US 2597342 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 20, 1952 J 3, L 2,597,342
COMPRESSIBLE FASTENER v Filed June 16, 1945 2 SHEETS SHEET l I INVENTOR Joseph CwLan g May 20, 1952 AN 2,597,342
COMPRESSIBLE FASTENER Filed June 16, 1945 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 INVENTOR Patented May 20, 1952 2597,2132 comrnnssmnn ras'rnnm Joseph C. Lang, Pittsburgh-i Pa., assignor to Bocjl Corporation, Plttsburghffla a corporation of Delaware Application June 16, Serial No. 599,317
This invention relates to fasteners for joinin pieces of wood or wood-like material and to a method of forming structures which utilize the same.
In many :structures, intersecting boards are required to be joined together at several places along their length. This is true, for example, in shipping crate lwhich are made up of wooden frame members carrying panels of heavy cardboard or fiberboard. Such crates are commonly used in thefishipment of heavy consumer goods, as refrigerators, radios, washing machines, etc. In such crates a side panel may intersect a top or bottom or end panel along substantially the full dimensions of the two panels. The common practice at the present time is to nail the panels together, but the holding power of the nails is not always adequate; frequently the lumber which is not for the most part prime lumber, is split. Crates of this kind are relatively expensive, and in many centers there are reclaiming services. The use of "nails is likely to cause breakage in opening the' crates, rendering them less acceptable for reuse.
The present invention provides a fastener or fastening which is eminently satisfactory for this and like purposes; which per pound of metal holdsmore than nails, requiring relatively few fasteners per crate; which is not likely to damage the crate, and facilitates opening of the crate.
To this end my invention provides a fastener having opposed claw elements that are brought into fastening relation with the two pieces of wood or other material to be connected by driving them toward each other and simultaneously shortening the overall length of the portion of the fastener that connects the opposed claw elements.
My invention may be more fully understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which. Fig. 1 shows a plan view of a fastener embodying my invention and in position to be applied to two adjoining pieces of wood;
Fig. 2 is aside elevation of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a; view similar to Fig. 1 showing the fastener after it has been driven;
Fig. 4 is a" view similar to Fig. 1 of a modification;
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of a typical crate constructed'in accordance with my invention;
Fig. 6 is a perspective view of another modification;
Fig. 7 is a; plan view of the fastener of Fig. 6 after it has been driven; and
5 Claims. (or. 85-49) Fig. 8 is a perspective view of another form of fastener embodying my invention and showin the manner of setting it.
In Figs. 1, 2 and 3 of the drawings, the fastener which may include heavy pasteboard, fiberboard,
' or plywood.
The fastener A may be made in a desired range of sizes. It comprises, in the preferred form, a central loop portion 2 with two oppositely extending pairs of arms, 3 and 4 at diametrically oppofsite sides thereof.
The loop may preferablybe -;:a parallelogram withthe arms extending as "shown from the opposite diagonals.
Both pairs of arms have downwardly turned ends 3a and 4a respectively, with inwardly turned portions or jprongs 3bfand 412 respectively, these portions ibeing pointed as shown.
Lelements, or opposite pairs of claws.
"arms,.together with the loop, form a rigid but These arms, in effect, comprise opposite claw The flat "contractible bridge or connection. Contractibility is provided by the loop 2 which may be elongated on the axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the fastener and shortened along the longitudinal axis, as will be hereinafter more fully described.
In use, the fastener is set astraddle the intersecting frame members B and C, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. Then, preferably by a special driver which exerts pressure on the claws to drive them into the wood while confining the connect- "ing or bridge portion of the fastener fiat against the wood, the fastener is set, the portions or .Cprongs 3b and 4b entering the pieces of wood downwardly from the plane of the adjoining surfaces.
After being driven or set, the fastener assumes the form shown in Fig. 3, where the opposite claw "elements have been forced toward each other with the prongs or hooks enteringthe wood and the loop 2 has been elongated on its transverse axis and shortened in a longitudinal direction. The
fastener is made of relatively heavy metal, so that when it has been shortened in this manner it will withstand enormous tensile strains, much ibeyond the holding factor required for the purpose, before it will stretch apart to allow the wooden members to separate.
To open a crate which has been secured with the pieces of wood will separate and the parts of the fastener which are attached thereto may be readily removed from the wood without damage to the wood.
