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Publication numberUS2595328 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 6, 1952
Filing dateApr 29, 1949
Priority dateApr 29, 1949
Publication numberUS 2595328 A, US 2595328A, US-A-2595328, US2595328 A, US2595328A
InventorsClaude T Bowen
Original AssigneeGoodrich Co B F
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Heat-transfer container
US 2595328 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

M y 1952 c. 'r BOWEN HEAT TRANSFER CONTAINER Filed April 294 1949 iffynL/E777bza C/au E 7250241527 i 'aiented May 6, T952 HEAT-TRANSFER CONTAINER ClaudeT. Bowen,- Kent, Ohio, assignor to 'lfhe B. F. Goodrichcjompany, New York, N. Y., .a.

corporation of New. York ApplicationApriiZi), 1949, Serial No. 90,507

8. Claims.

The invention rel-atestosealed containers having a heat-storing substance for applying heat to a body by transfer of the heatfrom. thecontainer to the body, orv removing heat from the body by transferof theheat from the body to. the container for therapeutic and other purposes.

Hot water bottles and ice bags as heretofore constructed, when filled with hot or cold water or brokenice, often have beendiificult to maintain liquid-tight and have been inconvenient to refill. They have also hadthe-objectionthat the waterflows to and the ice congests in one low place resulting inlocalized heat-transferring action andinvolving difiiculty. ofholding these devices in place on the body. The use of piecesof ice in the ice. bags results in relatively stifi, uneven outer walls of the ice. bags which thereby lack pliability-and yieldability and make it difiicult to obtain continuously close conformance-to thecontour of thebody. Priorconstructions utilizing partitions or intercommunicating chambered arrangements have permitted only limited articulation and have undulyrestricted the con tinui'ty of yieldability of ,thewalls presented to the body, especially where thecontained material has been ice.

An object of the invention is to provide ;a,flex ible heat-transferring container for disposition in heat-transferring relationto a body;ewhichjcontainer has provision forovercoming effectivelythe foregoing and other disadvantages.

Other objects are to provide a sealed, flexible container having contained theremaheat-storing substance which may be suitableespecially for Warming the body, or alternatively, a heatstoringsubstance which may be suitable especially for'c'ooling; the body; or a heat-storingsubstance that itselfis well-suited for eithjer'warm ing or cooling the body, together. with wheattransferringmaterial for applying the heat to or removing it from the body'; tozprovide for continuity of close conformance of the containerjto the contour of the'body; and to provideisimplicity of construction, convenience of manufacture and use, and for eiiectiveness of operation.

More specific objects are to provide for retaining the heat-storing substance and the heat transferring'material in separated, heat-exchanging relation to oneanother; to provide for extensive flexibility of the containervas a whole together with yieldability and flexibility ofa flexiblelouter Wall thereof despite the presence of a solid,v heat-storing substance within the con.-

tai-ner; to provide for separating the heat-stor- 2. connected -to one-another; -to-pro v ide for yieldably and flexibly supporting the-outerwall. in spaced-apart relation'to an;in ner-hollow element having contained heat-storing substance; to provide for permanently containing-a substance capable of a change of state for-heat-storing capacity and also a heat-transferring material capable of remaining ;in a pliable; deformable and flowable condition at. temperatures encountered in use of the container.

These and other objects and advantagesof the invention-will be apparent from the following description.

In the accompanying, drawings which form a part of this specification and-in-which like numerals are employed to designate like parts throughout the same:

Fig. 1 isa plan view from above showing a double-walled container or padsui-tableior ther apeutic use and constructed inaccordancewith and embodying the invention, partslbeing broken away,

Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken alQngline-ZQ- Z of Fig. Lpartsbeing broken away, and- Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken along lines-+3 of Fig.1, parts being broken away.

The illustrative" embodiment of the I invention shown in. the drawings, is. adouble-walld, .iixible container. or pad 5' which has. therein aheatstoring substance 6, and also'has. a lreatetransfer? ring .fiowable material I disposedbetween the: walls to supportyieldably .a flexible outer-wall iii, of the container. WhenQthelcontainefE having. the desired temperature condition is po-- sitioned in; heat-transferring relation to a body,; it applies heat; to or: alternatively removes. heatfrom the body as for therapeuticipurposes.

