US 2595267 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 6, 1952 M. E. JULLIARD 2,595,267
' COMBINATION LOCK Filed March 6, 1946 4 Sheets-Sheet l arwyw y 6, 1952 M. E. JULLIARD 2,595,267
Filed March 6, 1946 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Mar/a? ans/ma JflzL/az y 6, 1952 I M. E. JULLIARD 2,595,267
COMBINATION LOCK Filed March 6, 1946 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 A 55 O Maw/(5 77M O Juan/9R0 9 e9 49 1 %WW May 6, 1952 M. E. JULLIARD COMBINATION LOCK 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed March 6, 1946 Patented May 6, 1952 Application March 6, 1946, Serial No. 652,308: In France November: 23, .1943' Section 1, Public Law 690', A11gust 8,1946 Patent expires November '23, 1963 8 Claims.
1 In French Patent Ser. No. 830,327 a combination lock is described (especially applicable'as a door-lock for vehicles) which is operated" by means of a key carrying a plurality of pins which are individually adjustable as to their heights and which, when introduced into bores or guide sleeves in the lock, will cause slots or notches provided at the ends of tumblers slidably. received in said guide-sleeves to come into alignment; suchalignment first allowing'the swivelling ofa fence to actuate the lock bolt.
The present invention has for its objectimprovements in locks of this type for the purpose of extendiri its application to pieces of'furniture,.
According to a first feature of the invention the slots or notches are provided at theperipheries of combination cams of discs which are actuated by the tumblers through the medium either of links or racks or gear wheels.
The slots or notchesare variously located at the peripheries of the several combination discsand in such manner that the slots or notches in the various discs will be brought into alignment with one another by unequal displacements of the related tumblers, the height of the projecting portion of each pin being proportional to. the travel of the corresponding tumbler.
In. one particular embodiment a swingable fence is adapted to engage the slots or notches in" the combination discs after the samehave been brought into alignment, said fence subsequently causing a latch to rock clear of thelock bolt.
The lock in the unlatched condition can be rotated to the extent of a definite angl'eior. the.
actuation of the bolt either'by means of' a fork or preferably by means of gear wheels,.in which case' the teeth are brought into engagement upon a slight axial displacement of the lockasa. unit.
Ina. modified embodiment the locleunlatching means may consist of afixed fence whereby a definite inward movement of the lock isonly possible when the alignment of theslotsin the combination discs is obtained, said inward movement resulting inthe engagement of theteethfor the actuation of the bolt (spur wheel andring, or rack-and-pinion, or equivalent arrangement).
The members (links or racks'depending on the design) which provide for the'connection between the tumblers and the combination discs can be made to act upon members angularly adjustable with respect to said discs instead of directly actuating the latter or gear wheels rigid therewith,
2 which makes it possible to alter: the combination: of'eacli disc:
In one particular embodimenuthe connecting) spider whose spring arms arepressed'against the combination disc to which movement is imparted by the engagement of'projections'on said arms into depressions or note-hes in thedisc.
The casing in which the barrel, the tumblers and the combination discs are housed and which: can be moved inwardly to'set the bolt-actuating teeth: into engagement can be latched in either its protracted or its retracted position with the aidof a latch projecting through either hole of a pair drilled in the casing, so that the lock can be madeinoperable even by somebody possessing the right key, while the latching in the protracted position allows the combination to bealtered at will by adapting the position of the notches in the" discs to'theadjustableefiective height of thepins' on thekey.
Theback'drum of the lock which provides thebolt-actuating pinion can be operated from the insideby means of a' knob;
Thel'o'ck is provided at the outer'side'thereof' with a keeper plate having a pair of notches cut, therein" which, in combination with a pairof shoulders; on the-key; body, provide a bayonet coupling by which the'key isretained onceit has been engaged; which relievestheuserfromthe:
necessity, ofmaintaining his'pressure for'theoperationof' the lock.
Further details-of the invention will be more? specificallypointed out in the following description taken in connection with the appended drawing in which several. embodiments of vvthis invention are illustrated, formerely'indicativepurpose, as follows:
Figure 1 shows a fundamental-form ofthe'lock and the lock can be moved inwardly as a whole; I
Figure 5 is a perspective view of-' an improved embodiment proceedingfrom the one just men tioned Figure 6 is a detail view showing the connection of the links;
Figure 7 illustrates another modification in sectional view taken on line VIIVII in Fig. 8;
Figure 8 is a sectional view taken on line VIII- VIII in Fig. '7
Figure 9 illustrates an angularly adjustable connection between the tumblers and the combination discs;
Figure 10 illustrates the lock with removed cap and bolt;
Figure 11 shows the bolt-actuating drum.
