US 2595547 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 6, 1952 H. scHAAF 2,595,547
ELECTROMAGNET Filed July ll, 1946 2 SHEETS-SHEET l May 6, 1952 H. scHAAF 2,595,547
ELECTROMAGNET Filed July ll, 1946 2 SHEETS--SHEETHZ Patented May 6, 1952 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ELECTROMAGNET Herman Schaaf, Philadelphia, Pa.
Application July 1l, 1946, Serial No. 682,754
2 Claims. I
The invention relates to magnets, and more particularly the armature thereof, and has for one of its objects to provide a rotary armature for a magnet whereby a sidewise rolling action is imparted to the armature when attracted by the magnet.
Another object of the invention is to provide an armature with a round or curved contact surface which will permit said armature to readily move sidewise in contradistinction to the usual reciprocating movement axially to the magnet.
A further object of this invention is to provide a round or circular armature for use in connection with a permanent or the several types of electro-magnets.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a magnet element and an armature element one of which is arranged to oscillate relative to the other.
Some of the features of the present inventionare its adaptation as an electric clutch, brake, reduction gear, engine and the like.
With the above and other objects in view this invention consists of the details of construction and combination of elements hereinafter set forth and then designated by the claims.
In order that those skilled in the art to which this invention appertains may understand how to make and use the same I will describe its construction in detail referring by numerals to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, in which:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of an electro-magnet constructed in accordance with my invention.
Fig. 2 is a sectional view thereof showing in dotted lines how the magnet element may oscillate.
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of an embodiment of the invention in connection with an iron clad magnet.
Fig. 4 is a section thereof on the line 4 4 of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view of the magnet illustrated in Fig. 1, showing in dotted lines how the armature may oscillate.
Fig. 6 is a view of a modification wherein the armature and the coacting pole piece of the magnet are uted or have a gear tooth construction.
Fig. 7 is a view of an armature hung similar to a pendulum and spring actuated in one direction. l
Fig. 8 is a view showing a plurality of magnets arranged about an axis and several armatures, at least one less than the number of magnets, mounted on a spider to be revolved by the progressive energizing of said magnets.
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary sectional elevation of a detail of the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 8.
Fig. 10 isa section of the brush holder or switch on the line III--I 0 of Fig. 9.
Fig. 11 is a diagrammatic view of the electrical circuits of the apparatus shown in Fig. 8.
Fig. 12 is a plan view of the invention utilizing a permanent magnet.
Fig. 13 is a section thereof taken between the two legs of the magnet.
In carrying out the invention as herein embodied, reference being rst made to Figs. 1 to 7,
inclusive, the numeral I5 represents a base on which is an electro-magnet I6 ofthe two-coll type illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7, or of the iron clad type shown in Figs. 3 and 4, both of which will be more specifically described below.
The magnet of Figs. l, 2, 5, 6 and 7 comprises the base I 5, which is of metal, the spaced parallel cores l1 having terminals I8, and coils wound about said cores. The coils are connected by a conductor I9 and line conductors 2E! and 2| are attached to the respective coils.
The magnet illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4 is of the iron clad type and comprises the core 22'and the shell 23, both metallic, with the coil 24 between them. Opposite ends of said coil are connected to the line conductors 20a and 2I a.
The armature 25, in all instances, has a round, circular or curved surface and may be cylindrical, spherical, conical, elliptical in cross section, or any other suitable arcuate formation that will permit revolution or rotation of said armature. The armature may have a plain or smooth surface or itvmay be knurled, fluted as suggested in Fig. 6, and the iiuting may b-e of such dimensions as to form gear teeth 26 to mesh with similar teeth 21 on the pole piece or pieces or terminals I8 of the magnet.
The armature is rotatably mounted in any suitable support 28 which, as shown in Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 5, is a frame and in Figs. 6 and 7 it is a hanger. The frame includes a pair of llegs 29 pivoted at 3U, as to the base I5, with T-heads 3l at their upper ends. From one of each T-head extends an arm 32 that projects to and is fixed .t0
the corresponding end of the opposite T-head by fastening means 33. For convenience of illustration the armature is shown as mounted on a shaft 34 having its ends tted in the upper parts of the frame legs so that the armature can revolvably or rotatably travel across the terminals of the electro-magnet, which are convexly curved transversely, as plainly shown in Figs. 2 and 5, if either element is mounted for oscillation. Of course it will be apparent that if either element, magnet or armature, is mounted for straight line reciprocation, the terminals or pole pieces may be flat.
When the armature 25 is held in a fixed location with the magnet l5 to one side thereof as indicated by dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the magnet is energized said magnet will be moved to the central position shown in full lines. If the magnet IE is held in a xed location with the armature to one side of said magnet, as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 5, and the magnet is energized, the armature will be drawn from the side position to the central position depicted in full lines.