The container. has a plurality of closedtrecep-i tacles 8'; 8 of substantially fluid-tight, fiexiblen aterial. The receptacles are spaced-apart and hingedly-connected one to anothenin-flexibleand preferably also stretchable zones;'9,- 9 for facili-' tating-flexure of thecontainer as awhole': The assembly of these hinged receptacles 8,]8provi de's a*c1osed,.hol1ow inner element or envelope .15, of

articulated, construction. Each receptacle; 8 has permanently contained therein the .desirediquane tity of the heat-storingliquidor other substance 6. The constructionand arrangement of the-ree ceptacles 8, 8 and zones.9,..9 provides. maximum 3 tour of the body even though the heat-storing substance 6 be in a solid state.

The container 5 has a flexible, outer envelope I of suitable fluid-tight, flexible material disposed entirely about and marginally secured at II, I I and I2, I2 to the inner envelope I as shown in the drawings. This provides upper and lower outer walls I3 and I4 of flexible and yieldable characteristics, which walls span the margins II, II and I2, I2 so as to be in spaced relationship toand disposed over the plurality of receptacles 8, 8 and over the hinged connections 9, 9 between them. The continuous walls l3, I4, as shown in the drawings, have smoothness of outer surface promoting continuity of close conformance of the outer walls to the contour of the body; but such walls may be covered with fabric or otherwise treated as by the application of flock to provide a suede-like surface.

The heat-transferring flowable material I is contained permanently between the receptacles 8, 8 and the outer envelope I0. The material I remains in a pliable, deformable and flowable condition at all temperatures encountered in use of the container 5, but flow of the material I between the upper and lower enclosed spaces of the container is prevented. The material I thus constitutes yieldable, heat-transferring means supporting yieldably and flexibly the wall I3, I4 of the outer envelope III in spaced relationship to the receptacles 8, 8 and the hinged connections between them. The disposition of the material I together with its flowability facilitates continuity of yieldabiJity and flexure of the outer walls I3, I4 for close conformance to the contour of the body and for effective heat-transference.

The container may be conveniently produced by making and filling the inner envelope I5 and subsequently assembling the outer envelope I0 therewith and filling the space between the envelopes. The inner envelope may, for example, be made by uniting a pair of superimposed sheets of the fluid-tight, flexible material along their margins II, II and I2, I2, desirably by heatsealing with a hot iron or tool (not shown), a small opening being left at one corner. The space between the joined sheets is then filled with the desired quantity of heat-storing liquid substance 6 introduced through a hollow needle (not shown) extending through the opening, whereby the infiowing liquid substance 6 forces the contained air out the opening, after which such opening is closed by heat-sealing. The sheets are next pressed into face-to-face contact with one another at spaced-apart zones 9, 9 crossing each other at intervals between the margins, and are united along the zones 9, 9 by heat-sealing to provide the desired plurality of filled receptacles 9, 8 hingedly connected by the zones 9, 9 as shown in the drawings.

The outer envelope I0 may then be made by disposing a first sheet of suitable flexible material over the upper face and a second sheet of the material under the lower face of the inner envelope I5 and joining the first and second sheets to the margins II, II and I2, I2 by heat-sealing, but leaving a small upper and lower opening at one corner. The upper and lower spaces between the outer envelope I0 and the inner envelope I5 are each filled with heat-transferring liquid material I in a manner like that employed to fill the inner envelope with the heat-storing liquid substance 6, and are subsequently sealed.

The fiuid-tight,.fiexible material of the inner and outer envelopes l0 and I5 may be thermoplastic material. When thermoplastic sheet material is utilized, it may be reinforced or unreinforced, as desired. Suitable thermoplastics are plasticized polyethylene, plasticized polyvinyl acetate, plasticized polyvinyl chloride and other related resinous materials. Such resinous materials have the characteristics of imperviousness; flexibility and stretchability at temperatures encountered in use; resistance to deterioration from high and low temperatures and from the heatstoring substance and the heat-transferring flowable material utilized, and from sterilizing materials; and desirably also capability of union under the application of heat by the hot tool or electronic heating apparatus. Also, the fluidtight, flexible material may be natural or synthetic rubber or other rubber-like materials, reinforced or unreinforced, as desired.