The key l carries in known manner pins 2 whose effective heights can be adjusted by means of screws 3 having knurled heads 5 which may be manipulated in slots which are cut in key I and in which said heads are received, a catchlike action thus being obtained by the pressure of springs B.
On the other hand, set in a rotatably mounted lock plate 9 are guiding sleeves 8 in which tumblers I are slidably received which are urged by springs [3 and are adapted to actuate combination discs H) which are provided with notches H3 at various locations of their-peripheries.
The tumblers I may be connected with said discs is by means of racks H integral with said tumblers and co-operating with pinions l2 fixed to discs H) (Figs. 1 and 2).
Such connection could also be attained by links 6| (Figs. 4 to 6) pivoted both to tumblers I and to discs [0, or by any other suitable connecting means.
It will be appreciated that by shifting the tumblers 1 a suitable distance with the aid of pins 2 whose effective heights are accordingly adjusted, it is possible to bring the gates or notches l4 i nto alignment.
In the example shown in Figs. 1 to 3 a U- shaped fence i5, mounted for swinging motion about the axis it carried in a frame l operatively connected with plate 9, is enabled, once said alignment is obtained, to engage into the notches M in response to the action of a spring H. In the course of such movement the fence, through the medium of a dog 18, becomes operative upon a latch l9, biased by a spring .29 and swingable about axis it, to disengage said latch from the slot in bolt 2! in which it has been engaged hitherto, which releases the bolt 2| that henceforth can be actuated by any suitable means, e. g. (Fig. 3) by the rotation of plate 9 which will shift said bolt 2| through the medium of a fork 24 (which limits the stroke of the bolt) or of the spur wheel 62 and the spur ring 63 as in the case of the example shown in Fig. 4, or of a pinion 35 and a rack 36 similarly to the arrangement provided in the examples shown in Figs. and q.-
A push button 22 operable from the outside and acting upon a leg 23 (Fig. 1) of latch I9 allows disengagement of the fence I5 from the notches i4 and to latch the look again, e. g. when going out, without using the key (since the springs I3 will bring back the plungers l to their released positions and throw the notches l4 out of alignment).
In the modification shown quite diagrammatically in Fig. 4 the fence '5 is stationary while the aggregate consisting of plate 9, the guiding sleeves 8, the tumblers T and the discs ID (with which they are connectedby rod links 5 l which as a whole is enclosed in a casing or a simple housing 42, can be shifted longitudinally to the tent of some millimeters and protracted in the direction shown by the arrow F provided the notches H! are aligned and will thus allow the fence 15 to engage therewith. Such shifting will bring the pinion 62 into engagement with the spur ring 63 (or the rack 36 as in the example shown in Fig. 5) so that the bolt can be actuated. A spring 46 will retract the whole structure to its starting position.
In the improved embodiment shown in Figs. 5 and 6, which is based upon the above principle, the connecting links iii are pivoted at one end thereof to a hub 64 (Fig. 6) instead of directly to the (twin-jaw) discs, which are tightly fitted on said hub, the latter allowing adjustment at will of the discs 10 angularly for the purpose of changing the combination. All the hubs 64 are threaded on one and the same shaft 26 rotatably mounted at the ends thereof in casing E2.
The fence I5 which is fixed in the direction of movement of the tumblers 7 is carried by the rear rotatable drum 32 which forms a pinion 35 designed to engage with the teeth 36 of a rack formed on the bolt 2!.
The casing 42 itself, which is centrally guided in drum 32, has notches 29 and can be shifted for a few millimeters while the notches M in the discs are engaged by fence [5.
Interposed between drum 32 and a collar A? on shiftable casing 42 is a return coil spring 46 which permanently tends to shift the casing and the parts carried by it clear of fence i5, as shown by the arrow F. Said casing can be arrested in either position by means of a latch 61 which will be held by collar 41, said latch being operable from the outside of said casing by appropriate means such as lever 61'.