In each instance, as one of the elements is actuated, the armature is rotated or revolved to constitute a rolling action which may be readily translated into several other different movements.
As shown in Figs. 6 and '7, the support for the armature may include an oscillating hanger 34 connected to a pivot 35 carried by a frame 35. In cases of this kind the terminals or pole pieces are concaved transversely in the arc of the swing of the armature.
I have illustrated in Figs. 8 to l1, inclusive, an instrumentality embodying the rolling armature principle in what might be termed a type of magnetic engine that can be used for transmitting motion to various devices, and in this apparatus is shown a shaft 31 on Which is mounted a spider or web of a rotary element 38. On the rotary element or wheel 38 are revolvably or rotatably iitted a number of armatures 39, 45, 4|, 42 and 43 and with each of these armatures is associated a circuit closing contact roll 44, Figs. 9, l and 11. Each contact roll includes a hub or center 45 of insulating material and a rim or shell 46 of electric conductive material for engagement with brushes or switches to be presently f described.
A suitable supporting frame 41 is associated with the rotary element, Wheel or spider 38 and has electro-magnets 48, 49, 50, l, 52 and 53 mounted thereon in a circle about the rotary element and each magnet is spaced from adjacent ones with the ends of pole pieces or terminals in the path of travel of said armatures. Said pole pieces or terminals are transversely concave to form the arc of the path of travel of 'the extreme outermost surfaces of the armatures.
Positioned a slight distance ahead of each magnet, considered relative to the travel of the rotary element, is a switch device or brush holder 54 having a pair of brushes 55 and 56 to be engaged by the contact rolls for closing the magnet circuits.
The magnet circuits include a conductor 51 leading from one side of a source 58 of elec- 4 each electro-magnet to the other brush 56 of each brush holder 54.
As previously stated there are a plurality of electro-magnets and armatures but there are a different number of magnets than armatures and, for convenience of illustration only, I have shown six magnets and five armatures. These can be reduced in number or multiplied according to the size of the apparatus and work to be accomplished. Referring particularly to Fig. 8. and assuming that armature 39 has been attracted to magnet 48, then the contact roll 44 of armature will be so positioned that said contact roll will be in engagement with the brushes of the switch device 54 associated with magnet 53. This energizes said magnet 53 and attracts the armature 40 thus moving the rotary structure one step which will bring the contact roll associated with the armature 4| into engagement with the brushes of the switch device associated with the magnet 52. Said magnet 52 will then be energized and attract the armature 4l to it. Each time an armature is moved to a magnet, the circuit of said magnet is opened and simultaneously a circuit to another magnet is closed. The progressive closing and opening of the diierent magnet circuits will cause the rotary structure to intermittently move so long as an electric current is supplied to the apparatus.
In Figs. 12 and 13, the principle of the rotary armature is illustrated in connection with a permanent magnet Gl including two bars or legs S2 and 63. Whenever the armature 64 is moved to r2.3 either side of the maximum magnetic influence it will be immediately attracted to the location of maximum magnetic influence and roll to such location, thus giving the rotary motion to the armature.
It might be well to mention at this point that a gear 65, Fig. 9, can be placed on an end of the armature shaft to mesh with another or other gears to synchronize all armatures or for transmitting motion from or to said armatures.
An armature of this character may also have a winding or coil thereon so that as such armature enters the magnetic field, a secondary current will be induced which induced current may be utilized for some useful purpose.
By properly connecting the movable element with other apparatus, the invention can be used as the motive force for actuating magnetic clutches, brakes, vehicle direction signals, pendulums, valves or move other devices in a rotary. swinging or straight line directions, or function as a reduction gear.
Of course I do not wish to be limited to the exact details of construction herein shown and described as these may be varied within the scope of the appended claims without departing from the spirit of my invention.
Having described my invention what I claim as new and useful is:
1. An electro-magnet comprising a magnetic element to be energized and having its inner end fixed in a predetermined location, a frame pivoted at its inner end whereby the outer end thereof is osclllatable across the outer end of the magnetic element, and an armature element having an exterior arcuate surface rotatably mounted in the outer end of said frame and to be attracted to the outer end of said magnetic element when the latter is energized, the engagement of the arcuate surface of the armature element with the end of the magnetic element imparting' a rotary movement to said armature element.
2. In a device of the kind described, an electromagnet having pole pieces, a circular armature mounted for rotation on its own axis, and means to mount said armature for sidewise oscillatory movements as a Whole relative to the electromagnet, the terminal ends of said pole pieces being convexly curved laterally.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent:
Number Number 6 UNITED STATES PATENTS Name Date Sims July 7, 1874 Sims Dec. 1, 1874 Irwin Aug. 15, 1882 Doyle June 8, 1886 Balet Mar. 5, 1889 Patten July 20, 1897 Mendelson Dec. 4, 1906 Murphy Nov. 27, 1928 Price July 18, 1944 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date Great Britain of 1878