The heat-storing substance 6 may be water, or a water solution containing a temperature-depressant material like a salt or alcohol or glycerol or mixtures thereof, and capable of a change of state as from a liquid to a solid or semi-solid, frozen condition, and is suitable especially for cooling the body. Alternatively, the heat-storing substance 6 may be ice or other suitable refrigerant material capable of a change of state for cooling the body; or a heat-storing substance which at ordinary room temperatures (70 to F., for example), may be in granular or powder form and which at higher temperatures (104 to about 212 F.), melts and changes to a liquid state, and is suitable especially for warming the body. The latter heat-storing substance 6 is, for example, stannic chloride trihydrate, or sodium metaborate dehydrate, or manganese dichloride tetrahydrate, or calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, each of which may, if desired, be mixed with glycerine, for example, in the proportion of about 97% heat-storing substance and about 3% glycerine for flexibility and other purposes.

The heat-transferring flowable material I may be brine or a water solution of alcohol, or glycerol or ethylene glycol or mixtures thereof having a lower freezin point than that of the heat-storing substance 6. Alternatively, the flowable material I may be a gas such as air or nitrogen or helium, or may be small, solid particles such as sand, ground cork, soapstone, resilient rubber, and diatomaceous earth, or mixtures of the same. All of these materials are pliable, flowable and deformable within the range of temperatures encountered in use.

Although the same flowable material I is shown between the inner and outer envelopes, it is to be understood that different flowable material I of different heat-conductivity may be provided in the upper space than that in the lower spaceas for reducing the loss of heat to the atmosphere, especially during application of the container to the body. Also, the flowable material I utilized may have relatively low heat-conductivity characteristics as compared to that of brine or water solution so as to reduce the rate of heat-transfer to the body or from the body, whereby an extensive period of treatment by the container is facili tated before chilling or heating of the container is again required.

To utilize the heat-transferring container for applying heat to the body, the container or pad 5 may be first heated to the desired temperature as by immersion in a pot of heated water. When the pad is applied to the body, the heat stored in the heat-storing substance 6 is transmitted by the flowable material 'I to the body.

To: utilize the heat-transferring container :for removing heat from the body, the container or pad'may be chilled to the desired temperature as by refrigeration. When the chilled pad is applied to thebody, the heat of the body is transmitted by the flowable material I to the heatstoring substance 6 thus raising the temperature of the latter 6 until the temperature of the body is reached.

The heat-transferring container, in either the heated or the chilled condition, provides a temperature differential between the container and the body, whereby a heat-exchange relationship is establishedbetween thesame. For either of these conditions, the construction and arrangement of thereceptacles 8, 8 together-with the flexibility, giveand stretchability of the zones 9, 9 interconnecting the same, provide substantial hinging and relative swinging movement of thereceptacles in one or more directions of the container..

The extensive articulation of the inner envelope lithusprovided advantageously facilitates the:approximate conformance of all the filled receptacles to the body, while the outer wall I3, for-example, is flexed for disposition in heattransferring relation to the body, when the container as-a whole-is conformed to the contour of-the body. The outer wall l3 yields andv flexes in close conformance tothe body, whether the contained heat-storing substance 6 be in the liquid-or the solid state; inasmuch as the contained heat transferring flowable material 7 flows-relatively freelyand substantially unhindered over the receptacles 8, 8 and zones 9, 9 to support yieldably and flexibl the outer wall throughout the extent of the latter, which support permits the desired, close conformance. The other outer wall Mbeing flexible and yield ably:'supported, also flexes as required to permit applying the container to the body. There is littleor no tendency of the container to slip fromthe desired position onthe body, especially since the heat-storing :substance 6- is separated intoiself contained units, i. e., contained'within thesealed receptacles 8, 8.

Variations may be made without departing from thexscope of the invention as it is defined in the following claims.

1 claim:

Atherapeutic pad comprising internal compartments containing a heat-storing substance permanently-sealed therein-for exchange of heat withthe exterior ofisaid pad through a heatconducting material also permanently sealed in saidpad-about said compartments, said pad being of generally uniform thickness having coextensive imperforate wallsof flexible impervious material inspaced-apart approximately parallel relationand joined one to the other marginally in sealedrelation permanently throughout, and disposed between said walls in spaced relation thereto-andcontaini-ng said heat-storing substance a group of said compartments hingedly connected one to: another and. each of imperforate impervious wall material marginally sealed permanently throughout the compartment, said group of compartmentsoccupying an area substantially coextensive with said walls and being sealed marginally to said walls permanently throughout theextentof the latter providing confined space outside said compartments which space contains said heat-conducting material, said heat transferrin'g material being flowable at all temperatures betweemthat'of said heat-storing material and an animate body during therapeutic treatment of the body-by the'pad said pad being flexible-as a whole by virtue of the hinged'con nections and the flexibility of said walls and the flowable nature of said heat-conducting material as said pad is conformed to the contour of the body into heat-transferring relation thereto.