By making the casing 42 (for instance during night time) immovable in its retracted position (clear of the fence l5) the block becomes inoperable even by somebody possessing the right key, while following the latching of casing 12 in its position of engagement on the fence (as shown in Fig. 5) it will be possible, with the locked discs, to change the combination by angularly adjusting the hub 64 with respect to the discs I0, by altering the effective heights of the pins 2 of the key. If necessary for the purpose of the said adjustment, the tumblers can be outwardly pushed by means of a smaller spindle threaded into a hole I tapped in each tumbler l. During such an adjustment the discs in will skid on their respective hubs.
The drum 32 acting as pinion 35 can at all times be operated from the inside with the aid of a knob 60.
Finally, a plate keeper 44 formed with a pair of slots 5| will preferably be secured in front of the lock to retain the key I once the same has been inserted for unlocking purposes, said key being formed with shoulders 52 in the fashion of a bayonet coupling. The key thus will not be pushed back (direction F) by the action of spring 45 if the user should fail to go on pushing the key in the direction F.
In the improved embodiment shown in Figs. '7 to 11 a barrel 9 is provided in which tumblers 7 are returned to their positions of rest by springs l3 accommodated in the hollows of the tumblers I which are formed at their sides with racks ll (Fig. 9) projecting through a slot 38 and cut lengthwise of a generatrix of guiding sleeves 8 into a recess 3! (Fig. 8) provided in the barrel 9. Y
Each pinion is coupled with a corresponding disc I 0 (freely mounted on the common shaft 26) whereby the discs H3; (and the notches l4'there-.
in) can be adjustedangularly as desired.-
By suitably rotating-the discs Hi the notches l4 therein are-brought into alignmentwith one another and with a groove 29 (Fig. 8) provided in barrel 9,- which groove is engageable by atongue 34. for'thea'ctuation of -bolt 2-1.
An additional groove- 29' and an additional tongue-34 are provided (Fig. 8) in order to im-' prove the connection.
Drum 3-2 is rotatably-mounted-in the housing 38 f the lock. and the handle or theiknob necessary for the operation of the look from within a' room is secured on a central projection 39 of said drum. n
The bolt 2! and the barrel 9 are housed in the lock casing 45. As regards this barrel, the same is rigidly connected by a screw 23 (Fig. '7) with the casing 42 which in turn is arranged in a housing 44 provided at the front side thereof with an aperture 45 for the accommodation of the key,
said aperture being slottedat 5| as alreadypointed out.
This lock operates similarly to'the one lastdescribed (Figs. 5 and 8).
The barrel 9 with its casing 42 can be shifted in the direction of the arrow F (Fig. 8) as a result of sufiicient thrust being exerted thereon with the key insertedthrough the aperture 45 in housing 44 to overcome the resistance of spring 46. However, such a protraction of the barrel is only possible when the grooves 29, 29 therein register with the tongues 34, 34 on drum 32 and when the notches M in discs in all register with groove 29.
By this shifting motion the barrel 9 is rigidly coupled with the back drum 32 and any rotation of the barrel with result in a rotation of the back drum 32 and through it of pinion for actuating the bolt 2|.
The key can only be inserted through the aperture in the housing 44 in the diametrical plane through the slots 5!, which plane corresponds to the plane of alignment of tumblers I. From the very beginning of the rotation the shoulders 52 on the key engage behind the circular Wall of the housing 44, whereby the key I is retained from being ejected by the thrust of spring 46. The user is thus enabled to operate the key without being compelled to exert any further pressure.
As soon as the key, after a revolution, is again in registry with the slots 51 the key is ejected from the opening 45.
The lock bolt 2| can be actuated at any time with the aid of a knob 40 or a handle or another equivalent member without the barrel 9 being operated, provided that no key pins are inserted in the lock.
With a key inserted in the lock the latter can be operated just as easily, except that the key I will be pushed out as soon as it comes into alignment with the tumblers 7.
In order to bring about registry between the tongues 34, 35 on the back drum and the grooves 29, 29 in the barrel, the back drum 32 is provided at its periphery with a pair of notches 53 (Fig. 11) into which a catch 54 (Fig. 10) can enter which is carried by a spring strip 55 secured to the lock casing ll. The two .positions of tongues 34, 3 3 which are angularly spaced by 180 from each other, are thus marked by the catch 54 acting as a stop.