The fastener as shown in Figs. 1 to 3 may conveniently be formed from a narrow ribbon of metal, slit in a longitudinal direction, and then expanded or stretched transversely of the slit to form a succession of loops. Alternate loops form the centers 2 of the fasteners while the other loops are cut transversely to form the arms 3 and 4. This method is described in my co-pending application Serial No. 554,349, filed September 16,
1944, now Patent No. 2,384,477 issued September Y Fig. 4 illustrates a similar fastener formed from wire. Two pieces of wire I and II are twisted about each other at spaced points l2 forming a central loop I3 and diverging arms [4 and I5. The arms l4 and 15 are turned downwardly and inwardly at l6 and II, respectively, the parts l6 and 17 providing the inwardly turned prongs. If desired the twists l2 may be spot welded.
Fig. 5 illustrates a typical crate construction made up of top and bottom panels P, side panels PI and end panels P2. These-panels comprise wooden frame members, as previously described, and sheathing sheets of pasteboard or fiberboard. As illustrated the frame members which intersect at right angles are joined by the fasteners A. Two or three fasteners along the intersecting members are usually suflicient.
In the modification shown in Figs. 6 and 7, the fastener has but two claw elements, these being designated 25, and they are at the free ends of arms 26. The two arms are oppositely offset at 27, and 28 is a diagonal connecting portion, forming a zig-zag connection. When pressure is applied to the two claw elements, they are forced into the wood, as indicated in Fig. 7, the offset portions 27 being folded in toward the longitudinal axis of the fastener. The overall length of the fastener is thus decreased by the'bending of a portion of the bridge of the staple between the two claws.
In the modification shown in Fig. 8, the .fastener is of X form, being illustrated as being made of wire, but it may be formed as indicated from flat strip metal. It has a central connecting portion 30 at the opposite ends of which are outwardly divergent. arms 3|, these arms having parallel portions 32, and on the free ends of. the parallel portions are the claw or hook elements 33.
.The fastener is placed on the work as heretofore described. It is then subjected to pressure against the claws while the bridge is confined to a plane. When thus squeezed, the overing part of the mid-portion or bridge of the fastener.
Inall forms, the fastener has opposed claw elements and a connection which includes a por- 4 tion which is angular to the longitudinal axis of the fastener.
While I have illustrated and described certain present preferred embodiments of my invention it will be understood that this is by way of illustration and that various modifications and changes may be made therein.
1. A fastener comprising oppositely extending pairs of divergent arms, each arm having a downwardly and inwardly turned hook portion thereon, and a closed loop connecting the two pairs of arms, said loop being capable of being squeezed in the direction of the length of the fastener to shorten theoverall length of the fastener.
2. A fastener comprising a loop of generally parallelogram form with one of its diagonals transverse to the longitudinal axis of the fastener, and a pair of divergent arms attached to each of the two opposite corners of the parallelogram that are on the said longitudinal axis, said arms having downwardly and inwardly turned hook portions at the ends thereof.
3. A fastener comprising a loop and a pairpof divergent arms attached to the metal of the sides of the loop, said arms having downwardly and inwardly turned hook portions at the ends thereof, said fasteners being integrally formed from strip metal.
4. A fastener comprising a loop and a pair of I divergent arms at opposite sides'of the loop, said arms having downwardly and inwardly turned hook portions at the ends thereof, said fastener being formed of two pieces of wire twisted about each other at the two sides of the loop from which the arms extend.
5. A fastener comprising a rectangular loop portion with one of its diagonals transverse to the longitudinal axis of the fastener and claw elements extending from the middle ofrthe sides of the loop in opposite directions, the claw elements comprising arms with downwardly and inwardly turned hook portions at the ends of the arms. V.
Y JOSEPH C. LANG.
. REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 155,916 Barney et al Oct. 13, 1874 417,313 De Haven Dec. 17, 1889 443,710 Donley Dec. 30, 1890 770,479 Schuster Sept. 20, 1994 875,154 Clark Dec. 31, 1907 1,607,711 Walker Nov. 23,1926 1,712,752 Dandliker May 12,. 1929 1,805,797 Bates May 19, 1931 2,132,295 Hawkins Oct. 4, 1938 2 ,158,242 Maynard May 16, 1939 2,364,638 Lombard Dec. 12, 1944 2,384,477 Lang Sept. 11, 1945 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 480,496 Great Britain Feb. 23- 1938