2. A therapeutic pad containing heat-storing and heat-conducting materials permanently sealed therein and being of generally uniform thickness and flexible as a whole for ready conformance to the contour of an animate body, said pad comprising coextensive imperforate outer walls of flexible impervious material in spacedapart approximately parallel relation and joined one to the other marginally in sealed relation .permanently throughout, and disposed between said walls in spaced relation thereto and containing the heat-storing material a group of compartments of flexible imperforate impervious wall material hingedly connected one to another for flexibility of the group, eachcompartment being marginally sealed permanently throughout, said group of compartments occupying'an areassub stantially coextensive with said walls and being sealed marginally to said walls permanently throughout the extent of the latter, said --heatstoringmaterial bein capable of'changeof state and by virtue thereof havingincreased heat: storing capacity, and said heat-conducting. material being flowable over a range of temperatures from normal room temperature to be yond the temperature at which said change of state of the heat-storing material occurs andsaid heat-conducting material being disposed between said group of compartments and said walls and backing said walls flexibly in their spacedrela' tion to said group and to the hinged connections, thereof for ready flexibility of said pad as a" whole as it is conformed to the contour of the" body into heat-transferring relation thereto.

3. A therapeutic pad comprising internal comp-artments containin a heat-storing material capable of change of state permanently sealed therein for exchange of heat with the exterior ofsaid pad through a heat-conducting material also permanently sealed in said pad about said compartments, said pad'being of generally uniform thickness having co-extensive imperforatewalls of flexible impervious material in spacedapart approximately parallel relation and joined one to the other marginally in sealed relation" permanently throughout, and disposed between said walls in spaced relation thereto and containing said heat-storingsubstance a group of -'s'aid compartments hingedly connected one to another and each of imperforate impervious-wall material marginally sealed permanently throughout-the;

compartment, said group of compartmentsoccupying an area substantiall coextensive with said walls and being sealed marginally to said walls permanently throughout the extent. of-the latter providing confined space outsidesaid com partments which space contains said heat-comducting material, said heat-transferringmate rial being a liquid flowable overv a'range -of temperatures from normal room temperature to be yond the temperatureat which said change of state of said heat-storing material occurs, said pad being flexible as a whole by virtue of the hinged connections and the flexibility of said walls and the flowable nature of said heat-conducting material as said pad is conformed to thecontour of an animate body into heat-transferring relation thereto.

4. A therapeutic pad containing heat-storing and heat-conducting materials permanently sealed therein and being of generally uniform thickness and flexible as a whole for ready conformance to the contour of an animate body, said pad comprising coextensive outer imperforate walls of flexible impervious material in spacedapart approximately parallel relation and joined one to the other marginally in sealed relation permanently throughout, and disposed between said walls in spaced relation thereto and containing the heat-storing material a group of compartments of flexible, imperforate impervious wall material hingedly connected one to another for flexibility of the group, each compartment being marginally sealed permanently throughout, said group of compartments occupying an area substantially coextensive with said walls and being sealed marginally to said walls permanently throughout the extent of the latter, said heatstoring material being a liquid at normal room temperature and capable of change of state and by virtue thereof having increased heat-storing capacity and the heat-conducting material being a liquid flowable overa range of temperatures from normal room temperature to beyond the temperature at which said change of state of said heat-storing material occurs and said heatconducting material being disposed between said group of compartments and said walls and backing said walls flexibly in their spaced relation to said group and to the hinged connections thereof for ready flexibility of said pad as a whole as it is conformed to the contour of the body into heat-transferring relation thereto.

5, A therapeutic pad comprising internal compartments containing a heat-storing substance permanently sealed therein for exchange of heat with the exterior of said pad through a heatconducting material also permanently sealed in said pad about said compartments, said pad being of generally uniform thickness having coextensive imperforate walls of flexible impervious material in spaced-apart approximately parallel relation and joinedone to the other marginally in sealed relation perlnanently throughout, and disposed between said walls in spaced relation thereto and containing the heat-storing substance a group of said compartments hingedly connected one to another and each of'flexible imperforate impervious wall material marginally sealed permanently throughout the compartinent, said heat-storing substance beingl capable of-a change of state and by virtue thereof having increased heat-storing capacity, said group of compartments occupying an area substantially coextensive with said walls and being sealed marginally to said walls permanently throughout the extent of the latter providing confined space outside said compartments which space contains said heat-conducting material, said heat-conducting material being a liquid flowable over a range of temperatures from normal room temperature'to beyond the temperature at which said change ofstate of said heat-storing material occurs, and said pad being flexible as a whole by virtue of the hinged connections and the flexibility of said walls and the flowable nature of said heat-conducting material as said pad is conformed to the contour of an animate body into heat-transferring relation thereto.