Ifthebolt 2-! is to serve both as a dead bolt and a spring bolt, a spring 5t-must thenbe arranged in the casing 41. to-act, upon the bevel-headed bolt. r
Astop El can besecured in the case for limiting thetravel of the spring when the bolt becomes.
a .dead bolt. p n
Thelock thus described affords complete safety in operation and iswholly pick-proof although its adjustmentisan extremely simple one.
A look designedas described above can beused just as well in houses ason automobiles or trunks or forother purposes. t can also beapplied wherever, movable parts are to be locked.
It will be readily appreciated. that this invention admits of manifoldembodiments and that alterations can be made in details of the abovedescribed arrangement without thereby departing from the spirit of thisinvention.
1. In a combination lock] operable by means of a key carrying aplurality of pins of different lengths; a lock casing, a bolt guided in said'casing for movement in two opposite directions, a frame rotatably mounted in said casing about an axis at rightangles to the direction of movement of said bolt and provided'with a plurality of bores in Whichsaid key pins are adapted. to be inserted, a springjactuated tumbler in eachof said bores ,and adapted to be inovedagainst the action of locking discs corresponding to the number of tumblers and rotatably mounted in said frame, each disc being provided with a notch, means connecting each of said tumblers with a corresponding disc whereby said discs may be rotated to bring the notches thereof in alignment with one another upon movement or" said tumblers by said key pins into said bores, a fence rotatable about said axis at right angles to the direction of movement of the bolt and adapted to be engaged in said notches when the same have been brought into alignment position upon introduction of said pins into said bores, whereby said frame, tumblers, locking discs and fence form then a rotatable unit, and cooperating means on said fence and on said bolt and adapted to move said bolt when said unit is rotated by said key.
2. In a combination lock operable by means of a key carrying a plurality of pins of difierent lengths; a lock casing, a bolt guided in said casing for movement in two opposite directions, a frame rotatably mounted in said casing about an axis at right angles to the direction of movement of said bolt and provided with a plurality of bores in which said key pins are adapted to be inserted, said frame being slidably guided in said casing in the direction of its axis of rotation, spring means adapted to urge said frame towards the exterior of said casing, a spring pressed tumbler in each of said bores and adapted to be moved towards the interior of the casing when said key pins are introduced into said bores, parallelly disposed locking discs rotatably mounted in said frame, each disc being provided with a notch on its periphery, means connecting each of said tumblers with a corresponding disc and adapted to rotate said discs and to bring said notches of all the .discs in alignment when said tumblers are moved by the key pins upon introduction thereof into said bores, a fence rotatably mounted about said axis at right angles to the direction of the movement of the bolt and adapted to be engaged in said notches when the same have been brought into alignment upon introduction of said pins into said bores and when said frame has been moved in the direction of said axis of rotation against the action of said spring means, whereby said frame, tumblers, locking discs and fence form then'f-a rotatable assembly, and means operatively connected with said fence and with said bolt-'and adapted to cooperate when said frame has been moved inwards so as to move said bolt when-said assembly is rotated by said key.
3. A combination lock according to claim 2, in which said frame is provided with at least one recess adapted to engage said fence when said frame is moved inwards.
4. A combination lock according to claim 2, including an operating member provided on the exterior of the casing and on the side opposite to that of said bores and operatively connected with said fence in order to move the bolt iridependently of said frame.
5. A combination lock according to claim 2, including a latch member operable from the exterior of said casing and adapted to cooperate with said frame in order to maintain said frame in any one of its two extreme positions inthe direction of said axis of rotation. I
6. A combination lock according to claim 2, in which said casing is provided at a slight distance from the bores in said frame with a wall having a circular aperture concentric with said axis of rotation, and two diametrically opposite notches for the passage of the key provided in the inner periphery of said aperture.
7. A combination lock according to claim 1, in which said means connecting a tumbler with a disc comprises a hub on which said disc is adapted to be frictionally engaged in different angular positions, and a connecting rod pivoted at one end to said tumbler and at the other end to said hub.
8. A combination lock according to claim 1, in which said means connecting a tumbler with a disc comprises a shaft on which said disc is freely rotatable, a pinion secured on said shaft, means between said pinion and said disc adapted to connect said pinion and disc in difierent angular relative positions, and a rack operatively connected with said tumbler and meshing with said pinion.
MAURICE ETIENNE JULLIARD.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 17,740 Isham July '7, 1857 669,045 Hopkins Feb. 26, 1901 1,366,161 Clark Jan. 18, 1921 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 251,106 Great Britain Apr. 29, 1926