the medium of a bell crank lever 69 having one arm le engageable with the sear and having the other arm 1| engageable with the trigger. The Sear 68 is normally urged by suitable spring means i2 to a position in engagement with the hammer 66 and is released from the hammer by movement of the trigger in a rearward direction. Of course, releasing the scar from the hammer enables the spring 61 to throw the hammer forwardly against the anvil 62, and the resulting impact is transmitted to the valve 29 by the pin 6|.

The force of the 'impactis predetermined to momentarily retract the valve member 32 from its seat against the action of the air pressure in the receiving chamber to permit a limited amount of air under pressure to enter the barrel in rear of the pellet I6. The air under pressure entering the barrel is sufficient to discharge the pellet from the barrel at the specied velocity. Immediately following the impact, the valve 29 is, of course, instantaneously closed by the substantial pressure in the receiving chamber, so that only a minimum amount of air is released during each successive operation of the valve 29.

The hammer 56 is returned to its cocked position by means of a slide l5 supported onthe gun frame 2 at the breech end of the barrel for sliding movement and having a block 'I6 depending therefrom in the path of travel of the hammer 6B. Attention is called to the fact that the construction is such that during retracting movement of the hammer by the slide 15, the opening I8 is exposed to enable a shot to be inserted into the barrel rearwardly of the passage 21. This shot is transferred to a position in advance of the passage 2l by a pin l1 slidably supported in the breech end of the barrel and connected to the block 16.

Thus from the foregoing, it will be observed that I have provided a pneumatic gun wherein a substantially constant supply of compressed air is available for a given number of successive shots, so that each shot is discharged. from the barrel at practically the same velocity. It will further be noted that only a relatively small amount of air is released during each operation so that a considerable number of shots may be discharged from the gun without replenishing the supply in the storage chamber.

What I claim as my invention is:

1. A hand carriable self-contained pneumatic gun including a barrel through which shot is propelled, housing means including a chamber extending generally parallel to said barrel, means attimo.

ieperating' -s'eidchambe'rrrmto a 'Stora-gecharmee- .adapted to containasupply-'ofair under lbreslsure 1l and J an# adj acer-itA receiving eharnbe'r 'cn- 'lillflible with VSaid'll'el,` anrhflally -Cl'QSed yvalve'controlling;eeiimuriieationbetvveensaidreceiving-chamber and fsa-id barrel,means-teramoiner'itarlyscpeningjsaidfvalve te perinit communi- `'ca-tionl net vve'en"said-v receiving chairiberu anclfsaid barrel, i said grius'ingfmeans having a second 'hainber extending generally parallel-to the first fchamb'er, 'a fpress'urev regulater valve-disposed in 'said second chamber, *a Jpassageway extending laterallyifrmsaid storage chamberanticom- "municating'said vstorage hai'nber with said pres- '-'surfe regulating Yvalve', a' seeon'dipa'ssageway"exjtending'laterally `frein 'said receiving 'chamber 'and ebinmunicating Saidre'ceiving 'chamber with saidjpress'ure "regulating valve, said regulator Vvailfvebeing rresponsiveto theA pressure in thereceivirig chamber forautomatically maintaining a Substantially uniform pressure in vsaid receiving- Y chamber "so long as'the'pressure in saidstora'ge chamber is as `hig'has saidrrece'iving chamber pressure, whereby substantially the same nuid pressure is communicated to said barrel each time said normally-closed valveis opened, without recharging said storage cliamberuntil the pressure therein hasfdiminished below a `predetermined value.

-2. A-hand'carriable seli-stsontnained pneumatic igun including' a barrel throughwhich shot is propelled, housingmeansincluding a chamber extending generally-parallel tof said barrel, means *separating said chamberinto a storage chamber adapted to contain a supply of airV under pressure and an-adjaeent :receiving-'chamber'eolnmiinlcable with 'saidfbarrel; a' normally cl'osed' valve 4""c'ontrolling communication between said receiving-chamber-Sand said barreL'means forrnome'ntarily penin'g f said valveto .permit ciommuniczationl between said receivirigl chamber and said vbarrel?saicllrcus- Y ing-- means having fa second A'c'ha-rnlcfer' extending generallyv parallel to the' rst chamber,V a" pressure regulator valve disposed inv said' second chamber, afpassagewaylextending laterally from VYsaidstor age chamber f and 'communicating said storage chamber with "said -pressure- `regulating vvah'reya seeondpassageway extending laterallyr from 'said receiving chamber and communicatingV said re-'f REFERENCE-s CITED Arae renewing references lare ef record in the iilesof this patent:

UNITED "STATES PATENTS

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Classifications
U.S. Classification124/76, 124/70, 137/505.11, 124/37, 124/65
International ClassificationF41B11/00, F41B11/32
Cooperative ClassificationF41B11/72
European ClassificationF41B11/72