.6. A therapeutic pad containing heat-storing and heat-conducting materials permanently sealed therein and being of generally uniform thickness and flexible as a whole for ready conformance to the contour of an animate body, said pad comprising coextensive imperforate outer walls of flexible impervious thermoplastic sheet material in spaced-apart approximately parallel relation and joined one to the other marginally in heat-sealed relation permanently throughout, and disposed between said walls in spaced relation thereto and containing the heat-storing material a group of compartments hingedly connected one to another for flexibility of the group, said group of compartments comprising a pair of superimposed imperforate layers of flexible impervious thermoplastic sheet material heatsealed in face-to-face relation to one another permanently throughout their margins and permanently throughout lines crossing each other at intervals intermediate said margins to provide said compartments and the hinged connections thereof, said heat-storing material being capable of a change of state and being liquid at normal room temperature, said group of compartments occupyin an area substantially coextensive with said walls and being heat-sealed marginally to said walls permanently throughout the extent of the latter, and the heat-conducting material being a liquid flowable over a range of temperatures from normal room temperature to beyond the temperature at which said change of state of said heat-storing material occurs and being disposed between said group of compartments and said walls and backing said walls flexibly in their spaced relation to said group and to said hinged connections thereof for ready flexibility of said pad as a whole as it is conformed to the contour of the body into heat-transferring relation thereto.

7. A therapeutic pad containing heat-storing and heat-conductin materials permanently therein and presenting a generally flat yieldable surface and being flexible as a whole for ready. conformance to the contour of an animate body, said pad comprising a group of compartments of flexible imperforate impervious thermoplastic wall material hingedly connected one to another for flexibility of the group as a whole and each compartment being marginally heat-sealed permanently throughout and containing the heatstoring material, and an imperforate wall of flexible impervious thermoplastic material having said surface and being coextensive with and overlying said group of compartments, and the hinged connections thereof in spaced relation thereto and being joined to the margins of said group in heat-sealed relation permanently throughout, said heat-storing material beingv capable of change of state and by virtue thereof having increased heat-storing capacity, and said heat-con: ducting material being flowable over a range of temperatures from normal room temperature to beyond the temperature at which said change of state of the heat-storing material occurs and said heat-conductin material being disposed between said group of compartments and said wall. and backing said wall flexibly in its spaced rela--v tion to said group and said hinged connections thereof for ready flexibility of said pad as a whole as said surface of the pad is conformed to the; contour of the body into heat-transferring rela-' tion thereto. 8. A therapeutic pad as defined in claim 7 in which said group of compartments comprises a pair of superimposed imperforate sheets of flexible impervious thermoplastic material heat-, sealed in face-to-face relation permanently throughout their margins and permanently throughout lines crossing each other at intervals intermediate said margins; in which said heatstoring material is a liquid capable of a. change of state for increased heat-storing capacity, and in which said heat-conducting material is a liquid at normal room temperature and capable of remaining liquid over a range of temperatures from normal room temperature to beyond the temperature at which said change of state of the heat-storing material occurs so as to be in flowable condition for flexibly backing said wall of said pad under such temperatures as the pad is conformed to the contour of the body into heattransferring relation thereto.

CLAUDE T. BOWEN.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 611,207 Morrill Sept. 20, 1898 699,778 Upham May 13, 1902 1,933,441 Laursen Oct. 31, 1933 2,011,832 Slater Aug. 20, 1935 2,120,013 Bates June 7, 1938 2,387,258 Hague Oct. 23, 1945 2,416,015 McGufl'ey Feb. 18, 1947 2,438,643 Moore Mar. 30. 1948

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Classifications
U.S. Classification607/114, 252/71, 252/70, 165/46
International ClassificationA61F7/02, F28D20/02
Cooperative ClassificationF28D2020/0008, A61F7/02, F28D20/026, A61F2007/0268, A61F2007/0246, Y02E60/145, F28D20/02, F25D2303/085
European ClassificationF28D20/02, F28D20/02E, A61F7/02